Transmission of the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, occurs by the attachment and blood feeding of Ixodes species ticks on mammalian hosts. In nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in North America. Humans are incidental hosts most frequently infected with B. burgdorferi by the bite of ticks in the nymphal stage. B. burgdorferi adapts to its hosts throughout the enzootic cycle, so the ability to explore the functions of these spirochetes and their effects on mammalian hosts requires the use of tick feeding. In addition, the technique of xenodiagnosis (using the natural vector for detection and recovery of an infectious agent) has been useful in studies of cryptic infection. In order to obtain nymphal ticks that harbor B. burgdorferi, ticks are fed live spirochetes in culture through capillary tubes. Two animal models, mice and nonhuman primates, are most commonly used for Lyme disease studies involving tick feeding. We demonstrate the methods by which these ticks can be fed upon, and recovered from animals for either infection or xenodiagnosis.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
Methods for Rapid Transfer and Localization of Lyme Disease Pathogens Within the Tick Gut
Institutions: University of Maryland, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
Lyme disease is caused by infection with the spirochete pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi
, which is maintained in nature by a tick-rodent infection cycle 1
. A tick-borne murine model 2
has been developed to study Lyme disease in the laboratory. While naíve ticks can be infected with B. burgdorferi
by feeding them on infected mice, the molting process takes several weeks to months to complete. Therefore, development of more rapid and efficient tick infection techniques, such as a microinjection-based procedure, is an important tool for the study of Lyme disease 3,4
. The procedure requires only hours to generate infected ticks and allows control over the delivery of equal quantities of spirochetes in a cohort of ticks. This is particularly important as the generation of B. burgdorferi
infected ticks by the natural feeding process using mice fails to ensure 100% infection rate and potentially results in variation of pathogen burden amongst fed ticks. Furthermore, microinjection can be used to infect ticks with B. burgdorferi
isolates in cases where an attenuated strain is unable to establish infection in mice and thus can not be naturally acquired by ticks 5
. This technique can also be used to deliver a variety of other biological materials into ticks, for example, specific antibodies or double stranded RNA 6
. In this article, we will demonstrate the microinjection of nymphal ticks with in vitro
-grown B. burgdorferi
. We will also describe a method for localization of Lyme disease pathogens in the tick gut using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy.
Infection, Issue 48, Lyme disease, tick, microinjection, Borrelia burgdorferi, immunofluorescence microscopy
Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry - A Powerful Tool to Identify Novel c-di-GMP Effector Proteins
Institutions: Biozentrum of the University of Basel, Biozentrum of the University of Basel.
Considerable progress has been made during the last decade towards the identification and characterization of enzymes involved in the synthesis (diguanylate cyclases) and degradation (phosphodiesterases) of the second messenger c-di-GMP. In contrast, little information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms and cellular components through which this signaling molecule regulates a diverse range of cellular processes. Most of the known effector proteins belong to the PilZ family or are degenerated diguanylate cyclases or phosphodiesterases that have given up on catalysis and have adopted effector function. Thus, to better define the cellular c-di-GMP network in a wide range of bacteria experimental methods are required to identify and validate novel effectors for which reliable in silico
We have recently developed a novel Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS) based technology as a powerful tool to biochemically identify and characterize c-di-GMP binding proteins. This technique has previously been reported to be applicable to a wide range of organisms1
. Here we give a detailed description of the protocol that we utilize to probe such signaling components. As an example, we use Pseudomonas aeruginosa
, an opportunistic pathogen in which c-di-GMP plays a critical role in virulence and biofilm control. CCMS identified 74% (38/51) of the known or predicted components of the c-di-GMP network. This study explains the CCMS procedure in detail, and establishes it as a powerful and versatile tool to identify novel components involved in small molecule signaling.
Chemistry, Issue 97, Capture compound, photoactivable crosslinker, mass spectrometry, c-di-GMP effector, EAL, GGDEF, PilZ, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Saliva, Salivary Gland, and Hemolymph Collection from Ixodes scapularis Ticks
Institutions: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia
spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii
), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis
and E. equi
), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum
), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia
spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis
. To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick 3,9-13
. For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi
, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle 14,15
. Furthermore, as an Ixodes
tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia
replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva 9,16-19
As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response 11,13,20-22
. Despite these host responses, I. scapularis
can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding 3,11,20,21,23
. The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens 3,20,24-27
. To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis
nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis
Immunology, Issue 60, Ixodes scapularis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, salivary glands, hemolymph, tick dissection, saliva, tick
Forward Genetic Approaches in Chlamydia trachomatis
Institutions: Duke University Medical Center.
, the etiological agent of sexually transmitted diseases and ocular infections, remains poorly characterized due to its intractability to experimental transformation with recombinant DNA. We developed an approach to perform genetic analysis in C. trachomatis
despite the lack of molecular genetic tools. Our method involves: i.) chemical mutagenesis to rapidly generate comprehensive libraries of genetically-defined mutants with distinct phenotypes; ii.) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to map the underlying genetic lesions and to find associations between mutated gene(s) and a common phenotype; iii.) generation of recombinant strains through co-infection of mammalian cells with mutant and wild type bacteria. Accordingly, we were able to establish causal relationships between genotypes and phenotypes. The coupling of chemically-induced gene variation and WGS to establish correlative genotype–phenotype associations should be broadly applicable to the large list of medically and environmentally important microorganisms currently intractable to genetic analysis.
Immunology, Issue 80, genetics, chemical mutagenesis, whole genome sequencing
Using Coculture to Detect Chemically Mediated Interspecies Interactions
Institutions: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill .
In nature, bacteria rarely exist in isolation; they are instead surrounded by a diverse array of other microorganisms that alter the local environment by secreting metabolites. These metabolites have the potential to modulate the physiology and differentiation of their microbial neighbors and are likely important factors in the establishment and maintenance of complex microbial communities. We have developed a fluorescence-based coculture screen to identify such chemically mediated microbial interactions. The screen involves combining a fluorescent transcriptional reporter strain with environmental microbes on solid media and allowing the colonies to grow in coculture. The fluorescent transcriptional reporter is designed so that the chosen bacterial strain fluoresces when it is expressing a particular phenotype of interest (i.e.
biofilm formation, sporulation, virulence factor production, etc
.) Screening is performed under growth conditions where this phenotype is not
expressed (and therefore the reporter strain is typically nonfluorescent). When an environmental microbe secretes a metabolite that activates this phenotype, it diffuses through the agar and activates the fluorescent reporter construct. This allows the inducing-metabolite-producing microbe to be detected: they are the nonfluorescent colonies most proximal to the fluorescent colonies. Thus, this screen allows the identification of environmental microbes that produce diffusible metabolites that activate a particular physiological response in a reporter strain. This publication discusses how to: a) select appropriate coculture screening conditions, b) prepare the reporter and environmental microbes for screening, c) perform the coculture screen, d) isolate putative inducing organisms, and e) confirm their activity in a secondary screen. We developed this method to screen for soil organisms that activate biofilm matrix-production in Bacillus subtilis
; however, we also discuss considerations for applying this approach to other genetically tractable bacteria.
Microbiology, Issue 80, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Genes, Reporter, Microbial Interactions, Soil Microbiology, Coculture, microbial interactions, screen, fluorescent transcriptional reporters, Bacillus subtilis
A New Approach for the Comparative Analysis of Multiprotein Complexes Based on 15N Metabolic Labeling and Quantitative Mass Spectrometry
Institutions: University of Münster, Carnegie Institution for Science.
The introduced protocol provides a tool for the analysis of multiprotein complexes in the thylakoid membrane, by revealing insights into complex composition under different conditions. In this protocol the approach is demonstrated by comparing the composition of the protein complex responsible for cyclic electron flow (CEF) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
, isolated from genetically different strains. The procedure comprises the isolation of thylakoid membranes, followed by their separation into multiprotein complexes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, SDS-PAGE, immunodetection and comparative, quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) based on differential metabolic labeling (14
N) of the analyzed strains. Detergent solubilized thylakoid membranes are loaded on sucrose density gradients at equal chlorophyll concentration. After ultracentrifugation, the gradients are separated into fractions, which are analyzed by mass-spectrometry based on equal volume. This approach allows the investigation of the composition within the gradient fractions and moreover to analyze the migration behavior of different proteins, especially focusing on ANR1, CAS, and PGRL1. Furthermore, this method is demonstrated by confirming the results with immunoblotting and additionally by supporting the findings from previous studies (the identification and PSI-dependent migration of proteins that were previously described to be part of the CEF-supercomplex such as PGRL1, FNR, and cyt f
). Notably, this approach is applicable to address a broad range of questions for which this protocol can be adopted and e.g.
used for comparative analyses of multiprotein complex composition isolated from distinct environmental conditions.
Microbiology, Issue 85, Sucrose density gradients, Chlamydomonas, multiprotein complexes, 15N metabolic labeling, thylakoids
Visualization of ATP Synthase Dimers in Mitochondria by Electron Cryo-tomography
Institutions: Max Planck Institute of Biophysics.
Electron cryo-tomography is a powerful tool in structural biology, capable of visualizing the three-dimensional structure of biological samples, such as cells, organelles, membrane vesicles, or viruses at molecular detail. To achieve this, the aqueous sample is rapidly vitrified in liquid ethane, which preserves it in a close-to-native, frozen-hydrated state. In the electron microscope, tilt series are recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature, from which 3D tomograms are reconstructed. The signal-to-noise ratio of the tomographic volume is inherently low. Recognizable, recurring features are enhanced by subtomogram averaging, by which individual subvolumes are cut out, aligned and averaged to reduce noise. In this way, 3D maps with a resolution of 2 nm or better can be obtained. A fit of available high-resolution structures to the 3D volume then produces atomic models of protein complexes in their native environment. Here we show how we use electron cryo-tomography to study the in situ
organization of large membrane protein complexes in mitochondria. We find that ATP synthases are organized in rows of dimers along highly curved apices of the inner membrane cristae, whereas complex I is randomly distributed in the membrane regions on either side of the rows. By subtomogram averaging we obtained a structure of the mitochondrial ATP synthase dimer within the cristae membrane.
Structural Biology, Issue 91, electron microscopy, electron cryo-tomography, mitochondria, ultrastructure, membrane structure, membrane protein complexes, ATP synthase, energy conversion, bioenergetics
Culturing Caenorhabditis elegans in Axenic Liquid Media and Creation of Transgenic Worms by Microparticle Bombardment
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
In this protocol, we present the required materials, and the procedure for making modified C. elegans
Habituation and Reproduction media (mCeHR). Additionally, the steps for exposing and acclimatizing C. elegans
grown on E. coli
to axenic liquid media are described. Finally, downstream experiments that utilize axenic C. elegans
illustrate the benefits of this procedure. The ability to analyze and determine C. elegans
nutrient requirement was illustrated by growing N2 wild type worms in axenic liquid media with varying heme concentrations. This procedure can be replicated with other nutrients to determine the optimal concentration for worm growth and development or, to determine the toxicological effects of drug treatments. The effects of varied heme concentrations on the growth of wild type worms were determined through qualitative microscopic observation and by quantitating the number of worms that grew in each heme concentration. In addition, the effect of varied nutrient concentrations can be assayed by utilizing worms that express fluorescent sensors that respond to changes in the nutrient of interest. Furthermore, a large number of worms were easily produced for the generation of transgenic C. elegans
using microparticle bombardment.
Molecular Biology, Issue 90, C. elegans, axenic media, transgenics, microparticle bombardment, heme, nutrition
Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles
Institutions: Heart Research Center Goettingen, University Medical Center Goettingen, German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial differences in lipid and protein content. In ventricular myocytes (VMs), certain TATS components are highly abundant contributing to rectilinear tubule networks and regular branching 3D architectures. It is thought that peripheral TATS components propagate action potentials from the cell surface to thousands of remote intracellular sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SER) membrane contact domains, thereby activating intracellular Ca2+
release units (CRUs). In contrast to VMs, the organization and functional role of TATS membranes in atrial myocytes (AMs) is significantly different and much less understood. Taken together, quantitative structural characterization of TATS membrane networks in healthy and diseased myocytes is an essential prerequisite towards better understanding of functional plasticity and pathophysiological reorganization. Here, we present a strategic combination of protocols for direct quantitative analysis of TATS membrane networks in living VMs and AMs. For this, we accompany primary cell isolations of mouse VMs and/or AMs with critical quality control steps and direct membrane staining protocols for fluorescence imaging of TATS membranes. Using an optimized workflow for confocal or superresolution TATS image processing, binarized and skeletonized data are generated for quantitative analysis of the TATS network and its components. Unlike previously published indirect regional aggregate image analysis strategies, our protocols enable direct characterization of specific components and derive complex physiological properties of TATS membrane networks in living myocytes with high throughput and open access software tools. In summary, the combined protocol strategy can be readily applied for quantitative TATS network studies during physiological myocyte adaptation or disease changes, comparison of different cardiac or skeletal muscle cell types, phenotyping of transgenic models, and pharmacological or therapeutic interventions.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cardiac myocyte, atria, ventricle, heart, primary cell isolation, fluorescence microscopy, membrane tubule, transverse-axial tubule system, image analysis, image processing, T-tubule, collagenase
Non-radioactive in situ Hybridization Protocol Applicable for Norway Spruce and a Range of Plant Species
Institutions: Uppsala University, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
The high-throughput expression analysis technologies available today give scientists an overflow of expression profiles but their resolution in terms of tissue specific expression is limited because of problems in dissecting individual tissues. Expression data needs to be confirmed and complemented with expression patterns using e.g. in situ
hybridization, a technique used to localize cell specific mRNA expression. The in situ
hybridization method is laborious, time-consuming and often requires extensive optimization depending on species and tissue. In situ
experiments are relatively more difficult to perform in woody species such as the conifer Norway spruce (Picea abies
). Here we present a modified DIG in situ
hybridization protocol, which is fast and applicable on a wide range of plant species including P. abies
. With just a few adjustments, including altered RNase treatment and proteinase K concentration, we could use the protocol to study tissue specific expression of homologous genes in male reproductive organs of one gymnosperm and two angiosperm species; P. abies, Arabidopsis thaliana
and Brassica napus
. The protocol worked equally well for the species and genes studied. AtAP3
were observed in second and third whorl floral organs in A. thaliana
and B. napus
and DAL13 in microsporophylls of male cones from P. abies
. For P. abies
the proteinase K concentration, used to permeablize the tissues, had to be increased to 3 g/ml instead of 1 g/ml, possibly due to more compact tissues and higher levels of phenolics and polysaccharides. For all species the RNase treatment was removed due to reduced signal strength without a corresponding increase in specificity. By comparing tissue specific expression patterns of homologous genes from both flowering plants and a coniferous tree we demonstrate that the DIG in situ
protocol presented here, with only minute adjustments, can be applied to a wide range of plant species. Hence, the protocol avoids both extensive species specific optimization and the laborious use of radioactively labeled probes in favor of DIG labeled probes. We have chosen to illustrate the technically demanding steps of the protocol in our film.
Anna Karlgren and Jenny Carlsson contributed equally to this study.
Corresponding authors: Anna Karlgren at Anna.Karlgren@ebc.uu.se and Jens F. Sundström at Jens.Sundstrom@vbsg.slu.se
Plant Biology, Issue 26, RNA, expression analysis, Norway spruce, Arabidopsis, rapeseed, conifers
Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo
protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo
protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity.
To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (https://www.proteinwisdom.org), a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
The Use of Chemostats in Microbial Systems Biology
Institutions: New York University .
Cells regulate their rate of growth in response to signals from the external world. As the cell grows, diverse cellular processes must be coordinated including macromolecular synthesis, metabolism and ultimately, commitment to the cell division cycle. The chemostat, a method of experimentally controlling cell growth rate, provides a powerful means of systematically studying how growth rate impacts cellular processes - including gene expression and metabolism - and the regulatory networks that control the rate of cell growth. When maintained for hundreds of generations chemostats can be used to study adaptive evolution of microbes in environmental conditions that limit cell growth. We describe the principle of chemostat cultures, demonstrate their operation and provide examples of their various applications. Following a period of disuse after their introduction in the middle of the twentieth century, the convergence of genome-scale methodologies with a renewed interest in the regulation of cell growth and the molecular basis of adaptive evolution is stimulating a renaissance in the use of chemostats in biological research.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 80, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Molecular Biology, Computational Biology, Systems Biology, Cell Biology, Genetics, Environmental Microbiology, Biochemistry, Chemostat, growth-rate, steady state, nutrient limitation, adaptive evolution
Bridging the Bio-Electronic Interface with Biofabrication
Institutions: University of Maryland , University of Maryland , University of Maryland .
Advancements in lab-on-a-chip technology promise to revolutionize both research and medicine through lower costs, better sensitivity, portability, and higher throughput. The incorporation of biological components onto biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) has shown great potential for achieving these goals. Microfabricated electronic chips allow for micrometer-scale features as well as an electrical connection for sensing and actuation. Functional biological components give the system the capacity for specific detection of analytes, enzymatic functions, and whole-cell capabilities. Standard microfabrication processes and bio-analytical techniques have been successfully utilized for decades in the computer and biological industries, respectively. Their combination and interfacing in a lab-on-a-chip environment, however, brings forth new challenges. There is a call for techniques that can build an interface between the electrode and biological component that is mild and is easy to fabricate and pattern.
Biofabrication, described here, is one such approach that has shown great promise for its easy-to-assemble incorporation of biological components with versatility in the on-chip functions that are enabled. Biofabrication uses biological materials and biological mechanisms (self-assembly, enzymatic assembly) for bottom-up hierarchical assembly. While our labs have demonstrated these concepts in many formats 1,2,3
, here we demonstrate the assembly process based on electrodeposition followed by multiple applications of signal-based interactions. The assembly process consists of the electrodeposition of biocompatible stimuli-responsive polymer films on electrodes and their subsequent functionalization with biological components such as DNA, enzymes, or live cells 4,5
. Electrodeposition takes advantage of the pH gradient created at the surface of a biased electrode from the electrolysis of water 6,7
,. Chitosan and alginate are stimuli-responsive biological polymers that can be triggered to self-assemble into hydrogel films in response to imposed electrical signals 8
. The thickness of these hydrogels is determined by the extent to which the pH gradient extends from the electrode. This can be modified using varying current densities and deposition times 6,7
. This protocol will describe how chitosan films are deposited and functionalized by covalently attaching biological components to the abundant primary amine groups present on the film through either enzymatic or electrochemical methods 9,10
. Alginate films and their entrapment of live cells will also be addressed 11
. Finally, the utility of biofabrication is demonstrated through examples of signal-based interaction, including chemical-to-electrical, cell-to-cell, and also enzyme-to-cell signal transmission.
Both the electrodeposition and functionalization can be performed under near-physiological conditions without the need for reagents and thus spare labile biological components from harsh conditions. Additionally, both chitosan and alginate have long been used for biologically-relevant purposes 12,13
. Overall, biofabrication, a rapid technique that can be simply performed on a benchtop, can be used for creating micron scale patterns of functional biological components on electrodes and can be used for a variety of lab-on-a-chip applications.
Bioengineering, Issue 64, Biomedical Engineering, electrodeposition, biofabrication, chitosan, alginate, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic, DTRA
A Human Fallopian Tube Model for Investigation of C. trachomatis Infections
Institutions: University of Lübeck, University of Lübeck, University of Lübeck, University of Lübeck.
Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis
) are the most frequent transmitted sexually disease in women worldwide. Inefficient clearance or persistence of the pathogens may lead to ascending infections of the upper genital tract and are supposed to cause chronic inflammatory damage to infected tissues 1,2
. As a consequence, severe clinical sequelae like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal occlusion and infertility may occur 3,4
Most of the research with C. trachomatis
has been conducted in epithelial cell lines (e.g. HEp-2 cells and HeLa-229) or in mice. However, as with cell- culture based models, they do neither reflect the physiology of native tissue nor the pathophysiology of C. trachomatis
genital tract infections in vivo 5
. Further limitations are given by the fact that central signaling cascades (e.g. IFN-γ mediated JAK/STAT signaling pathway) that control intracellular chlamydial growth fundamentally differ between mice and humans 6,7
. We and others therefore established a whole organ fallopian tube model to investigate direct interactions between C. trachomatis
and human fallopian tube cells ex vivo 8,9
For this purpose, human fallopian tubes from women undergoing hysterectomy were collected and infected with C. trachomatis
serovar D. Within 24 h post infection, specimen where analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect Chlamydia trachomatis
mediated epithelial damage as well as C. trachomatis
inclusion formation in the fallopian tissue.
Medicine, Issue 66, Infection, Microbiology, Physiology, Chlamydia trachomatis, human fallopian tube, tissue model, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy
Application of MassSQUIRM for Quantitative Measurements of Lysine Demethylase Activity
Institutions: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences .
Recently, epigenetic regulators have been discovered as key players in many different diseases 1-3
. As a result, these enzymes are prime targets for small molecule studies and drug development 4
. Many epigenetic regulators have only recently been discovered and are still in the process of being classified. Among these enzymes are lysine demethylases which remove methyl groups from lysines on histones and other proteins. Due to the novel nature of this class of enzymes, few assays have been developed to study their activity. This has been a road block to both the classification and high throughput study of histone demethylases. Currently, very few demethylase assays exist. Those that do exist tend to be qualitative in nature and cannot simultaneously discern between the different lysine methylation states (un-, mono-, di- and tri-). Mass spectrometry is commonly used to determine demethylase activity but current mass spectrometric assays do not address whether differentially methylated peptides ionize differently. Differential ionization of methylated peptides makes comparing methylation states difficult and certainly not quantitative (Figure 1A). Thus available assays are not optimized for the comprehensive analysis of demethylase activity.
Here we describe a method called MassSQUIRM (mass spectrometric quantitation using isotopic reductive methylation) that is based on reductive methylation of amine groups with deuterated formaldehyde to force all lysines to be di-methylated, thus making them essentially the same chemical species and therefore ionize the same (Figure 1B). The only chemical difference following the reductive methylation is hydrogen and deuterium, which does not affect MALDI ionization efficiencies. The MassSQUIRM assay is specific for demethylase reaction products with un-, mono- or di-methylated lysines. The assay is also applicable to lysine methyltransferases giving the same reaction products. Here, we use a combination of reductive methylation chemistry and MALDI mass spectrometry to measure the activity of LSD1, a lysine demethylase capable of removing di- and mono-methyl groups, on a synthetic peptide substrate 5
. This assay is simple and easily amenable to any lab with access to a MALDI mass spectrometer in lab or through a proteomics facility. The assay has ~8-fold dynamic range and is readily scalable to plate format 5
Molecular Biology, Issue 61, LSD1, lysine demethylase, mass spectrometry, reductive methylation, demethylase quantification
Flash Photolysis of Caged Compounds in the Cilia of Olfactory Sensory Neurons
Institutions: International School for Advanced Studies, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Italian Institute of Technology.
Photolysis of caged compounds allows the production of rapid and localized increases in the concentration of various physiologically active compounds1
. Caged compounds are molecules made physiologically inactive by a chemical cage that can be broken by a flash of ultraviolet light. Here, we show how to obtain patch-clamp recordings combined with photolysis of caged compounds for the study of olfactory transduction in dissociated mouse olfactory sensory neurons. The process of olfactory transduction (Figure 1) takes place in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, where odorant binding to receptors leads to the increase of cAMP that opens cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels2
. Ca entry through CNG channels activates Ca-activated Cl channels. We show how to dissociate neurons from the mouse olfactory epithelium3
and how to activate CNG channels or Ca-activated Cl channels by photolysis of caged cAMP4
or caged Ca5
. We use a flash lamp6,7
to apply ultraviolet flashes to the ciliary region to uncage cAMP or Ca while patch-clamp recordings are taken to measure the current in the whole-cell voltage-clamp configuration8-11
Neuroscience, Issue 55, caged compounds, caged cAMP, caged Ca, olfactory sensory neuron, olfaction, whole-cell patch-clamp, flash photolysis, flash lampc
Fabrication of Electrochemical-DNA Biosensors for the Reagentless Detection of Nucleic Acids, Proteins and Small Molecules
Institutions: University Of California Santa Barbara, University Of California Santa Barbara.
As medicine is currently practiced, doctors send specimens to a central laboratory for testing and thus must wait hours or days to
receive the results. Many patients would be better served by rapid, bedside tests. To this end our laboratory and others have developed a versatile, reagentless
biosensor platform that supports the quantitative, reagentless, electrochemical detection of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), proteins (including antibodies) and small
molecules analytes directly in unprocessed clinical and environmental samples. In this video, we demonstrate the preparation and use of several biosensors in this
"E-DNA" class. In particular, we fabricate and demonstrate sensors for the detection of a target DNA sequence in a polymerase chain reaction mixture, an HIV-specific antibody and the drug cocaine. The preparation procedure requires only three hours of hands-on effort followed by an overnight incubation, and their use requires only minutes.
Bioengineering, Issue 52, biosensor, chemistry, detection, electrochemistry, point of care, theranostics, diagnostics, antibody, instrument, electronic
Immuno-fluorescence Assay of Leptospiral Surface-exposed Proteins
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Health Care System.
Bacterial surface proteins are involved in direct contact with host cells and in uptake of nutrients from the environment 1
. For this reason, cellular localization can provide insights into the functional role of bacterial proteins. Surface localization of bacterial proteins is a key step towards identification of virulence factors involved in mechanisms of pathogenicity.
Methods for fractionating leptospiral membranes 2-5
may be selective for a certain class of outer-membrane proteins (OMPs), such as lipoproteins vs. transmembrane OMPs, and therefore lead to misclassification. This likely is due to structural differences and how they are associated to the outer membrane. Lipoproteins are associated with membranes via a hydrophobic interaction between the N-terminal lipid moiety (three fatty acids) and the lipid bilayer phospholipids 6, 7
. In contrast, transmembrane OMPs are typically integrated into the lipid bilayer by amphipathic β-sheets arranged in a barrel-like structure 8, 9
. In addition, presence of a protein in the outer-membrane does not necessarily guarantee that the protein or its domains are exposed on the surface. Spirochetal outer membranes are known to be fragile and therefore necessitate methods involving gentle manipulation of cells and inclusion of sub-surface protein controls to assess the integrity of the outer membrane.
Here, we present an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) method to directly assess surface exposure of proteins on intact leptospires. This method is based on recognition of leptospiral surface proteins by antigen-specific antibodies. Herein, antibodies specific for OmpL5410
are detetcted aftero binding to native, surface exposed epitopes. Comparison of antibody reactivity to intact versus permeabilized cells enables evaluation of cellular distribution and whether or not a protein is selectively present on leptospiral surface. The integrity of outer membrane should be assessed using antibody to one or more subsurface proteins, preferably located in the periplasm.
The surface IFA method can be used to analyze surface exposure of any leptospiral protein to which specific antibodies are available. Both the usefulness and limitation of the method depends on whether the antibodies employed are able to bind to native epitopes. Since antibodies often are raised against recombinant proteins, epitopes of native, surface-exposed proteins may not be recognized. Nevertheless, the surface IFA method is a valuable tool for studying components of intact bacterial surfaces. This method can be applied not only for leptospires but also other spirochetes and gram-negative bacteria. For stronger conclusions regarding surface-exposure of OMPs, a comprehensive approach involving several cell localization methods is recommended 10
Immunology, Issue 53, Molecular Biology, Leptospira, intact cells, outer membrane, surface-exposed proteins, surface immuno-fluorescence
Measuring the Induced Membrane Voltage with Di-8-ANEPPS
Institutions: University of Ljubljana.
Placement of a cell into an external electric field causes a local charge redistribution inside and outside of the cell in the vicinity of the cell membrane, resulting in a voltage across the membrane. This voltage, termed the induced membrane voltage (also induced transmembrane voltage, or induced transmembrane potential difference) and denoted by ΔΦ, exists only as long as the external field is present. If the resting voltage is present on the membrane, the induced voltage superimposes (adds) onto it. By using one of the potentiometric fluorescent dyes, such as di-8-ANEPPS, it is possible to observe the variations of ΔΦ on the cell membrane and to measure its value noninvasively. di-8-ANEPPS becomes strongly fluorescent when bound to the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, with the change of the fluorescence intensity proportional to the change of ΔΦ. This video shows the protocol for measuring ΔΦ using di-8-ANEPPS and also demonstrates the influence of cell shape on the amplitude and spatial distribution of ΔΦ.
Cellular Biology, Issue 33, induced transmembrane voltage, induced membrane voltage, induced transmembrane potential, potentiometric dyes, di-8-ANEPPS, electroporation, electropermeabilization
Forward Genetics Screens Using Macrophages to Identify Toxoplasma gondii Genes Important for Resistance to IFN-γ-Dependent Cell Autonomous Immunity
Institutions: New York Medical College.
the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is an obligate intracellular protozoan pathogen. The parasite invades and replicates within virtually any warm blooded vertebrate cell type. During parasite invasion of a host cell, the parasite creates a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that originates from the host cell membrane independent of phagocytosis within which the parasite replicates. While IFN-dependent-innate and cell mediated immunity is important for eventual control of infection, innate immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes and dendritic cells, can also serve as vehicles for systemic dissemination of the parasite early in infection. An approach is described that utilizes the host innate immune response, in this case macrophages, in a forward genetic screen to identify parasite mutants with a fitness defect in infected macrophages following activation but normal invasion and replication in naïve macrophages. Thus, the screen isolates parasite mutants that have a specific defect in their ability to resist the effects of macrophage activation. The paper describes two broad phenotypes of mutant parasites following activation of infected macrophages: parasite stasis versus parasite degradation, often in amorphous vacuoles. The parasite mutants are then analyzed to identify the responsible parasite genes specifically important for resistance to induced mediators of cell autonomous immunity. The paper presents a general approach for the forward genetics screen that, in theory, can be modified to target parasite genes important for resistance to specific antimicrobial mediators. It also describes an approach to evaluate the specific macrophage antimicrobial mediators to which the parasite mutant is susceptible. Activation of infected macrophages can also promote parasite differentiation from the tachyzoite to bradyzoite stage that maintains chronic infection. Therefore, methodology is presented to evaluate the importance of the identified parasite gene to establishment of chronic infection.
Immunology, Issue 97, Toxoplasma, macrophages, innate immunity, intracellular pathogen, immune evasion, infectious disease, forward genetics, parasite