The scaled subprofile model (SSM)1-4 is a multivariate PCA-based algorithm that identifies major sources of variation in patient and control group brain image data while rejecting lesser components (Figure 1). Applied directly to voxel-by-voxel covariance data of steady-state multimodality images, an entire group image set can be reduced to a few significant linearly independent covariance patterns and corresponding subject scores. Each pattern, termed a group invariant subprofile (GIS), is an orthogonal principal component that represents a spatially distributed network of functionally interrelated brain regions. Large global mean scalar effects that can obscure smaller network-specific contributions are removed by the inherent logarithmic conversion and mean centering of the data2,5,6. Subjects express each of these patterns to a variable degree represented by a simple scalar score that can correlate with independent clinical or psychometric descriptors7,8. Using logistic regression analysis of subject scores (i.e. pattern expression values), linear coefficients can be derived to combine multiple principal components into single disease-related spatial covariance patterns, i.e. composite networks with improved discrimination of patients from healthy control subjects5,6. Cross-validation within the derivation set can be performed using bootstrap resampling techniques9. Forward validation is easily confirmed by direct score evaluation of the derived patterns in prospective datasets10. Once validated, disease-related patterns can be used to score individual patients with respect to a fixed reference sample, often the set of healthy subjects that was used (with the disease group) in the original pattern derivation11. These standardized values can in turn be used to assist in differential diagnosis12,13 and to assess disease progression and treatment effects at the network level7,14-16. We present an example of the application of this methodology to FDG PET data of Parkinson's Disease patients and normal controls using our in-house software to derive a characteristic covariance pattern biomarker of disease.
19 Related JoVE Articles!
A Dual Tracer PET-MRI Protocol for the Quantitative Measure of Regional Brain Energy Substrates Uptake in the Rat
Institutions: Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke, Université de Sherbrooke.
We present a method for comparing the uptake of the brain's two key energy substrates: glucose and ketones (acetoacetate [AcAc] in this case) in the rat. The developed method is a small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) protocol, in which 11
C-AcAc and 18
F-FDG) are injected sequentially in each animal. This dual tracer PET acquisition is possible because of the short half-life of 11
C (20.4 min). The rats also undergo a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition seven days before the PET protocol. Prior to image analysis, PET and MRI images are coregistered to allow the measurement of regional cerebral uptake (cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum). A quantitative measure of 11
C-AcAc and 18
F-FDG brain uptake (cerebral metabolic rate; μmol/100 g/min) is determined by kinetic modeling using the image-derived input function (IDIF) method. Our new dual tracer PET protocol is robust and flexible; the two tracers used can be replaced by different radiotracers to evaluate other processes in the brain. Moreover, our protocol is applicable to the study of brain fuel supply in multiple conditions such as normal aging and neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 82, positron emission tomography (PET), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, 11C-acetoacetate, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), kinetic modeling, cerebral metabolic rate, rat
A Comprehensive Protocol for Manual Segmentation of the Medial Temporal Lobe Structures
Institutions: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.
The present paper describes a comprehensive protocol for manual tracing of the set of brain regions comprising the medial temporal lobe (MTL): amygdala, hippocampus, and the associated parahippocampal regions (perirhinal, entorhinal, and parahippocampal proper). Unlike most other tracing protocols available, typically focusing on certain MTL areas (e.g.
, amygdala and/or hippocampus), the integrative perspective adopted by the present tracing guidelines allows for clear localization of all MTL subregions. By integrating information from a variety of sources, including extant tracing protocols separately targeting various MTL structures, histological reports, and brain atlases, and with the complement of illustrative visual materials, the present protocol provides an accurate, intuitive, and convenient guide for understanding the MTL anatomy. The need for such tracing guidelines is also emphasized by illustrating possible differences between automatic and manual segmentation protocols. This knowledge can be applied toward research involving not only structural MRI investigations but also structural-functional colocalization and fMRI signal extraction from anatomically defined ROIs, in healthy and clinical groups alike.
Neuroscience, Issue 89, Anatomy, Segmentation, Medial Temporal Lobe, MRI, Manual Tracing, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Perirhinal Cortex, Entorhinal Cortex, Parahippocampal Cortex
Non-invasive Imaging and Analysis of Cerebral Ischemia in Living Rats Using Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-FDG
Institutions: University of Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame.
Stroke is the third leading cause of death among Americans 65 years of age or older1
. The quality of life for patients who suffer from a stroke fails to return to normal in a large majority of patients2
, which is mainly due to current lack of clinical treatment for acute stroke. This necessitates understanding the physiological effects of cerebral ischemia on brain tissue over time and is a major area of active research. Towards this end, experimental progress has been made using rats as a preclinical model for stroke, particularly, using non-invasive methods such as 18
F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) coupled with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging3,10,17
. Here we present a strategy for inducing cerebral ischemia in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) that mimics focal cerebral ischemia in humans, and imaging its effects over 24 hr using FDG-PET coupled with X-ray computed tomography (CT) with an Albira PET-CT instrument. A VOI template atlas was subsequently fused to the cerebral rat data to enable a unbiased analysis of the brain and its sub-regions4
. In addition, a method for 3D visualization of the FDG-PET-CT time course is presented. In summary, we present a detailed protocol for initiating, quantifying, and visualizing an induced ischemic stroke event in a living Sprague-Dawley rat in three dimensions using FDG-PET.
Medicine, Issue 94, PET, Positron Emission Tomography, Stroke, Cerebral Ischemia, FDG, Brain template, brain atlas, VOI analysis
Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, China Pharmaceutical University, Perkin Elmer.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), widely known as a “good fat” plays pivotal roles for thermogenesis in mammals. This special tissue is closely related to metabolism and energy expenditure, and its dysfunction is one important contributor for obesity and diabetes. Contrary to previous belief, recent PET/CT imaging studies indicated the BAT depots are still present in human adults. PET imaging clearly shows that BAT has considerably high uptake of 18
F-FDG under certain conditions. In this video report, we demonstrate that Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) with 18
F-FDG can be used to optically image BAT in small animals. BAT activation is observed after intraperitoneal injection of norepinephrine (NE) and cold treatment, and depression of BAT is induced by long anesthesia. Using multiple-filter Cerenkov luminescence imaging, spectral unmixing and 3D imaging reconstruction are demonstrated. Our results suggest that CLI with 18
F-FDG is a practical technique for imaging BAT in small animals, and this technique can be used as a cheap, fast, and alternative imaging tool for BAT research.
Medicine, Issue 92, Cerenkov luminescence imaging, brown adipose tissue, 18F-FDG, optical imaging, in vivo imaging, spectral unmixing
Basics of Multivariate Analysis in Neuroimaging Data
Institutions: Columbia University.
Multivariate analysis techniques for neuroimaging data have recently received increasing attention as they have many attractive features that cannot be easily realized by the more commonly used univariate, voxel-wise, techniques1,5,6,7,8,9
. Multivariate approaches evaluate correlation/covariance of activation across brain regions, rather than proceeding on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Thus, their results can be more easily interpreted as a signature of neural networks. Univariate approaches, on the other hand, cannot directly address interregional correlation in the brain. Multivariate approaches can also result in greater statistical power when compared with univariate techniques, which are forced to employ very stringent corrections for voxel-wise multiple comparisons. Further, multivariate techniques also lend themselves much better to prospective application of results from the analysis of one dataset to entirely new datasets. Multivariate techniques are thus well placed to provide information about mean differences and correlations with behavior, similarly to univariate approaches, with potentially greater statistical power and better reproducibility checks. In contrast to these advantages is the high barrier of entry to the use of multivariate approaches, preventing more widespread application in the community. To the neuroscientist becoming familiar with multivariate analysis techniques, an initial survey of the field might present a bewildering variety of approaches that, although algorithmically similar, are presented with different emphases, typically by people with mathematics backgrounds. We believe that multivariate analysis techniques have sufficient potential to warrant better dissemination. Researchers should be able to employ them in an informed and accessible manner. The current article is an attempt at a didactic introduction of multivariate techniques for the novice. A conceptual introduction is followed with a very simple application to a diagnostic data set from the Alzheimer s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), clearly demonstrating the superior performance of the multivariate approach.
JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 41, fMRI, PET, multivariate analysis, cognitive neuroscience, clinical neuroscience
3D Modeling of the Lateral Ventricles and Histological Characterization of Periventricular Tissue in Humans and Mouse
Institutions: University of Connecticut, University of Connecticut Health Center.
The ventricular system carries and circulates cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and facilitates clearance of solutes and toxins from the brain. The functional units of the ventricles are ciliated epithelial cells termed ependymal cells, which line the ventricles and through ciliary action are capable of generating laminar flow of CSF at the ventricle surface. This monolayer of ependymal cells also provides barrier and filtration functions that promote exchange between brain interstitial fluids (ISF) and circulating CSF. Biochemical changes in the brain are thereby reflected in the composition of the CSF and destruction of the ependyma can disrupt the delicate balance of CSF and ISF exchange. In humans there is a strong correlation between lateral ventricle expansion and aging. Age-associated ventriculomegaly can occur even in the absence of dementia or obstruction of CSF flow. The exact cause and progression of ventriculomegaly is often unknown; however, enlarged ventricles can show regional and, often, extensive loss of ependymal cell coverage with ventricle surface astrogliosis and associated periventricular edema replacing the functional ependymal cell monolayer. Using MRI scans together with postmortem human brain tissue, we describe how to prepare, image and compile 3D renderings of lateral ventricle volumes, calculate lateral ventricle volumes, and characterize periventricular tissue through immunohistochemical analysis of en face
lateral ventricle wall tissue preparations. Corresponding analyses of mouse brain tissue are also presented supporting the use of mouse models as a means to evaluate changes to the lateral ventricles and periventricular tissue found in human aging and disease. Together, these protocols allow investigations into the cause and effect of ventriculomegaly and highlight techniques to study ventricular system health and its important barrier and filtration functions within the brain.
Neuroscience, Issue 99, Aging, ventriculomegaly, lateral ventricles, MRI, ependymal cells, glial scarring
Operant Procedures for Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Rats
Institutions: St. Mary's College of Maryland, University of British Columbia.
Executive functions consist of multiple high-level cognitive processes that drive rule generation and behavioral selection. An emergent property of these processes is the ability to adjust behavior in response to changes in one’s environment (i.e.
, behavioral flexibility). These processes are essential to normal human behavior, and may be disrupted in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, alcoholism, depression, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease. Understanding of the neurobiology of executive functions has been greatly advanced by the availability of animal tasks for assessing discrete components of behavioral flexibility, particularly strategy shifting and reversal learning. While several types of tasks have been developed, most are non-automated, labor intensive, and allow testing of only one animal at a time. The recent development of automated, operant-based tasks for assessing behavioral flexibility streamlines testing, standardizes stimulus presentation and data recording, and dramatically improves throughput. Here, we describe automated strategy shifting and reversal tasks, using operant chambers controlled by custom written software programs. Using these tasks, we have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex governs strategy shifting but not reversal learning in the rat, similar to the dissociation observed in humans. Moreover, animals with a neonatal hippocampal lesion, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, are selectively impaired on the strategy shifting task but not the reversal task. The strategy shifting task also allows the identification of separate types of performance errors, each of which is attributable to distinct neural substrates. The availability of these automated tasks, and the evidence supporting the dissociable contributions of separate prefrontal areas, makes them particularly well-suited assays for the investigation of basic neurobiological processes as well as drug discovery and screening in disease models.
Behavior, Issue 96, executive function, behavioral flexibility, prefrontal cortex, strategy shifting, reversal learning, behavioral neuroscience, schizophrenia, operant
An Optogenetic Approach for Assessing Formation of Neuronal Connections in a Co-culture System
Institutions: Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Nanyang Technological University.
Here we describe a protocol to generate a co-culture consisting of 2 different neuronal populations. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed from human fibroblasts using episomal vectors. Colonies of iPSCs can be observed 30 days after initiation of fibroblast reprogramming. Pluripotent colonies are manually picked and grown in neural induction medium to permit differentiation into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). iPSCs rapidly convert into neuroepithelial cells within 1 week and retain the capability to self-renew when maintained at a high culture density. Primary mouse NPCs are differentiated into astrocytes by exposure to a serum-containing medium for 7 days and form a monolayer upon which embryonic day 18 (E18) rat cortical neurons (transfected with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)) are added. Human NPCs tagged with the fluorescent protein, tandem dimer Tomato (tdTomato), are then seeded onto the astrocyte/cortical neuron culture the following day and allowed to differentiate for 28 to 35 days. We demonstrate that this system forms synaptic connections between iPSC-derived neurons and cortical neurons, evident from an increase in the frequency of synaptic currents upon photostimulation of the cortical neurons. This co-culture system provides a novel platform for evaluating the ability of iPSC-derived neurons to create synaptic connections with other neuronal populations.
Developmental Biology, Issue 96, Neuroscience, Channelrhodopsin-2, Co-culture, Neurons, Astrocytes, induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Neural progenitors, Differentiation, Cell culture, Cortex
Human Brown Adipose Tissue Depots Automatically Segmented by Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Registered Magnetic Resonance Images
Institutions: Vanderbilt University, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University.
Reliably differentiating brown adipose tissue (BAT) from other tissues using a non-invasive imaging method is an important step toward studying BAT in humans. Detecting BAT is typically confirmed by the uptake of the injected radioactive tracer 18
F-FDG) into adipose tissue depots, as measured by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) scans after exposing the subject to cold stimulus. Fat-water separated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the ability to distinguish BAT without the use of a radioactive tracer. To date, MRI of BAT in adult humans has not been co-registered with cold-activated PET-CT. Therefore, this protocol uses 18
F-FDG PET-CT scans to automatically generate a BAT mask, which is then applied to co-registered MRI scans of the same subject. This approach enables measurement of quantitative MRI properties of BAT without manual segmentation. BAT masks are created from two PET-CT scans: after exposure for 2 hr to either thermoneutral (TN) (24 °C) or cold-activated (CA) (17 °C) conditions. The TN and CA PET-CT scans are registered, and the PET standardized uptake and CT Hounsfield values are used to create a mask containing only BAT. CA and TN MRI scans are also acquired on the same subject and registered to the PET-CT scans in order to establish quantitative MRI properties within the automatically defined BAT mask. An advantage of this approach is that the segmentation is completely automated and is based on widely accepted methods for identification of activated BAT (PET-CT). The quantitative MRI properties of BAT established using this protocol can serve as the basis for an MRI-only BAT examination that avoids the radiation associated with PET-CT.
Medicine, Issue 96, magnetic resonance imaging, brown adipose tissue, cold-activation, adult human, fat water imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose, positron emission tomography, computed tomography
Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly
Institutions: Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto.
Obtaining in vivo
human brain tissue volumetrics from MRI is often complicated by various technical and biological issues. These challenges are exacerbated when significant brain atrophy and age-related white matter changes (e.g.
Leukoaraiosis) are present. Lesion Explorer (LE) is an accurate and reliable neuroimaging pipeline specifically developed to address such issues commonly observed on MRI of Alzheimer's disease and normal elderly. The pipeline is a complex set of semi-automatic procedures which has been previously validated in a series of internal and external reliability tests1,2
. However, LE's accuracy and reliability is highly dependent on properly trained manual operators to execute commands, identify distinct anatomical landmarks, and manually edit/verify various computer-generated segmentation outputs.
LE can be divided into 3 main components, each requiring a set of commands and manual operations: 1) Brain-Sizer, 2) SABRE, and 3) Lesion-Seg. Brain-Sizer's manual operations involve editing of the automatic skull-stripped total intracranial vault (TIV) extraction mask, designation of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF), and removal of subtentorial structures. The SABRE component requires checking of image alignment along the anterior and posterior commissure (ACPC) plane, and identification of several anatomical landmarks required for regional parcellation. Finally, the Lesion-Seg component involves manual checking of the automatic lesion segmentation of subcortical hyperintensities (SH) for false positive errors.
While on-site training of the LE pipeline is preferable, readily available visual teaching tools with interactive training images are a viable alternative. Developed to ensure a high degree of accuracy and reliability, the following is a step-by-step, video-guided, standardized protocol for LE's manual procedures.
Medicine, Issue 86, Brain, Vascular Diseases, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Neuroimaging, Alzheimer Disease, Aging, Neuroanatomy, brain extraction, ventricles, white matter hyperintensities, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer disease
MRI and PET in Mouse Models of Myocardial Infarction
Institutions: Unversity of Cambridge, University of Cambridge, University of Cambridge.
Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The similarity of the mouse heart to the human heart has made it an ideal model for testing novel therapeutic strategies.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent views of the heart noninvasively with clear anatomical detail, which can be used for accurate functional assessment. Contrast agents can provide basic measures of tissue viability but these are nonspecific. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a complementary technique that is highly specific for molecular imaging, but lacks the anatomical detail of MRI. Used together, these techniques offer a sensitive, specific and quantitative tool for the assessment of the heart in disease and recovery following treatment.
In this paper we explain how these methods are carried out in mouse models of acute myocardial infarction. The procedures described here were designed for the assessment of putative protective drug treatments. We used MRI to measure systolic function and infarct size with late gadolinium enhancement, and PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to assess metabolic function in the infarcted region. The paper focuses on practical aspects such as slice planning, accurate gating, drug delivery, segmentation of images, and multimodal coregistration. The methods presented here achieve good repeatability and accuracy maintaining a high throughput.
Medicine, Issue 82, anatomy, Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE), MRI, FDG PET, MRI/PET imaging, myocardial infarction, mouse model, contrast agents, coregistration
Viability Assays for Cells in Culture
Institutions: Duquesne University.
Manual cell counts on a microscope are a sensitive means of assessing cellular viability but are time-consuming and therefore expensive. Computerized viability assays are expensive in terms of equipment but can be faster and more objective than manual cell counts. The present report describes the use of three such viability assays. Two of these assays are infrared and one is luminescent. Both infrared assays rely on a 16 bit Odyssey Imager. One infrared assay uses the DRAQ5 stain for nuclei combined with the Sapphire stain for cytosol and is visualized in the 700 nm channel. The other infrared assay, an In-Cell Western, uses antibodies against cytoskeletal proteins (α-tubulin or microtubule associated protein 2) and labels them in the 800 nm channel. The third viability assay is a commonly used luminescent assay for ATP, but we use a quarter of the recommended volume to save on cost. These measurements are all linear and correlate with the number of cells plated, but vary in sensitivity. All three assays circumvent time-consuming microscopy and sample the entire well, thereby reducing sampling error. Finally, all of the assays can easily be completed within one day of the end of the experiment, allowing greater numbers of experiments to be performed within short timeframes. However, they all rely on the assumption that cell numbers remain in proportion to signal strength after treatments, an assumption that is sometimes not met, especially for cellular ATP. Furthermore, if cells increase or decrease in size after treatment, this might affect signal strength without affecting cell number. We conclude that all viability assays, including manual counts, suffer from a number of caveats, but that computerized viability assays are well worth the initial investment. Using all three assays together yields a comprehensive view of cellular structure and function.
Cellular Biology, Issue 83, In-cell Western, DRAQ5, Sapphire, Cell Titer Glo, ATP, primary cortical neurons, toxicity, protection, N-acetyl cysteine, hormesis
Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Analysis of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Institutions: University of Ulm.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques provide information on the microstructural processes of the cerebral white matter (WM) in vivo
. The present applications are designed to investigate differences of WM involvement patterns in different brain diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders, by use of different DTI analyses in comparison with matched controls.
DTI data analysis is performed in a variate fashion, i.e.
voxelwise comparison of regional diffusion direction-based metrics such as fractional anisotropy (FA), together with fiber tracking (FT) accompanied by tractwise fractional anisotropy statistics (TFAS) at the group level in order to identify differences in FA along WM structures, aiming at the definition of regional patterns of WM alterations at the group level. Transformation into a stereotaxic standard space is a prerequisite for group studies and requires thorough data processing to preserve directional inter-dependencies. The present applications show optimized technical approaches for this preservation of quantitative and directional information during spatial normalization in data analyses at the group level. On this basis, FT techniques can be applied to group averaged data in order to quantify metrics information as defined by FT. Additionally, application of DTI methods, i.e.
differences in FA-maps after stereotaxic alignment, in a longitudinal analysis at an individual subject basis reveal information about the progression of neurological disorders. Further quality improvement of DTI based results can be obtained during preprocessing by application of a controlled elimination of gradient directions with high noise levels.
In summary, DTI is used to define a distinct WM pathoanatomy of different brain diseases by the combination of whole brain-based and tract-based DTI analysis.
Medicine, Issue 77, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Neurodegenerative Diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, MR, MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, fiber tracking, group level comparison, neurodegenerative diseases, brain, imaging, clinical techniques
Creating Dynamic Images of Short-lived Dopamine Fluctuations with lp-ntPET: Dopamine Movies of Cigarette Smoking
Institutions: Yale University, Yale University, Yale University, Yale University, Massachusetts General Hospital, University of California, Irvine.
We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized.
We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis - yielding a dopamine movie - is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters 1-7
. This aspect of the analysis - temporal-variation - is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of five main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique 'HYPR' spatial filter 8
that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11
C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model 7
to a conventional model 9
. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented.
Behavior, Issue 78, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Receptors, Dopamine, Dopamine, Functional Neuroimaging, Binding, Competitive, mathematical modeling (systems analysis), Neurotransmission, transient, dopamine release, PET, modeling, linear, time-invariant, smoking, F-test, ventral-striatum, clinical techniques
Perceptual and Category Processing of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis' Dimension of Human Likeness: Some Methodological Issues
Institutions: University of Zurich.
Mori's Uncanny Valley Hypothesis1,2
proposes that the perception of humanlike characters such as robots and, by extension, avatars (computer-generated characters) can evoke negative or positive affect (valence) depending on the object's degree of visual and behavioral realism along a dimension of human likeness
) (Figure 1
). But studies of affective valence of subjective responses to variously realistic non-human characters have produced inconsistent findings 3, 4, 5, 6
. One of a number of reasons for this is that human likeness is not perceived as the hypothesis assumes. While the DHL can be defined following Mori's description as a smooth linear change in the degree of physical humanlike similarity, subjective perception of objects along the DHL can be understood in terms of the psychological effects of categorical perception (CP) 7
. Further behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of category processing and CP along the DHL and of the potential influence of the dimension's underlying category structure on affective experience are needed. This protocol therefore focuses on the DHL and allows examination of CP. Based on the protocol presented in the video as an example, issues surrounding the methodology in the protocol and the use in "uncanny" research of stimuli drawn from morph continua to represent the DHL are discussed in the article that accompanies the video. The use of neuroimaging and morph stimuli to represent the DHL in order to disentangle brain regions neurally responsive to physical human-like similarity from those responsive to category change and category processing is briefly illustrated.
Behavior, Issue 76, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Psychology, Neuropsychology, uncanny valley, functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, categorical perception, virtual reality, avatar, human likeness, Mori, uncanny valley hypothesis, perception, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, imaging, clinical techniques
Non-invasive Imaging of Acute Allograft Rejection after Rat Renal Transplantation Using 18F-FDG PET
Institutions: University of Münster, University of Münster, University of Münster.
The number of patients with end-stage renal disease, and the number of kidney allograft recipients continuously increases. Episodes of acute cellular allograft rejection (AR) are a negative prognostic factor for long-term allograft survival, and its timely diagnosis is crucial for allograft function 1
. At present, AR can only be definitely diagnosed by core-needle biopsy, which, as an invasive method, bares significant risk of graft injury or even loss. Moreover, biopsies are not feasible in patients taking anticoagulant drugs and the limited sampling site of this technique may result in false negative results if the AR is focal or patchy. As a consequence, this gave rise to an ongoing search for new AR detection methods, which often has to be done in animals including the use of various transplantation models.
Since the early 60s rat renal transplantation is a well-established experimental method for the examination and analysis of AR 2
. We herein present in addition small animal positron emission tomography (PET) using 18
F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to assess AR in an allogeneic uninephrectomized rat renal transplantation model and propose graft FDG-PET imaging as a new option for a non-invasive, specific and early diagnosis of AR also for the human situation 3
. Further, this method can be applied for follow-up to improve monitoring of transplant rejection 4
Medicine, Issue 74, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cellular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Immunology, Surgery, Tissue Engineering, Nephrology, transplantation, rat, kidney, renal, acute rejection, allograft, imaging, histology, positron emisson tomography, PET, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, FDG, rat, animal model
Functional Imaging of Brown Fat in Mice with 18F-FDG micro-PET/CT
Institutions: The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) differs from white adipose tissue (WAT) by its discrete location and a brown-red color due to rich vascularization and high density of mitochondria. BAT plays a major role in energy expenditure and non-shivering thermogenesis in newborn mammals as well as the adults 1
. BAT-mediated thermogenesis is highly regulated by the sympathetic nervous system, predominantly via β adrenergic receptor 2, 3
. Recent studies have shown that BAT activities in human adults are negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and other diabetic parameters 4-6
. BAT has thus been proposed as a potential target for anti-obesity/anti-diabetes therapy focusing on modulation of energy balance 6-8
. While several cold challenge-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods are established for detecting human BAT 9-13
, there is essentially no standardized protocol for imaging and quantification of BAT in small animal models such as mice. Here we describe a robust PET/CT imaging method for functional assessment of BAT in mice. Briefly, adult C57BL/6J mice were cold treated under fasting conditions for a duration of 4 hours before they received one dose of 18
F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The mice were remained in the cold for one additional hour post FDG injection, and then scanned with a small animal-dedicated micro-PET/CT system. The acquired PET images were co-registered with the CT images for anatomical references and analyzed for FDG uptake in the interscapular BAT area to present BAT activity. This standardized cold-treatment and imaging protocol has been validated through testing BAT activities during pharmacological interventions, for example, the suppressed BAT activation by the treatment of β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 14, 15
, or the enhanced BAT activation by β3 agonist BRL37344 16
. The method described here can be applied to screen for drugs/compounds that modulate BAT activity, or to identify genes/pathways that are involved in BAT development and regulation in various preclinical and basic studies.
Molecular Biology, Issue 69, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine, Brown adipose tissue, mice, 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose, micro-PET, PET, CT, CT scan, tomography, imaging
Quantification of Atherosclerotic Plaque Activity and Vascular Inflammation using [18-F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT)
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine.
Conventional non-invasive imaging modalities of atherosclerosis such as coronary artery calcium (CAC)1
and carotid intimal medial thickness (C-IMT)2
provide information about the burden of disease. However, despite multiple validation studies of CAC3-5
, and C-IMT2,6
, these modalities do not accurately assess plaque characteristics7,8
, and the composition and inflammatory state of the plaque determine its stability and, therefore, the risk of clinical events9-13
F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) imaging using positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been extensively studied in oncologic metabolism14,15
. Studies using animal models and immunohistochemistry in humans show that FDG-PET/CT is exquisitely sensitive for detecting macrophage activity16
, an important source of cellular inflammation in vessel walls. More recently, we17,18
and others have shown that FDG-PET/CT enables highly precise, novel measurements of inflammatory activity of activity of atherosclerotic plaques in large and medium-sized arteries9,16,19,20
. FDG-PET/CT studies have many advantages over other imaging modalities: 1) high contrast resolution; 2) quantification of plaque volume and metabolic activity allowing for multi-modal atherosclerotic plaque quantification; 3) dynamic, real-time, in vivo
imaging; 4) minimal operator dependence. Finally, vascular inflammation detected by FDG-PET/CT has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors21,22
and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis23
. Plaque activity by FDG-PET/CT is modulated by known beneficial CV interventions such as short term (12 week) statin therapy24
as well as longer term therapeutic lifestyle changes (16 months)25
The current methodology for quantification of FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaque involves measurement of the standardized uptake value (SUV) of an artery of interest and of the venous blood pool in order to calculate a target to background ratio (TBR), which is calculated by dividing the arterial SUV by the venous blood pool SUV. This method has shown to represent a stable, reproducible phenotype over time, has a high sensitivity for detection of vascular inflammation, and also has high inter-and intra-reader reliability26
. Here we present our methodology for patient preparation, image acquisition, and quantification of atherosclerotic plaque activity and vascular inflammation using SUV, TBR, and a global parameter called the metabolic volumetric product (MVP). These approaches may be applied to assess vascular inflammation in various study samples of interest in a consistent fashion as we have shown in several prior publications.9,20,27,28
Medicine, Issue 63, FDG-PET/CT, atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation, quantitative radiology, imaging
In Vivo Dynamics of Retinal Microglial Activation During Neurodegeneration: Confocal Ophthalmoscopic Imaging and Cell Morphometry in Mouse Glaucoma
Institutions: University of Utah, University of Utah.
Microglia, which are CNS-resident neuroimmune cells, transform their morphology and size in response to CNS damage, switching to an activated state with distinct functions and gene expression profiles. The roles of microglial activation in health, injury and disease remain incompletely understood due to their dynamic and complex regulation in response to changes in their microenvironment. Thus, it is critical to non-invasively monitor and analyze changes in microglial activation over time in the intact organism. In vivo studies of microglial activation have been delayed by technical limitations to tracking microglial behavior without altering the CNS environment. This has been particularly challenging during chronic neurodegeneration, where long-term changes must be tracked. The retina, a CNS organ amenable to non-invasive live imaging, offers a powerful system to visualize and characterize the dynamics of microglia activation during chronic disorders.
This protocol outlines methods for long-term, in vivo
imaging of retinal microglia, using confocal ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) and CX3CR1GFP/+
reporter mice, to visualize microglia with cellular resolution. Also, we describe methods to quantify monthly changes in cell activation and density in large cell subsets (200-300 cells per retina). We confirm the use of somal area as a useful metric for live tracking of microglial activation in the retina by applying automated threshold-based morphometric analysis of in vivo
images. We use these live image acquisition and analyses strategies to monitor the dynamic changes in microglial activation and microgliosis during early stages of retinal neurodegeneration in a mouse model of chronic glaucoma. This approach should be useful to investigate the contributions of microglia to neuronal and axonal decline in chronic CNS disorders that affect the retina and optic nerve.
Medicine, Issue 99, Neuroscience, microglia, neurodegeneration, glaucoma, retina, optic nerve head, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, live image analysis, segmentation by thresholding, cell morphometry CX3CR1, DBA/2J