S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet or SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase) catalyze the transfer of the activated methyl group from AdoMet to specific positions in DNA, RNA, proteins and small biomolecules. This natural methylation reaction can be expanded to a wide variety of alkylation reactions using synthetic cofactor analogues. Replacement of the reactive sulfonium center of AdoMet with an aziridine ring leads to cofactors which can be coupled with DNA by various DNA MTases. These aziridine cofactors can be equipped with reporter groups at different positions of the adenine moiety and used for Sequence-specific Methyltransferase-Induced Labeling of DNA (SMILing DNA). As a typical example we give a protocol for biotinylation of pBR322 plasmid DNA at the 5’-ATCGAT-3’ sequence with the DNA MTase M.BseCI and the aziridine cofactor 6BAz in one step. Extension of the activated methyl group with unsaturated alkyl groups results in another class of AdoMet analogues which are used for methyltransferase-directed Transfer of Activated Groups (mTAG). Since the extended side chains are activated by the sulfonium center and the unsaturated bond, these cofactors are called double-activated AdoMet analogues. These analogues not only function as cofactors for DNA MTases, like the aziridine cofactors, but also for RNA, protein and small molecule MTases. They are typically used for enzymatic modification of MTase substrates with unique functional groups which are labeled with reporter groups in a second chemical step. This is exemplified in a protocol for fluorescence labeling of histone H3 protein. A small propargyl group is transferred from the cofactor analogue SeAdoYn to the protein by the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) MTase Set7/9 followed by click labeling of the alkynylated histone H3 with TAMRA azide. MTase-mediated labeling with cofactor analogues is an enabling technology for many exciting applications including identification and functional study of MTase substrates as well as DNA genotyping and methylation detection.
19 Related JoVE Articles!
High-throughput Screening for Broad-spectrum Chemical Inhibitors of RNA Viruses
Institutions: Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3569, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3523, Institut Pasteur.
RNA viruses are responsible for major human diseases such as flu, bronchitis, dengue, Hepatitis C or measles. They also represent an emerging threat because of increased worldwide exchanges and human populations penetrating more and more natural ecosystems. A good example of such an emerging situation is chikungunya virus epidemics of 2005-2006 in the Indian Ocean. Recent progresses in our understanding of cellular pathways controlling viral replication suggest that compounds targeting host cell functions, rather than the virus itself, could inhibit a large panel of RNA viruses. Some broad-spectrum antiviral compounds have been identified with host target-oriented assays. However, measuring the inhibition of viral replication in cell cultures using reduction of cytopathic effects as a readout still represents a paramount screening strategy. Such functional screens have been greatly improved by the development of recombinant viruses expressing reporter enzymes capable of bioluminescence such as luciferase. In the present report, we detail a high-throughput screening pipeline, which combines recombinant measles and chikungunya viruses with cellular viability assays, to identify compounds with a broad-spectrum antiviral profile.
Immunology, Issue 87, Viral infections, high-throughput screening assays, broad-spectrum antivirals, chikungunya virus, measles virus, luciferase reporter, chemical libraries
Assays for the Identification of Novel Antivirals against Bluetongue Virus
Institutions: University of Alabama at Birmingham, Auburn University.
To identify potential antivirals against BTV, we have developed, optimized and validated three assays presented here. The CPE-based assay was the first assay developed to evaluate whether a compound showed any antiviral efficacy and have been used to screen large compound library. Meanwhile, cytotoxicity of antivirals could also be evaluated using the CPE-based assay. The dose-response assay was designed to determine the range of efficacy for the selected antiviral, i.e.
50% inhibitory concentration (IC50
) or effective concentration (EC50
), as well as its range of cytotoxicity (CC50
). The ToA assay was employed for the initial MoA study to determine the underlying mechanism of the novel antivirals during BTV viral lifecycle or the possible effect on host cellular machinery. These assays are vital for the evaluation of antiviral efficacy in cell culture system, and have been used for our recent researches leading to the identification of a number of novel antivirals against BTV.
Immunology, Issue 80, Drug Discovery, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Drug Evaluation, Feasibility Studies, Biological Assay, Technology, Pharmaceutical, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Animal Diseases, Investigative Techniques, Antiviral, Efficacy, Bluetongue Virus, Cytopathic effect, Dose response, Time-of-Addition, Mechanism-of-Action
A Method for Screening and Validation of Resistant Mutations Against Kinase Inhibitors
Institutions: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
The discovery of BCR/ABL as a driver oncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resulted in the development of Imatinib, which, in fact, demonstrated the potential of targeting the kinase in cancers by effectively treating the CML patients. This observation revolutionized drug development to target the oncogenic kinases implicated in various other malignancies, such as, EGFR, B-RAF, KIT and PDGFRs. However, one major drawback of anti-kinase therapies is the emergence of drug resistance mutations rendering the target to have reduced or lost affinity for the drug. Understanding the mechanisms employed by resistant variants not only helps in developing the next generation inhibitors but also gives impetus to clinical management using personalized medicine. We reported a retroviral vector based screening strategy to identify the spectrum of resistance conferring mutations in BCR/ABL, which has helped in developing the next generation BCR/ABL inhibitors. Using Ruxolitinib and JAK2 as a drug target pair, here we describe in vitro
screening methods that utilizes the mouse BAF3 cells expressing the random mutation library of JAK2 kinase.
Genetics, Issue 94, JAK2, BCR/ABL, TKI, random mutagenesis, drug resistance, kinase inhibitors, in-vivo resistance,
In vitro Methylation Assay to Study Protein Arginine Methylation
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago, University of Illinois at Chicago, Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
Protein arginine methylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications in the nucleus. Protein arginine methylation can be identified and/or determined via proteomic approaches, and/or immunoblotting with methyl-arginine specific antibodies. However, these techniques sometimes can be misleading and often provide false positive results. Most importantly, these techniques cannot provide direct evidence in support of the PRMT substrate specificity. In vitro
methylation assays, on the other hand, are useful biochemical assays, which are sensitive, and consistently reveal if the identified proteins are indeed PRMT substrates. A typical in vitro
methylation assay includes purified, active PRMTs, purified substrate and a radioisotope labeled methyl donor (S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3
H] methionine). Here we describe a step-by-step protocol to isolate catalytically active PRMT1, a ubiquitously expressed PRMT family member. The methyl transferase activities of the purified PRMT1 were later tested on Ras-GTPase activating protein binding protein 1 (G3BP1), a known PRMT substrate, in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3
H] methionine as the methyl donor. This protocol can be employed not only for establishing the methylation status of novel physiological PRMT1 substrates, but also for understanding the basic mechanism of protein arginine methylation.
Genetics, Issue 92, PRMT, protein methylation, SAMe, arginine, methylated proteins, methylation assay
Monitoring Plant Hormones During Stress Responses
Institutions: University of Texas.
Plant hormones and related signaling compounds play an important role in the regulation of plant responses to various environmental stimuli and stresses. Among the most severe stresses are insect herbivory, pathogen infection, and drought stress. For each of these stresses a specific set of hormones and/or combinations thereof are known to fine-tune the responses, thereby ensuring the plant's survival. The major hormones involved in the regulation of these responses are jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA). To better understand the role of individual hormones as well as their potential interaction during these responses it is necessary to monitor changes in their abundance in a temporal as well as in a spatial fashion. For the easy, sensitive, and reproducible quantification of these and other signaling compounds we developed a method based on vapor phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis (1, 2, 3, 4). After extracting these compounds from the plant tissue by acidic aqueous 1-propanol mixed with dichloromethane the carboxylic acid-containing compounds are methylated, volatilized under heat, and collected on a polymeric absorbent. After elution into a sample vial the analytes are separated by gas chromatography and detected by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The use of appropriate internal standards then allows for the simple quantification by relating the peak areas of analyte and internal standard.
Plant Biology, Issue 28, Jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, plant hormones, GC/MS, vapor phase extraction
A Manual Small Molecule Screen Approaching High-throughput Using Zebrafish Embryos
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
Zebrafish have become a widely used model organism to investigate the mechanisms that underlie developmental biology and to study human disease pathology due to their considerable degree of genetic conservation with humans. Chemical genetics entails testing the effect that small molecules have on a biological process and is becoming a popular translational research method to identify therapeutic compounds. Zebrafish are specifically appealing to use for chemical genetics because of their ability to produce large clutches of transparent embryos, which are externally fertilized. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos can be easily drug treated by the simple addition of a compound to the embryo media. Using whole-mount in situ
hybridization (WISH), mRNA expression can be clearly visualized within zebrafish embryos. Together, using chemical genetics and WISH, the zebrafish becomes a potent whole organism context in which to determine the cellular and physiological effects of small molecules. Innovative advances have been made in technologies that utilize machine-based screening procedures, however for many labs such options are not accessible or remain cost-prohibitive. The protocol described here explains how to execute a manual high-throughput chemical genetic screen that requires basic resources and can be accomplished by a single individual or small team in an efficient period of time. Thus, this protocol provides a feasible strategy that can be implemented by research groups to perform chemical genetics in zebrafish, which can be useful for gaining fundamental insights into developmental processes, disease mechanisms, and to identify novel compounds and signaling pathways that have medically relevant applications.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
Specificity Analysis of Protein Lysine Methyltransferases Using SPOT Peptide Arrays
Institutions: Stuttgart University.
Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. Approximately 5,000 lysine methylation sites were identified on different proteins, which are set by few dozens of protein lysine methyltransferases. This suggests that each PKMT methylates multiple proteins, however till now only one or two substrates have been identified for several of these enzymes. To approach this problem, we have introduced peptide array based substrate specificity analyses of PKMTs. Peptide arrays are powerful tools to characterize the specificity of PKMTs because methylation of several substrates with different sequences can be tested on one array. We synthesized peptide arrays on cellulose membrane using an Intavis SPOT synthesizer and analyzed the specificity of various PKMTs. Based on the results, for several of these enzymes, novel substrates could be identified. For example, for NSD1 by employing peptide arrays, we showed that it methylates K44 of H4 instead of the reported H4K20 and in addition H1.5K168 is the highly preferred substrate over the previously known H3K36. Hence, peptide arrays are powerful tools to biochemically characterize the PKMTs.
Biochemistry, Issue 93, Peptide arrays, solid phase peptide synthesis, SPOT synthesis, protein lysine methyltransferases, substrate specificity profile analysis, lysine methylation
An In Vitro Enzymatic Assay to Measure Transcription Inhibition by Gallium(III) and H3 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corroles
Institutions: California Institute of Technology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope.
Chemotherapy often involves broad-spectrum cytotoxic agents with many side effects and limited targeting. Corroles are a class of tetrapyrrolic macrocycles that exhibit differential cytostatic and cytotoxic properties in specific cell lines, depending on the identities of the chelated metal and functional groups. The unique behavior of functionalized corroles towards specific cell lines introduces the possibility of targeted chemotherapy.
Many anticancer drugs are evaluated by their ability to inhibit RNA transcription. Here we present a step-by-step protocol for RNA transcription in the presence of known and potential inhibitors. The evaluation of the RNA products of the transcription reaction by gel electrophoresis and UV-Vis spectroscopy provides information on inhibitive properties of potential anticancer drug candidates and, with modifications to the assay, more about their mechanism of action.
Little is known about the molecular mechanism of action of corrole cytotoxicity. In this experiment, we consider two corrole compounds: gallium(III) 5,10,15-(tris)pentafluorophenylcorrole (Ga(tpfc)) and freebase analogue 5,10,15-(tris)pentafluorophenylcorrole (tpfc). An RNA transcription assay was used to examine the inhibitive properties of the corroles. Five transcription reactions were prepared: DNA treated with Actinomycin D, triptolide, Ga(tpfc), tpfc at a [complex]:[template DNA base] ratio of 0.01, respectively, and an untreated control.
The transcription reactions were analyzed after 4 hr using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. There is clear inhibition by Ga(tpfc), Actinomycin D, and triptolide.
This RNA transcription assay can be modified to provide more mechanistic detail by varying the concentrations of the anticancer complex, DNA, or polymerase enzyme, or by incubating the DNA or polymerase with the complexes prior to RNA transcription; these modifications would differentiate between an inhibition mechanism involving the DNA or the enzyme. Adding the complex after RNA transcription can be used to test whether the complexes degrade or hydrolyze the RNA. This assay can also be used to study additional anticancer candidates.
Bioengineering, Issue 97, Corrole, RNA, transcription, inhibition, anti-cancer, DNA, binding, Actinomycin D, triptolide
Nucleocapsid Annealing-Mediated Electrophoresis (NAME) Assay Allows the Rapid Identification of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Inhibitors
Institutions: University of Padova, SUNY Albany.
RNA or DNA folded in stable tridimensional folding are interesting targets in the development of antitumor or antiviral drugs. In the case of HIV-1, viral proteins involved in the regulation of the virus activity recognize several nucleic acids. The nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) is a key protein regulating several processes during virus replication. NC is in fact a chaperone destabilizing the secondary structures of RNA and DNA and facilitating their annealing. The inactivation of NC is a new approach and an interesting target for anti-HIV therapy. The N
lectrophoresis (NAME) assay was developed to identify molecules able to inhibit the melting and annealing of RNA and DNA folded in thermodynamically stable tridimensional conformations, such as hairpin structures of TAR and cTAR elements of HIV, by the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. The new assay employs either the recombinant or the synthetic protein, and oligonucleotides without the need of their previous labeling. The analysis of the results is achieved by standard polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) followed by conventional nucleic acid staining. The protocol reported in this work describes how to perform the NAME assay with the full-length protein or its truncated version lacking the basic N-terminal domain, both competent as nucleic acids chaperones, and how to assess the inhibition of NC chaperone activity by a threading intercalator. Moreover, NAME can be performed in two different modes, useful to obtain indications on the putative mechanism of action of the identified NC inhibitors.
Immunology, Issue 95, HIV-1, Nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, TAR-RNA, DNA, oligonucleotides, annealing, Gel electrophoresis, NAME
A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro
. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro
replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag
gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag
gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro
replication of chronically derived gag-pro
sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
Rapid Screening of HIV Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase Inhibitors
Institutions: National Cancer Institute.
Although a number of anti HIV drugs have been approved, there are still problems with toxicity and drug resistance. This demonstrates a need to identify new compounds that can inhibit infection by the common drug resistant HIV-1 strains with minimal toxicity. Here we describe an efficient assay that can be used to rapidly determine the cellular cytotoxicity and efficacy of a compound against WT and mutant viral strains.
The desired target cell line is seeded in a 96-well plate and, after a 24 hr incubation, serially dilutions of the compounds to be tested are added. No further manipulations are necessary for cellular cytotoxicity assays; for anti HIV assays a predetermined amount of either a WT or drug resistant HIV-1 vector that expresses luciferase is added to the cells. Cytotoxicity is measured by using an ATP dependent luminescence assay and the impact of the compounds on infectivity is measured by determining the amount of luciferase in the presence or the absence of the putative inhibitors.
This screening assay takes 4 days to complete and multiple compounds can be screened in parallel. Compounds are screened in triplicate and the data are normalized to the infectivity/ATP levels in absence of target compounds. This technique provides a quick and accurate measurement of the efficacy and toxicity of potential anti HIV compounds.
Immunology, Issue 86, HIV, cytotoxicity, infectivity, luciferase, drug resistance, integrase, reverse transcriptase
Transient Gene Expression in Tobacco using Gibson Assembly and the Gene Gun
Institutions: Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Delft University of Technology.
In order to target a single protein to multiple subcellular organelles, plants typically duplicate the relevant genes, and express each gene separately using complex regulatory strategies including differential promoters and/or signal sequences. Metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists interested in targeting enzymes to a particular organelle are faced with a challenge: For a protein that is to be localized to more than one organelle, the engineer must clone the same gene multiple times. This work presents a solution to this strategy: harnessing alternative splicing of mRNA. This technology takes advantage of established chloroplast and peroxisome targeting sequences and combines them into a single mRNA that is alternatively spliced. Some splice variants are sent to the chloroplast, some to the peroxisome, and some to the cytosol. Here the system is designed for multiple-organelle targeting with alternative splicing. In this work, GFP was expected to be expressed in the chloroplast, cytosol, and peroxisome by a series of rationally designed 5’ mRNA tags. These tags have the potential to reduce the amount of cloning required when heterologous genes need to be expressed in multiple subcellular organelles. The constructs were designed in previous work11
, and were cloned using Gibson assembly, a ligation independent cloning method that does not require restriction enzymes. The resultant plasmids were introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana
epidermal leaf cells with a modified Gene Gun protocol. Finally, transformed leaves were observed with confocal microscopy.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 86, Plant Leaves, Synthetic Biology, Plants, Genetically Modified, DNA, Plant, RNA, Gene Targeting, Plant Physiological Processes, Genes, Gene gun, Gibson assembly, Nicotiana benthamiana, Alternative splicing, confocal microscopy, chloroplast, peroxisome
A High-throughput-compatible FRET-based Platform for Identification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Light Chain Modulators
Institutions: The Scripps Research Institute, The Scripps Research Institute.
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent and potentially lethal bacterial toxin that binds to host motor neurons, is internalized into the cell, and cleaves intracellular proteins that are essential for neurotransmitter release. BoNT is comprised of a heavy chain (HC), which mediates host cell binding and internalization, and a light chain (LC), which cleaves intracellular host proteins essential for acetylcholine release. While therapies that inhibit toxin binding/internalization have a small time window of administration, compounds that target intracellular LC activity have a much larger time window of administrations, particularly relevant given the extremely long half-life of the toxin. In recent years, small molecules have been heavily analyzed as potential LC inhibitors based on their increased cellular permeability relative to larger therapeutics (peptides, aptamers, etc.
). Lead identification often involves high-throughput screening (HTS), where large libraries of small molecules are screened based on their ability to modulate therapeutic target function. Here we describe a FRET-based assay with a commercial BoNT/A LC substrate and recombinant LC that can be automated for HTS of potential BoNT inhibitors. Moreover, we describe a manual technique that can be used for follow-up secondary screening, or for comparing the potency of several candidate compounds.
Chemistry, Issue 82, BoNT/A, botulinum neurotoxin, high-throughput screening, FRET, inhibitor, FRET peptide substrate, activator
Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo
protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo
protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity.
To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (https://www.proteinwisdom.org), a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
A Fluorescent Screening Assay for Identifying Modulators of GIRK Channels
Institutions: University of South Carolina, School of Medicine.
G protein-gated inward rectifier K+
(GIRK) channels function as cellular mediators of a wide range of hormones and neurotransmitters and are expressed in the brain, heart, skeletal muscle and endocrine tissue1,2
. GIRK channels become activated following the binding of ligands (neurotransmitters, hormones, drugs, etc.) to their plasma membrane-bound, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This binding causes the stimulation of G proteins (Gi
) which subsequently bind to and activate the GIRK channel. Once opened the GIRK channel allows the movement of K+
out of the cell causing the resting membrane potential to become more negative. As a consequence, GIRK channel activation in neurons decreases spontaneous action potential formation and inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters. In the heart, activation of the GIRK channel inhibits pacemaker activity thereby slowing the heart rate.
GIRK channels represent novel targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment neuropathic pain, drug addiction, cardiac arrhythmias and other disorders3
. However, the pharmacology of these channels remains largely unexplored. Although a number of drugs including anti-arrhythmic agents, antipsychotic drugs and antidepressants block the GIRK channel, this inhibition is not selective and occurs at relatively high drug concentrations3
Here, we describe a real-time screening assay for identifying new modulators of GIRK channels. In this assay, neuronal AtT20 cells, expressing GIRK channels, are loaded with membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dyes such as bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol [DiBAC4
(3)] or HLB 021-152 (Figure 1
). The dye molecules become strongly fluorescent following uptake into the cells (Figure 1
). Treatment of the cells with GPCR ligands stimulates the GIRK channels to open. The resulting K+
efflux out of the cell causes the membrane potential to become more negative and the fluorescent signal to decrease (Figure 1
). Thus, drugs that modulate K+
efflux through the GIRK channel can be assayed using a fluorescent plate reader. Unlike other ion channel screening assays, such atomic absorption spectrometry4
or radiotracer analysis5
, the GIRK channel fluorescent assay provides a fast, real-time and inexpensive screening procedure.
Medicine, Issue 62, G protein-gated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels, clonal cell lines, drug screening, fluorescent dyes, K+ channel modulators, Pharmacology
In vitro Transcription and Capping of Gaussia Luciferase mRNA Followed by HeLa Cell Transfection
Institutions: New England Biolabs.
transcription is the synthesis of RNA transcripts by RNA polymerase from a linear DNA template containing the corresponding promoter sequence (T7, T3, SP6) and the gene to be transcribed (Figure 1A
). A typical transcription reaction consists of the template DNA, RNA polymerase, ribonucleotide triphosphates, RNase inhibitor and buffer containing Mg2+
Large amounts of high quality RNA are often required for a variety of applications. Use of in vitro
transcription has been reported for RNA structure and function studies such as splicing1
, RNAi experiments in mammalian cells2
, antisense RNA amplification by the "Eberwine method"3
, microarray analysis4
and for RNA vaccine studies5
. The technique can also be used for producing radiolabeled and dye labeled probes6
. Warren, et al.
recently reported reprogramming of human cells by transfection with in vitro
transcribed capped RNA7
. The T7 High Yield RNA Synthesis Kit from New England Biolabs has been designed to synthesize up to 180 μg RNA per 20 μl reaction. RNA of length up to 10kb has been successfully transcribed using this kit. Linearized plasmid DNA, PCR products and synthetic DNA oligonucleotides can be used as templates for transcription as long as they have the T7 promoter sequence upstream of the gene to be transcribed.
Addition of a 5' end cap structure to the RNA is an important process in eukaryotes. It is essential for RNA stability8
, efficient translation9
, nuclear transport10
. The process involves addition of a 7-methylguanosine cap at the 5' triphosphate end of the RNA. RNA capping can be carried out post-transcriptionally using capping enzymes or co-transcriptionally using cap analogs. In the enzymatic method, the mRNA is capped using the Vaccinia
virus capping enzyme12,13
. The enzyme adds on a 7-methylguanosine cap at the 5' end of the RNA using GTP and S-adenosyl methionine as donors (cap 0 structure). Both methods yield functionally active capped RNA suitable for transfection or other applications14
such as generating viral genomic RNA for reverse-genetic systems15
and crystallographic studies of cap binding proteins such as eIF4E16
In the method described below, the T7 High Yield RNA Synthesis Kit from NEB is used to synthesize capped and uncapped RNA transcripts of Gaussia
luciferase (GLuc) and Cypridina
luciferase (CLuc). A portion of the uncapped GLuc RNA is capped using the Vaccinia Capping System (NEB). A linearized plasmid containing the GLuc or CLuc gene and T7 promoter is used as the template DNA. The transcribed RNA is transfected into HeLa cells and cell culture supernatants are assayed for luciferase activity. Capped CLuc RNA is used as the internal control to normalize GLuc expression.
Genetics, Issue 61, In vitro transcription, Vaccinia capping enzyme, transfection, T7 RNA Polymerase, RNA synthesis
In vitro tRNA Methylation Assay with the Entamoeba histolytica DNA and tRNA Methyltransferase Dnmt2 (Ehmeth) Enzyme
Institutions: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Johannes Gutenberg University.
Protozoan parasites are among the most devastating infectious agents of humans responsible for a variety of diseases including amebiasis, which is one of the three most common causes of death from parasitic disease. The agent of amebiasis is the amoeba parasite Entamoeba histolytica
that exists under two stages: the infective cyst found in food or water and the invasive trophozoite living in the intestine. The clinical manifestations of amebiasis range from being asymptomatic to colitis, dysentery or liver abscesses. E. histolytica
is one of the rare unicellular parasite with 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in its genome. 1, 2
It contains a single DNA methyltransferase, Ehmeth, that belongs to the Dnmt2 family. 2
A role for Dnmt2 in the control of repetitive elements has been established in E. histolytica
, 3Dictyostelium discoideum 4,5
Our recent work has shown that Ehmeth methylates tRNAAsp
, and this finding indicates that this enzyme has a dual DNA/tRNAAsp
methyltransferase activity. 7
This observation is in agreement with the dual activity that has been reported for D. discoideum
and D. melanogaster
The functional significance of the DNA/tRNA specificity of Dnmt2 enzymes is still unknown. To address this question, a method to determine the tRNA methyltransferase activity of Dnmt2 proteins was established. In this video, we describe a straightforward approach to prepare an adequate tRNA substrate for Dnmt2 and a method to measure its tRNA methyltransferase activity.
Immunology, Issue 44, tRNA, methylation, DNA methyltransferase 2, Entamoeba histolytica
Profiling of Methyltransferases and Other S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine-binding Proteins by Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS)
Institutions: caprotec bioanalytics GmbH, RWTH Aachen University.
There is a variety of approaches to reduce the complexity of the proteome on the basis of functional small molecule-protein interactions such as affinity chromatography 1
or Activity Based Protein Profiling 2
. Trifunctional Capture Compounds (CCs, Figure 1A) 3
are the basis for a generic approach, in which the initial equilibrium-driven interaction between a small molecule probe (the selectivity function, here S
-homocysteine, SAH, Figure 1A) and target proteins is irreversibly fixed upon photo-crosslinking between an independent photo-activable reactivity function (here a phenylazide) of the CC and the surface of the target proteins. The sorting function (here biotin) serves to isolate the CC - protein conjugates from complex biological mixtures with the help of a solid phase (here streptavidin magnetic beads). Two configurations of the experiments are possible: "off-bead" 4
or the presently described "on-bead" configuration (Figure 1B). The selectivity function may be virtually any small molecule of interest (substrates, inhibitors, drug molecules).
-methionine (SAM, Figure 1A) is probably, second to ATP, the most widely used cofactor in nature 5, 6
. It is used as the major methyl group donor in all living organisms with the chemical reaction being catalyzed by SAM-dependent methyltransferases (MTases), which methylate DNA 7
, RNA 8
, proteins 9
, or small molecules 10
. Given the crucial role of methylation reactions in diverse physiological scenarios (gene regulation, epigenetics, metabolism), the profiling of MTases can be expected to become of similar importance in functional proteomics as the profiling of kinases. Analytical tools for their profiling, however, have not been available. We recently introduced a CC with SAH as selectivity group to fill this technological gap (Figure 1A).
SAH, the product of SAM after methyl transfer, is a known general MTase product inhibitor 11
. For this reason and because the natural cofactor SAM is used by further enzymes transferring other parts of the cofactor or initiating radical reactions as well as because of its chemical instability 12
, SAH is an ideal selectivity function for a CC to target MTases. Here, we report the utility of the SAH-CC and CCMS by profiling MTases and other SAH-binding proteins from the strain DH5α of Escherichia coli
), one of the best-characterized prokaryotes, which has served as the preferred model organism in countless biochemical, biological, and biotechnological studies. Photo-activated crosslinking enhances yield and sensitivity of the experiment, and the specificity can be readily tested for in competition experiments using an excess of free SAH.
Biochemistry, Issue 46, Capture Compound, photo-crosslink, small molecule-protein interaction, methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, SAH, S-adenosyl-l-methionine, SAM, functional proteomics, LC-MS/MS
How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters
Institutions: University of Stuttgart.
This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2
. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2
to CO and O2
. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g.
, electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators — a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes.
Engineering, Issue 98, atmospheric pressure plasma, microwave plasma, plasma ignition, resonator structure, coaxial resonator, cylindrical resonator, plasma torch, stable plasma operation, continuous plasma operation, high speed camera