Invasive breast carcinomas are a group of malignant epithelial tumors characterized by the invasion of adjacent tissues and propensity to metastasize. The interplay of signals between cancer cells and their microenvironment exerts a powerful influence on breast cancer growth and biological behavior1. However, most of these signals from the extracellular matrix are lost or their relevance is understudied when cells are grown in two dimensional culture (2D) as a monolayer. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) culture on a reconstituted basement membrane has emerged as a method of choice to recapitulate the tissue architecture of benign and malignant breast cells. Cells grown in 3D retain the important cues from the extracellular matrix and provide a physiologically relevant ex vivo system2,3. Of note, there is growing evidence suggesting that cells behave differently when grown in 3D as compared to 2D4. 3D culture can be effectively used as a means to differentiate the malignant phenotype from the benign breast phenotype and for underpinning the cellular and molecular signaling involved3. One of the distinguishing characteristics of benign epithelial cells is that they are polarized so that the apical cytoplasm is towards the lumen and the basal cytoplasm rests on the basement membrane. This apico-basal polarity is lost in invasive breast carcinomas, which are characterized by cellular disorganization and formation of anastomosing and branching tubules that haphazardly infiltrates the surrounding stroma. These histopathological differences between benign gland and invasive carcinoma can be reproduced in 3D6,7. Using the appropriate read-outs like the quantitation of single round acinar structures, or differential expression of validated molecular markers for cell proliferation, polarity and apoptosis in combination with other molecular and cell biology techniques, 3D culture can provide an important tool to better understand the cellular changes during malignant transformation and for delineating the responsible signaling.
19 Related JoVE Articles!
Using Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells to Teach Core Biology Concepts: A Simple Lab Module
Institutions: Marymount Manhattan College.
Undergraduate biology students are required to learn, understand and apply a variety of cellular and molecular biology concepts and techniques in preparation for biomedical, graduate and professional programs or careers in science. To address this, a simple laboratory module was devised to teach the concepts of cell division, cellular communication and cancer through the application of animal cell culture techniques. Here the mouse mammary tumor (MMT) cell line is used to model for breast cancer. Students learn to grow and characterize these animal cells in culture and test the effects of traditional and non-traditional chemotherapy agents on cell proliferation. Specifically, students determine the optimal cell concentration for plating and growing cells, learn how to prepare and dilute drug solutions, identify the best dosage and treatment time course of the antiproliferative agents, and ascertain the rate of cell death in response to various treatments. The module employs both a standard cell counting technique using a hemocytometer and a novel cell counting method using microscopy software. The experimental procedure lends to open-ended inquiry as students can modify critical steps of the protocol, including testing homeopathic agents and over-the-counter drugs. In short, this lab module requires students to use the scientific process to apply their knowledge of the cell cycle, cellular signaling pathways, cancer and modes of treatment, all while developing an array of laboratory skills including cell culture and analysis of experimental data not routinely taught in the undergraduate classroom.
Cancer Biology, Issue 100, Cell cycle, cell signaling, cancer, laboratory module, mouse mammary tumor cells, MMT cells, undergraduate, open-ended inquiry, breast cancer, cell-counting, cell viability, microscopy, science education, cell culture, teaching lab
Detection of Protein Palmitoylation in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons by Immunoprecipitation and Acyl-Biotin Exchange (ABE)
Institutions: University of British Columbia .
Palmitoylation is a post-translational lipid modification involving the attachment of a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitate, to cysteine residues of substrate proteins through a labile thioester bond [reviewed in1
]. Palmitoylation of a substrate protein increases its hydrophobicity, and typically facilitates its trafficking toward cellular membranes. Recent studies have shown palmitoylation to be one of the most common lipid modifications in neurons1, 2
, suggesting that palmitate turnover is an important mechanism by which these cells regulate the targeting and trafficking of proteins. The identification and detection of palmitoylated substrates can therefore better our understanding of protein trafficking in neurons.
Detection of protein palmitoylation in the past has been technically hindered due to the lack of a consensus sequence among substrate proteins, and the reliance on metabolic labeling of palmitoyl-proteins with 3
H-palmitate, a time-consuming biochemical assay with low sensitivity. Development of the Acyl-Biotin Exchange (ABE) assay enables more rapid and high sensitivity detection of palmitoylated proteins2-4
, and is optimal for measuring the dynamic turnover of palmitate on neuronal proteins. The ABE assay is comprised of three biochemical steps (Figure 1
): 1) irreversible blockade of unmodified cysteine thiol groups using N-ethylmaliemide (NEM), 2) specific cleavage and unmasking of the palmitoylated cysteine's thiol group by hydroxylamine (HAM), and 3) selective labeling of the palmitoylated cysteine using a thiol-reactive biotinylation reagent, biotin-BMCC. Purification of the thiol-biotinylated proteins following the ABE steps has differed, depending on the overall goal of the experiment.
Here, we describe a method to purify a palmitoylated protein of interest in primary hippocampal neurons by an initial immunoprecipitation (IP) step using an antibody directed against the protein, followed by the ABE assay and western blotting to directly measure palmitoylation levels of that protein, which is termed the IP-ABE assay. Low-density cultures of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons have been widely used to study the localization, function, and trafficking of neuronal proteins, making them ideally suited for studying neuronal protein palmitoylation using the IP-ABE assay. The IP-ABE assay mainly requires standard IP and western blotting reagents, and is only limited by the availability of antibodies against the target substrate. This assay can easily be adapted for the purification and detection of transfected palmitoylated proteins in heterologous cell cultures, primary neuronal cultures derived from various brain tissues of both mouse and rat, and even primary brain tissue itself.
Neuroscience, Issue 72, Biochemistry, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Proteins, synapse, cultured hippocampal neurons, palmitoylation, lipid, immunoprecipitation, western blotting, biotin, Acyl-Biotin Exchange, ABE, neuron, brain, cell culture, rat, mouse, animal model
A Matrigel-Based Tube Formation Assay to Assess the Vasculogenic Activity of Tumor Cells
Institutions: University of Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts.
Over the past several decades, a tube formation assay using growth factor-reduced Matrigel has been typically employed to demonstrate the angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial cells in vitro1-5
. However, recently growing evidence has shown that this assay is not limited to test vascular behavior for endothelial cells. Instead, it also has been used to test the ability of a number of tumor cells to develop a vascular phenotype6-8
. This capability was consistent with their vasculogenic behavior identified in xenotransplanted animals, a process known as vasculogenic mimicry (VM)9
. There is a multitude of evidence demonstrating that tumor cell-mediated VM plays a vital role in the tumor development, independent of endothelial cell angiogenesis6, 10-13
. For example, tumor cells were found to participate in the blood perfused, vascular channel formation in tissue samples from melanoma and glioblastoma patients8, 10, 11
. Here, we described this tubular network assay as a useful tool in evaluation of vasculogenic activity of tumor cells. We found that some tumor cell lines such as melanoma B16F1 cells, glioblastoma U87 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells are able to form vascular tubules; but some do not such as colon cancer HCT116 cells. Furthermore, this vascular phenotype is dependent on cell numbers plated on the Matrigel. Therefore, this assay may serve as powerful utility to screen the vascular potential of a variety of cell types including vascular cells, tumor cells as well as other cells.
Cancer Biology, Issue 55, tumor, vascular, endothelial, tube formation, Matrigel, in vitro
Non-enzymatic, Serum-free Tissue Culture of Pre-invasive Breast Lesions for Spontaneous Generation of Mammospheres
Institutions: George Mason University, Virginia Surgery Associates.
Breast ductal carcinoma in situ
(DCIS), by definition, is proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells within the confines of the breast duct, without breaching the collagenous basement membrane. While DCIS is a non-obligate precursor to invasive breast cancers, the molecular mechanisms and cell populations that permit progression to invasive cancer are not fully known. To determine if progenitor cells capable of invasion existed within the DCIS cell population, we developed a methodology for collecting and culturing sterile human breast tissue at the time of surgery, without enzymatic disruption of tissue.
Sterile breast tissue containing ductal segments is harvested from surgically excised breast tissue following routine pathological examination. Tissue containing DCIS is placed in nutrient rich, antibiotic-containing, serum free medium, and transported to the tissue culture laboratory. The breast tissue is further dissected to isolate the calcified areas. Multiple breast tissue pieces (organoids) are placed in a minimal volume of serum free medium in a flask with a removable lid and cultured in a humidified CO2
incubator. Epithelial and fibroblast cell populations emerge from the organoid after 10 - 14 days. Mammospheres spontaneously form on and around the epithelial cell monolayer. Specific cell populations can be harvested directly from the flask without disrupting neighboring cells. Our non-enzymatic tissue culture system reliably reveals cytogenetically abnormal, invasive progenitor cells from fresh human DCIS lesions.
Cancer Biology, Issue 93, Breast, ductal carcinoma in situ, epidermal growth factor, mammosphere, organoid, pre-invasive, primary cell culture, serum-free, spheroid
Analysis of Cell Migration within a Three-dimensional Collagen Matrix
Institutions: Witten/Herdecke University.
The ability to migrate is a hallmark of various cell types and plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. However, cell migration is also a key mechanism in cancer enabling these cancer cells to detach from the primary tumor to start metastatic spreading. Within the past years various cell migration assays have been developed to analyze the migratory behavior of different cell types. Because the locomotory behavior of cells markedly differs between a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environment it can be assumed that the analysis of the migration of cells that are embedded within a 3D environment would yield in more significant cell migration data. The advantage of the described 3D collagen matrix migration assay is that cells are embedded within a physiological 3D network of collagen fibers representing the major component of the extracellular matrix. Due to time-lapse video microscopy real cell migration is measured allowing the determination of several migration parameters as well as their alterations in response to pro-migratory factors or inhibitors. Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. Likewise, also cell clusters or spheroids could be embedded within the collagen matrix concomitant with analysis of the emigration of single cells from the cell cluster/ spheroid into the collagen lattice. We conclude that the 3D collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile method to analyze the migration of cells within a physiological-like 3D environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cell migration, 3D collagen matrix, cell tracking
Orthotopic Injection of Breast Cancer Cells into the Mammary Fat Pad of Mice to Study Tumor Growth.
Institutions: Leiden University Medical Center.
Breast cancer growth can be studied in mice using a plethora of models. Genetic manipulation of breast cancer cells may provide insights into the functions of proteins involved in oncogenic progression or help to discover new tumor suppressors. In addition, injecting cancer cells into mice with different genotypes might provide a better understanding of the importance of the stromal compartment. Many models may be useful to investigate certain aspects of disease progression but do not recapitulate the entire cancerous process. In contrast, breast cancer cells engraftment to the mammary fat pad of mice better recapitulates the location of the disease and presence of the proper stromal compartment and therefore better mimics human cancerous disease. In this article, we describe how to implant breast cancer cells into mice orthotopically and explain how to collect tissues to analyse the tumor milieu and metastasis to distant organs. Using this model, many aspects (growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis) of cancer can be investigated simply by providing a proper environment for tumor cells to grow.
Medicine, Issue 96, Breast Cancer, Tumor growth, Orthotopic Injection, Metastasis
Tracking the Mammary Architectural Features and Detecting Breast Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Institutions: Weizmann Institute of Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Meir Medical Center, Meir Medical Center.
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer has a critical role in improving the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. In this paper a new approach for the detection of breast cancer is described, based on tracking the mammary architectural elements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
The paper focuses on the scanning protocols and image processing algorithms and software that were designed to fit the diffusion properties of the mammary fibroglandular tissue and its changes during malignant transformation. The final output yields pixel by pixel vector maps that track the architecture of the entire mammary ductal glandular trees and parametric maps of the diffusion tensor coefficients and anisotropy indices.
The efficiency of the method to detect breast cancer was tested by scanning women volunteers including 68 patients with breast cancer confirmed by histopathology findings. Regions with cancer cells exhibited a marked reduction in the diffusion coefficients and in the maximal anisotropy index as compared to the normal breast tissue, providing an intrinsic contrast for delineating the boundaries of malignant growth. Overall, the sensitivity of the DTI parameters to detect breast cancer was found to be high, particularly in dense breasts, and comparable to the current standard breast MRI method that requires injection of a contrast agent. Thus, this method offers a completely non-invasive, safe and sensitive tool for breast cancer detection.
Medicine, Issue 94, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, breast, breast cancer, diagnosis, water diffusion, diffusion tensor imaging
Methods for Culturing Human Femur Tissue Explants to Study Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Metastatic Niche
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis. Although it is widely accepted that the microenvironment influences cancer cell behavior, little is known about breast cancer cell properties and behaviors within the native microenvironment of human bone tissue.
We have developed approaches to track, quantify and modulate human breast cancer cells within the microenvironment of cultured human bone tissue fragments isolated from discarded femoral heads following total hip replacement surgeries. Using breast cancer cells engineered for luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression, we are able to reproducibly quantitate migration and proliferation patterns using bioluminescence imaging (BLI), track cell interactions within the bone fragments using fluorescence microscopy, and evaluate breast cells after colonization with flow cytometry. The key advantages of this model include: 1) a native, architecturally intact tissue microenvironment that includes relevant human cell types, and 2) direct access to the microenvironment, which facilitates rapid quantitative and qualitative monitoring and perturbation of breast and bone cell properties, behaviors and interactions. A primary limitation, at present, is the finite viability of the tissue fragments, which confines the window of study to short-term culture. Applications of the model system include studying the basic biology of breast cancer and other bone-seeking malignancies within the metastatic niche, and developing therapeutic strategies to effectively target breast cancer cells in bone tissues.
Medicine, Issue 97, Metastatic niche, bone microenvironment, breast cancer metastasis, human bone, osteotropism, ex vivo model, explant culture system, bioluminescence imaging
An In Vitro Dormancy Model of Estrogen-sensitive Breast Cancer in the Bone Marrow: A Tool for Molecular Mechanism Studies and Hypothesis Generation
Institutions: Rutgers New Jersey Medical School.
The study of breast cancer dormancy in the bone marrow is an exceptionally difficult undertaking due to the complexity of the interactions of dormant cells with their microenvironment, their rarity and the overwhelming excess of hematopoietic cells. Towards this end, we developed an in vitro
2D clonogenic model of dormancy of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells in the bone marrow. The model consists of a few key elements necessary for dormancy. These include 1) the use of estrogen sensitive breast cancer cells, which are the type likely to remain dormant for extended periods, 2) incubation of cells at clonogenic density, where the structural interaction of each cell is primarily with the substratum, 3) fibronectin, a key structural element of the marrow and 4) FGF-2, a growth factor abundantly synthesized by bone marrow stromal cells and heavily deposited in the extracellular matrix. Cells incubated with FGF-2 form dormant clones after 6 days, which consist of 12 or less cells that have a distinct flat appearance, are significantly larger and more spread out than growing cells and have large cytoplasm to nucleus ratios. In contrast, cells incubated without FGF-2 form primarily growing colonies consisting of >30 relatively small cells. Perturbations of the system with antibodies, inhibitors, peptides or nucleic acids on day 3 after incubation can significantly affect various phenotypic and molecular aspects of the dormant cells at 6 days and can be used to assess the roles of membrane-localized or intracellular molecules, factors or signaling pathways on the dormant state or survival of dormant cells. While recognizing the in vitro
nature of the assay, it can function as a highly useful tool to glean significant information about the molecular mechanisms necessary for establishment and survival of dormant cells. This data can be used to generate hypotheses to be tested in vivo
Medicine, Issue 100, Dormancy, Bone marrow stroma, FGF-2, Fibronectin, Breast cancer, Colony assay
Tissue-simulating Phantoms for Assessing Potential Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging Applications in Breast Cancer Surgery
Institutions: University Medical Center Groningen, Technical University of Munich.
Inaccuracies in intraoperative tumor localization and evaluation of surgical margin status result in suboptimal outcome of breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Optical imaging, in particular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, might reduce the frequency of positive surgical margins following BCS by providing the surgeon with a tool for pre- and intraoperative tumor localization in real-time. In the current study, the potential of NIRF-guided BCS is evaluated using tissue-simulating breast phantoms for reasons of standardization and training purposes.
Breast phantoms with optical characteristics comparable to those of normal breast tissue were used to simulate breast conserving surgery. Tumor-simulating inclusions containing the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) were incorporated in the phantoms at predefined locations and imaged for pre- and intraoperative tumor localization, real-time NIRF-guided tumor resection, NIRF-guided evaluation on the extent of surgery, and postoperative assessment of surgical margins. A customized NIRF camera was used as a clinical prototype for imaging purposes.
Breast phantoms containing tumor-simulating inclusions offer a simple, inexpensive, and versatile tool to simulate and evaluate intraoperative tumor imaging. The gelatinous phantoms have elastic properties similar to human tissue and can be cut using conventional surgical instruments. Moreover, the phantoms contain hemoglobin and intralipid for mimicking absorption and scattering of photons, respectively, creating uniform optical properties similar to human breast tissue. The main drawback of NIRF imaging is the limited penetration depth of photons when propagating through tissue, which hinders (noninvasive) imaging of deep-seated tumors with epi-illumination strategies.
Medicine, Issue 91, Breast cancer, tissue-simulating phantoms, NIRF imaging, tumor-simulating inclusions, fluorescence, intraoperative imaging
A Modified In vitro Invasion Assay to Determine the Potential Role of Hormones, Cytokines and/or Growth Factors in Mediating Cancer Cell Invasion
Institutions: Roswell Park Cancer Institute, D'Youville College.
Blood serum serves as a chemoattractant towards which cancer cells migrate and invade, facilitating their intravasation into microvessels. However, the actual molecules towards which the cells migrate remain elusive. This modified invasion assay has been developed to identify targets which drive cell migration and invasion. This technique compares the invasion index under three conditions to determine whether a specific hormone, growth factor, or cytokine plays a role in mediating the invasive potential of a cancer cell. These conditions include i) normal fetal bovine serum (FBS), ii) charcoal-stripped FBS (CS-FBS), which removes hormones, growth factors, and cytokines and iii) CS-FBS + molecule (denoted “X”). A significant change in cell invasion with CS-FBS as compared to FBS, indicates the involvement of hormones, cytokines or growth factors in mediating the change. Individual molecules can then be added back to CS-FBS to assay their ability to reverse or rescue the invasion phenotype. Furthermore, two or more factors can be combined to evaluate the additive or synergistic effects of multiple molecules in driving or inhibiting invasion. Overall, this method enables the investigator to determine whether hormones, cytokines, and/or growth factors play a role in cell invasion by serving as chemoattractants or inhibitors of invasion for a particular type of cancer cell or a specific mutant. By identifying specific chemoattractants and inhibitors, this modified invasion assay may help to elucidate signaling pathways that direct cancer cell invasion.
Medicine, Issue 98, hormone, cytokine, growth factor, migration, invasion, collagen, cancer
Quantification of Breast Cancer Cell Invasiveness Using a Three-dimensional (3D) Model
Institutions: University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario, Lawson Health Research Institute.
It is now well known that the cellular and tissue microenvironment are critical regulators influencing tumor initiation and progression. Moreover, the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been demonstrated to be a critical regulator of cell behavior in culture and homeostasis in vivo
. The current approach of culturing cells on two-dimensional (2D), plastic surfaces results in the disturbance and loss of complex interactions between cells and their microenvironment. Through the use of three-dimensional (3D) culture assays, the conditions for cell-microenvironment interaction are established resembling the in vivo
microenvironment. This article provides a detailed methodology to grow breast cancer cells in a 3D basement membrane protein matrix, exemplifying the potential of 3D culture in the assessment of cell invasion into the surrounding environment. In addition, we discuss how these 3D assays have the potential to examine the loss of signaling molecules that regulate epithelial morphology by immunostaining procedures. These studies aid to identify important mechanistic details into the processes regulating invasion, required for the spread of breast cancer.
Medicine, Issue 88, Breast cancer, cell invasion, extracellular matrix (ECM), three-dimensional (3D) cultures, immunocytochemistry, Matrigel, basement membrane matrix
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g.
by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5
. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6
, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1
. Originally published by Naal et al.1
, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11
, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2
. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280
= 4,200 L/M/cm)12
. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo
protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo
protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity.
To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (https://www.proteinwisdom.org), a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
Detection of Architectural Distortion in Prior Mammograms via Analysis of Oriented Patterns
Institutions: University of Calgary , University of Calgary .
We demonstrate methods for the detection of architectural distortion in prior mammograms of interval-cancer cases based on analysis of the orientation of breast tissue patterns in mammograms. We hypothesize that architectural distortion modifies the normal orientation of breast tissue patterns in mammographic images before the formation of masses or tumors. In the initial steps of our methods, the oriented structures in a given mammogram are analyzed using Gabor filters and phase portraits to detect node-like sites of radiating or intersecting tissue patterns. Each detected site is then characterized using the node value, fractal dimension, and a measure of angular dispersion specifically designed to represent spiculating patterns associated with architectural distortion.
Our methods were tested with a database of 106 prior mammograms of 56 interval-cancer cases and 52 mammograms of 13 normal cases using the features developed for the characterization of architectural distortion, pattern classification via
quadratic discriminant analysis, and validation with the leave-one-patient out procedure. According to the results of free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, our methods have demonstrated the capability to detect architectural distortion in prior mammograms, taken 15 months (on the average) before clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, with a sensitivity of 80% at about five false positives per patient.
Medicine, Issue 78, Anatomy, Physiology, Cancer Biology, angular spread, architectural distortion, breast cancer, Computer-Assisted Diagnosis, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), entropy, fractional Brownian motion, fractal dimension, Gabor filters, Image Processing, Medical Informatics, node map, oriented texture, Pattern Recognition, phase portraits, prior mammograms, spectral analysis
MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression
Institutions: Wayne State University , Wayne State University .
We have developed 3D coculture models, which we term MAME (m
rchitecture and m
ngineering), and used them for live-cell imaging in real-time of cell:cell interactions. Our overall goal was to develop models that recapitulate the architecture of preinvasive breast lesions to study their progression to an invasive phenotype. Specifically, we developed models to analyze interactions among pre-malignant breast epithelial cell variants and other cell types of the tumor microenvironment that have been implicated in enhancing or reducing the progression of preinvasive breast epithelial cells to invasive ductal carcinomas. Other cell types studied to date are myoepithelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and blood and lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells. In addition to the MAME models, which are designed to recapitulate the cellular interactions within the breast during cancer progression, we have developed comparable models for the progression of prostate cancers.
Here we illustrate the procedures for establishing the 3D cocultures along with the use of live-cell imaging and a functional proteolysis assay to follow the transition of cocultures of breast ductal carcinoma in situ
(DCIS) cells and fibroblasts to an invasive phenotype over time, in this case over twenty-three days in culture. The MAME cocultures consist of multiple layers. Fibroblasts are embedded in the bottom layer of type I collagen. On that is placed a layer of reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) on which DCIS cells are seeded. A final top layer of 2% rBM is included and replenished with every change of media. To image proteolysis associated with the progression to an invasive phenotype, we use dye-quenched (DQ) fluorescent matrix proteins (DQ-collagen I mixed with the layer of collagen I and DQ-collagen IV mixed with the middle layer of rBM) and observe live cultures using confocal microscopy. Optical sections are captured, processed and reconstructed in 3D with Volocity visualization software. Over the course of 23 days in MAME cocultures, the DCIS cells proliferate and coalesce into large invasive structures. Fibroblasts migrate and become incorporated into these invasive structures. Fluorescent proteolytic fragments of the collagens are found in association with the surface of DCIS structures, intracellularly, and also dispersed throughout the surrounding matrix. Drugs that target proteolytic, chemokine/cytokine and kinase pathways or modifications in the cellular composition of the cocultures can reduce the invasiveness, suggesting that MAME models can be used as preclinical screens for novel therapeutic approaches.
Medicine, Issue 60, Immunology, Breast, cancer, extracellular matrix, invasion, proteolysis, tumor microenvironment
Spheroid Assay to Measure TGF-β-induced Invasion
Institutions: Leiden University Medical Centre.
TGF-β has opposing roles in breast cancer progression by acting as a tumor suppressor in the initial phase, but stimulating invasion and metastasis at later stage1,2
. Moreover, TGF-β is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer and its expression correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis 3,4
. The mechanisms by which TGF-β induces invasion are not well understood.
TGF-β elicits its cellular responses via TGF-β type II (TβRII) and type I (TβRI) receptors. Upon TGF-β-induced heteromeric complex formation, TβRII phosphorylates the TβRI. The activated TβRI initiates its intracellular canonical signaling pathway by phosphorylating receptor Smads (R-Smads), i.e. Smad2 and Smad3. These activated R-Smads form heteromeric complexes with Smad4, which accumulate in the nucleus and regulate the transcription of target genes5
. In addition to the previously described Smad pathway, receptor activation results in activation of several other non-Smad signaling pathways, for example Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways6
To study the role of TGF-β in different stages of breast cancer, we made use of the MCF10A cell system. This system consists of spontaneously immortalized MCF10A1 (M1) breast epithelial cells7
, the H-RAS transformed M1-derivative MCF10AneoT (M2), which produces premalignant lesions in mice8
, and the M2-derivative MCF10CA1a (M4), which was established from M2 xenografts and forms high grade carcinomas with the ability to metastasize to the lung9
. This MCF10A series offers the possibility to study the responses of cells with different grades of malignancy that are not biased by a different genetic background.
For the analysis of TGF-β-induced invasion, we generated homotypic MCF10A spheroid cell cultures embedded in a 3D collagen matrix in vitro
(Fig 1). Such models closely resemble human tumors in vivo
by establishing a gradient of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in active and invasive cells on the outside and quiescent or even necrotic cells in the inside of the spheroid10
. Spheroid based assays have also been shown to better recapitulate drug resistance than monolayer cultures11
. This MCF10 3D model system allowed us to investigate the impact of TGF-β signaling on the invasive properties of breast cells in different stages of malignancy.
Medicine, Issue 57, TGF-β, TGF, breast cancer, assay, invasion, collagen, spheroids, oncology
Long-term Culture of Human Breast Cancer Specimens and Their Analysis Using Optical Projection Tomography
Institutions: University of Edinburgh, MRC Technology.
Breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality in the Western world. It is well established that the spread of breast cancer, first locally and later distally, is a major factor in patient prognosis. Experimental systems of breast cancer rely on cell lines usually derived from primary tumours or pleural effusions. Two major obstacles hinder this research: (i) some known sub-types of breast cancers (notably poor prognosis luminal B tumours) are not represented within current line collections; (ii) the influence of the tumour microenvironment is not usually taken into account.
We demonstrate a technique to culture primary breast cancer specimens of all sub-types. This is achieved by using three-dimensional (3D) culture system in which small pieces of tumour are embedded in soft rat collagen I cushions. Within 2-3 weeks, the tumour cells spread into the collagen and form various structures similar to those observed in human tumours1. Viable adipocytes, epithelial cells and fibroblasts within the original core were evident on histology. Malignant epithelial cells with squamoid morphology were demonstrated invading into the surrounding collagen. Nuclear pleomorphism was evident within these cells, along with mitotic figures and apoptotic bodies.
We have employed Optical Projection Tomography (OPT), a 3D imaging technology, in order to quantify the extent of tumour spread in culture. We have used OPT to measure the bulk volume of the tumour culture, a parameter routinely measured during the neo-adjuvant treatment of breast cancer patients to assess response to drug therapy.
Here, we present an opportunity to culture human breast tumours without sub-type bias and quantify the spread of those ex vivo
. This method could be used in the future to quantify drug sensitivity in original tumour. This may provide a more predictive model than currently used cell lines.
Medicine, Issue 53, Breast cancer, Optical Projection Tomography, Imaging, Three-dimensional, computer assisted, Tumour microenvironment
Utilization of the Soft Agar Colony Formation Assay to Identify Inhibitors of Tumorigenicity in Breast Cancer Cells
Institutions: Cornell University, Cornell University, University of Massachusetts Medical School.
Given the inherent difficulties in investigating the mechanisms of tumor progression in vivo
, cell-based assays such as the soft agar colony formation assay (hereafter called soft agar assay), which measures the ability of cells to proliferate in semi-solid matrices, remain a hallmark of cancer research. A key advantage of this technique over conventional 2D monolayer or 3D spheroid cell culture assays is the close mimicry of the 3D cellular environment to that seen in vivo.
Importantly, the soft agar assay also provides an ideal tool to rigorously test the effects of novel compounds or treatment conditions on cell proliferation and migration. Additionally, this assay enables the quantitative assessment of cell transformation potential within the context of genetic perturbations. We recently identified peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) as a potential breast cancer biomarker and therapeutic target. Here we highlight the utility of the soft agar assay for preclinical anti-cancer studies by testing the effects of the PADI inhibitor, BB-Cl-amidine (BB-CLA), on the tumorigenicity of human ductal carcinoma in situ
Medicine, Issue 99, Peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes, breast cancer, soft agar assay, cellular transformation, cancer therapies