Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new modality for anticancer treatment and although the interest has increased greatly in the recent years, it is still far from clinical routine. As PDT consists of administering a nontoxic photosensitizing chemical and subsequently illuminating the tumor with visible light, the treatment is not subject to dose-limiting toxicity, which is the case for established anticancer treatments like radiation therapy or chemotherapy. This makes PDT an attractive adjuvant therapy in a combined modality treatment regimen, as PDT provides an antitumor immune response through its ability to elicit the release of damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor antigens, thus providing an increased antitumor efficacy, potentially without increasing the risk of treatment-related toxicity. There is great interest in the elicited immune response after PDT and the potential of combining PDT with other forms of treatment to provide potent antitumor vaccines. This review summarizes recent studies investigating PDT as part of combined modality treatment, hopefully providing an accessible overview of the current knowledge that may act as a basis for new ideas or systematic evaluations of already promising results.
Peptide-based nanostructures derived from natural amino acids are superior building blocks for biocompatible devices as they can be used in a bottom-up process without the need for expensive lithography. A dense nanostructured network of l,l-diphenylalanine (FF) was synthesized using the solid-vapor-phase technique. Formation of the nanostructures and structure-phase relationship were investigated by electron microscopy and Raman scattering. Thin films of l,l-diphenylalanine micro/nanostructures (FF-MNSs) were used as the dielectric layer in pentacene-based field-effect transistors (FETs) and metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes both in bottom-gate and in top-gate structures. Bias stress studies show that FF-MNS-based pentacene FETs are more resistant to degradation than pentacene FETs using FF thin film (without any nanostructures) as the dielectric layer when both are subjected to sustained electric fields. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the FF-MNSs can be functionalized for detection of enzyme-analyte interactions. This work opens up a novel and facile route toward scalable organic electronics using peptide nanostructures as scaffolding and as a platform for biosensing.
The rising trend of breast cancer both in developed and developing countries is a real threat challenging all efforts to screening, prevention and treatment aspects to reduce its impact. In spite of modern preventive strategies, the upward trend of breast cancer has become a matter of great concern in both developed and developing countries. Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute is a premier regional cancer institute in eastern region of India catering to a large number of cancer patients every year. A pilot case control study of fifty breast cancer patients and 100 matched controls was conducted during 2013 to evaluate the effects of habitual factors like working in night shift, not having adequate sleep, and not sleeping in total darkness on breast cancer of women. The study revealed that not sleeping in total darkness was associated with higher odds of outcome of breast cancer of women. This positive correlation can play a vital role in formulation of preventive strategies through life style modification.
Central nervous system (CNS) hemangiopericytomas are rare mesenchymal tumors of the brain. In the absence of randomized clinical trials or large studies, the only information we have about the natural history and the management is from isolated clinical case series. They have suggested that surgery is beneficial, with conflicting results on the role of complete resection and adjuvant radiation. We have conducted a systematic review of clinical case series of CNS hemangiopericytoma analyzing the biology of the tumor and the best follow-up and management strategy.
Assessing the formation and regression of fibrosis in chronic liver disease (CLD) is important. Current methods of assessment employed in clinical practice are inadequate. We present a review of the utility of non-invasive biomarkers of liver fibrosis.
The authors describe a case of 52-year-old male who presented with sudden onset deterioration of weakness of both lower limbs and retention of urine. He had 1 month history of gradually progressive weakness of legs. On examination, there were lower motor neuron signs in lower extremity, digital clubbing and a lump over left iliac fossa. Routine blood tests showed impaired glucose tolerance, confirmed by oral glucose tolerance test while renal parameters were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of spine documented osteolytic lesions, long segment epidural mass in thoracic spine and a mass overlying the left iliac bone, both were revealed to be plasmacytoma following cytology. Ultrasonography of abdomen showed splenomegaly. Nerve conduction studies showed gross axonal, motor, asymmetric polyneuropathy with conduction block involving all the four extremities, mainly lower limbs with sensory sparing. Serum protein electrophoresis showed M spike, and bone marrow showed diffuse neoplastic plasma cell proliferation. Osteolytic lesion was present in skull radiograph. Then in the course of illness the patient developed acute renal failure due to acute interstitial nephritis as evidenced from proteinuria and kidney biopsy, which improved with steroids and chemotherapy but unfortunately we lost the patient after 2 weeks of initiation of chemotherapy.
Fanconi anemia (FA), commonly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, is the commonest cause of inherited bone marrow failure syndrome often accompanied by skeletal deformities, genitourinary abnormalities and an increased risk of malignancies especially acute myeloid leukemia. Haemoglobin E ((?26 Glu?Lys)) is common haemoglobin variant in the north-eastern part of India and the northern part of West Bengal. Here, we report a case of FA with concomitant haemoglobin E-trait in a 5-year-old child who presented with weakness, epistaxis, malaena and intermittent fever. She had a hyper-pigmented patch over the nape of neck and polydactyly. Complete blood counts revealed pancytopenia. The bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy showed marrow hypoplasia. Chromosome analysis showed chromatid and chromosome breaks in 22 % cells suggestive of FA. The results were corroborated with MMC stress test. Thus, we present the first reported case of FA with haemoglobin E-trait.
Insulin resistance (IR), as a result of unhealthy life-styles and westernization, most likely contributes to the increased incidence of metabolic abnormalities and consequently, the development of metabolic syndrome (MS).
The reactivity and stability of P(iii)-N and P(iii)?N bonds will be different towards various solvents, bases, and acids because of their difference in bond strength due to different N-p?-P-d? donor bonding. For this, a P?N containing Pd(ii) complex, [Pd(DPAP)2] (), was synthesized from the reaction between PdCl2(COD) (COD = 1,4-cyclooctadiene) and 2 equiv. DPAP (diphenyl phosphino amino pyridine) ligand, followed by deprotonation of the N-H proton of the coordinated DPAP. The reactivity and stability of coordinated P?N in complex were determined in various protic and aprotic solvents, bases, and acids. The inertness of coordinated P[double bond, length as m-dash]N towards various solvents and bases was observed, whereas protonation occurs at the nitrogen of P[double bond, length as m-dash]N in the presence of an acid to form P-NH, with the generation of dicationic palladium complexes (). The dicationic complex is found to be stable in the presence of bulky monoanionic Sn(iv) reagents, whereas, in the presence of more nucleophilic anions like Br(-) or I(-), dissociation of one DPAP ligand from dicationic Pd(ii) complexes leads to the generation of Pd(DPAP)X2 (X = Br(-), I(-)). Finally, the utility of the complexes towards Suzuki coupling of various aryl bromides and aryl or heteraryl boronic acids has been checked.
We present here observations on diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and ?(13)C of air CO2, from an urban station-Bangalore (BLR), India, monitored between October 2008 and December 2011. On a diurnal scale, higher mixing ratio with depleted ?(13)C of air CO2 was found for the samples collected during early morning compared to the samples collected during late afternoon. On a seasonal scale, mixing ratio was found to be higher for dry summer months (April-May) and lower for southwest monsoon months (June-July). The maximum enrichment in ?(13)C of air CO2 (-8.04?±?0.02‰) was seen in October, then ?(13)C started depleting and maximum depletion (-9.31?±?0.07‰) was observed during dry summer months. Immediately after that an increasing trend in ?(13)C was monitored coincidental with the advancement of southwest monsoon months and maximum enrichment was seen again in October. Although a similar pattern in seasonal variation was observed for the three consecutive years, the dry summer months of 2011 captured distinctly lower amplitude in both the mixing ratio and ?(13)C of air CO2 compared to the dry summer months of 2009 and 2010. This was explained with reduced biomass burning and increased productivity associated with prominent La Nina condition. While compared with the observations from the nearest coastal and open ocean stations-Cabo de Rama (CRI) and Seychelles (SEY), BLR being located within an urban region captured higher amplitude of seasonal variation. The average ?(13)C value of the end member source CO2 was identified based on both diurnal and seasonal scale variation. The ?(13)C value of source CO2 (-24.9?±?3‰) determined based on diurnal variation was found to differ drastically from the source value (-14.6?±?0.7‰) identified based on seasonal scale variation. The source CO2 identified based on diurnal variation incorporated both early morning and late afternoon sample; whereas, the source CO2 identified based on seasonal variation included only afternoon samples. Thus, it is evident from the study that sampling timing is one of the important factors while characterizing the composition of end member source CO2 for a particular station. The difference in ?(13)C value of source CO2 obtained based on both diurnal and seasonal variation might be due to possible contribution from cement industry along with fossil fuel / biomass burning as predominant sources for the station along with differential meteorological conditions prevailed.
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) refers to hematopoiesis occurring outside the medulla of bone. It may be physiologic or due to pathological conditions like hematopoietic disorders. EMH can involve liver, spleen, thorax, and lymph nodes. It can involve paraspinal tissues with extension and involvement of spinal canal. In our case, the diagnosis was confirmed by the history of the patient stating underlying hematological condition and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings showing large soft tissue masses in paraspinal areas with involvement of spinal canal and leading to cord compression.
Mutations in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain occur in 10-30% of lung adenocarcinoma and are associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sensitivity. We sought to identify the immediate direct and indirect phosphorylation targets of mutant EGFRs in lung adenocarcinoma. We undertook stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) strategy, phosphopeptide enrichment, and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify dynamic changes of phosphorylation downstream of mutant EGFRs in lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring EGFR(L858R) and EGFR(L858R/T790M) , the TKI-sensitive and -resistant mutations, respectively. Top canonical pathways that were inhibited upon erlotinib treatment in sensitive cells, but not in the resistant cells include EGFR, Insulin receptor, HGF, MAPK, mTOR, p70S6K and JAK/STAT signaling. We identified phosphosites in proteins of the autophagy network, such as ULK1 (S623) that is constitutively phosphorylated in these lung adenocarcinoma cells; phosphorylation is inhibited upon erlotinib treatment in sensitive cells, but not in resistant cells. Finally, kinase-substrate prediction analysis from our data indicated that substrates of basophilic kinase families, AGC, CAMK and STE were significantly enriched and those of proline directed kinase families, CMGC and CK were significantly depleted among substrates that exhibited increased phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation and reduced phosphorylation upon TKI inhibition. This is the first study to date to examine global phosphorylation changes upon erlotinib treatment of lung adenocarcinoma cells and results from this study provide new insights into signaling downstream of mutant EGFRs in lung adenocarcinoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Recent advances indicate that new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of malignancies will be realized from combined radiation treatment and immune checkpoint modulation. Numerous biophysical properties must be considered for effective biologic development, including affinity, selectivity, oligomeric state and valency. High-resolution structural characterization contributes to our understanding of these properties and can lead to the realization of proteins with unique in vitro activities and novel in vivo therapeutic functions. In this article we focus on the importance of these factors for new potential biologics and consider these in the context of combination therapies with physical modalities, including radiation therapy. In particular, we examine the consequences of altered avidities and subset-specific ligand density on the rational modification of biological function in the immunoglobulin and tumor necrosis factor superfamilies and for new optimized combination therapies.
We propose bionanoparticles as a candidate reference material for determining the mobility of nanoparticles over the range of 6 × 10(-8)-5 × 10(-6) m(2)V(-1)s(-1). Using an electrospray differential mobility analyzer (ES-DMA), we measured the empirical distribution of several bionanoparticles. All of them show monomodal distributions that are more than two times narrower than the currently used calibration particles for mobility larger than 6 × 10(-8) m(2)V(-1)s(-1) (diameters less than 60 nm). We also present a numerical method to calculate corrected distributions of bionanoparticles by separating the contribution of the diffusive transfer function. The corrected distribution is about 20% narrower than the empirical distributions. Even with the correction, the reduced width of the mobility distribution is about a factor of 2 larger than the diffusive transfer function. The additional broadening could result from the nonuniform conformation of bionanoparticles and from the presence of volatile impurities or solvent adducts. The mobilities of these investigated bionanoparticle are stable over a range of buffer concentration and molarity, with no evidence of temporal degradation over several weeks.
Diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal disease that radiation therapy (RT) currently has a limited role in treating because of the potential for developing fatal radiation-induced liver disease. However, recently diffuse HCC, "radio-inducible suicide gene therapy" has been shown to enhance local tumor control and residual microscopic disease within the liver for diffuse HCC, by using a combination of chemoactivation and molecular radiosensitization. We have demonstrated that the addition of recombinant adenovirus-expressing human Flt3 ligand (Adeno-Flt3L) after radio-inducible suicide gene therapy induced a Th1-biased, immune response and enhanced tumor control in an ectopic model of HCC. We hypothesized that sequential administration of recombinant adenovirus-expressing CD40L (Adeno-CD40L) could further potentiate the efficacy of our trimodal therapy with RT + HSV-TK + Adeno-Flt3L. We examined our hypothesis in an orthotopic model of diffuse HCC using BNL1ME A.7R.1 (BNL) cells in Balb/c mice. BNL murine hepatoma cells (5 × 10(4)) transfected with an expression vector of HSV-TK under the control of a radiation-inducible promoter were injected intraportally into BALB/cJ mice. Fourteen days after the HCC injection, mice were treated with a 25 Gy dose of radiation to the whole liver, followed by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment and systemic adenoviral cytokine gene therapy (Flt3L or CD40L or both). Untreated mice died in 27 ± 4 days. Radiation therapy alone had a marginal effect on survival (median = 35 ± 7 days) and the addition of HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy improved the median survival to 47 ± 6 days. However, the addition of Adeno-Flt3L to radiation therapy and HSV-TK/GCV therapy significantly (P = 0.0005) increased survival to a median of 63 ± 20 days with 44% (7/16) of the animals still alive 116 days after tumor implantation. The curative effect of Flt3L was completely abolished when using immunodeficient nude mice or mice depleted for CD4, CD8 and natural killer cells. The addition of Adeno-CD40L further improved the median survival of animals to 80 ± 15 days and this effect was abolished only when using anti-CD8 antibodies. Chromium-51 (51Cr) release assay showed cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation, suggesting efficient dendritic cell (DC) activation with CTL activation after the treatment. Furthermore, when surviving mice were rechallenged with BNL-ETK cells on the foot pad, RT + HSV-TK/GCV + Flt3L + CD40L-treated mice developed a small tumor on day 56 but the tumor eventually disappeared after 105 days. Mice treated with RT + HSV-TK/GCV + Flt3L showed a slowed tumor growth curve compared with untreated mice. Therefore, combination therapy using Flt3L to induce DC proliferation and CD40L to enhance DC maturation holds great promise for immunomodulation of radiation therapy to enhance HCC tumor control and prevent progression of disease in patients with diffuse HCC.
Psychosocial contraindications for ventricular assist devices (VADs) remain particularly nebulous and are driven by institution-specific practices. Our multi-institutional, multidisciplinary workgroup conducted a review with the goal of addressing the following research question: How are pre-operative psychosocial domains predictive of or associated with post-operative VAD-related outcomes? Answers to this question can contribute to the development of treatment-specific (contra)indications for patients under consideration for mechanical devices.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often presents as a diffuse or multifocal tumor making it difficult to control by surgery or radiation. Radio-inducible herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene therapy has been shown to enhance local tumor control after radiation therapy (RT), while limiting the expression of the transgene in the irradiated tumor tissues. To prevent liver tumor recurrence and control systemic disease while limiting the potential bystander toxicity of HSV-TK therapy, we proposed to stimulate endogenous dendritic cell (DC) proliferation with systemic adenovirus Flt3 ligand (Adeno-Flt3L) gene therapy, followed by primary tumor radiation therapy combined with a radio-inducible HSV-TK gene therapy. We hypothesized that adenovirus-expressing Flt3L gene therapy will stimulate DC proliferation, allowing the upregulated DCs to locally harness tumor antigens released from HSV-TK/RT-treated HCC cells, thereby converting irradiated tumors to an autologous in situ tumor vaccine in mice with primary liver tumors. To test this hypothesis, an expression vector of HSV-TK was constructed under the control of a radio-inducible promoter early-growth response (Egr-TK) and a recombinant adenovirus-expressing human Flt3L was constructed. The Adeno-Flt3L [10(9) plaque forming units (pfu)] was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 after radiation therapy. The murine hepatoma cell line (BNL1ME) was stably transfected by Egr-TK or Egr-Null (encoding no therapeutic gene). Palpable tumors in BALB/c mice were treated with a localized dose of 25 Gy of radiation followed by ganciclovir (GCV, 100 mg/kg, 14 days). Four treatment cohorts were compared: Egr-Null/GCV + RT + Adeno-LacZ; Egr-Null/GCV + RT + Adeno-Flt3L; Egr-TK/GCV + RT + Adeno-LacZ; and Egr-TK/GCV + RT + Adeno-Flt3L. There was no primary tumor regression in the Egr-Null tumors after radiation therapy alone. In contrast, Egr-TK tumors had nearly complete tumor regression for 3 weeks after radiation therapy (P < 0.01), however, long-term follow-up demonstrated primary tumor recurrence and death secondary to pulmonary metastasis. Flt3L expression was confirmed by serum bioassay (mean = 88 ng/mL) in these animals and Western blotting of tissue culture medium in Adeno-Flt3L-infected BaF/huFlt3L cells. Radiation therapy with Adeno-Flt3L gene therapy effectively retarded primary tumor growth when compared to radiation therapy alone. The trimodality therapy (Egr-TK/GCV + RT + Adeno-Flt3L) was the most efficacious with 40% complete tumor regression (>100 days) and <20% pulmonary metastases, indicating the development of sustained antitumor immune response. These studies provide a rationale for triple modality therapies with radiation-inducible HSV-TK gene therapy and Adeno-Flt3L when used in combination with primary tumor radiation therapy for improved local and systemic control of HCC.
Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out to investigate the effect of annelation and carbonylation on the electronic and ligand properties of N-heterocyclic silylenes and germylenes. The thermodynamic stability of these ligands has been found to increase with annelation, while the reverse is true for carbonylation. This is in sharp contrast to N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) where annelation leads to a decrease in their thermodynamic stabilities. Compared to nonannelated derivatives, annelated and carbonylated ones are found to be weaker ? donors but better ? acceptors. The effect of carbonylation is more pronounced than annelation toward increasing the ? acidity of these ligands. Carbonylation at the ?-position with respect to the N atom attached to the Si/Ge center has been found to be the most effective way of enhancing the ? acidity of these ligands. The computed natural charges reveal that electrophilicity increases upon both annelation and carbonylation. The calculated values of (31)P NMR chemical shifts of corresponding phosphinidene adducts of these ligands have been found to correlate well with the ? acidity of these Si/Ge centers.
Since 1984, various optical quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols have been proposed and examined. In all of them, the rate of secret key generation decays exponentially with distance. A natural and fundamental question is then whether there are yet-to-be discovered optical QKD protocols (without quantum repeaters) that could circumvent this rate-distance tradeoff. This paper provides a major step towards answering this question. Here we show that the secret key agreement capacity of a lossy and noisy optical channel assisted by unlimited two-way public classical communication is limited by an upper bound that is solely a function of the channel loss, regardless of how much optical power the protocol may use. Our result has major implications for understanding the secret key agreement capacity of optical channels-a long-standing open problem in optical quantum information theory-and strongly suggests a real need for quantum repeaters to perform QKD at high rates over long distances.
The aggregation of platelets on the plaque rupture site on the coronary artery is reported to cause both acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While the inhibition of platelet aggregation by acetyl salicylic acid was reported to produce beneficial effects in ACS, it failed to do in AMI. The concentration of a stress induced protein (dermcidin isoform-2) was much higher in AMI than that in ACS. Incubation of normal platelet rich plasma (PRP) with dermcidin showed one high affinity (Kd = 40 nM) and one low affinity binding sites (Kd = 333 nM). When normal PRP was incubated with 0.4 ?M dermcidin, the platelets became resistant to the inhibitory effect of aspirin similar to that in the case of AMI. Incubation of PRP from AMI with dermcidin antibody restored the sensitivity of the platelets to the aspirin effect. Incubation of AMI PRP pretreated with 15 ?M aspirin, a stimulator of the NO synthesis, resulted in the increased production of NO in the platelets that removed the bound dermcidin by 40% from the high affinity binding sites of AMI platelets. When the same AMI PRP was retreated with 10 ?M aspirin, the aggregation of platelets was completely inhibited by NO synthesis.
Differential diagnosis of malignant and benign intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) is essential to determine the optimal treatment. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is currently used to diagnose pancreatic cystic lesions worldwide, but few studies have focused on the diagnostic yield to distinguish malignant and benign IPMNs. Therefore, we aim to systematically review the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA-based cytology to distinguish malignant and benign IPMNs.
The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been associated with tumor initiation, therapy-resistance, tumor relapse, angiogenesis and metastasis. Curcumin, a plant ployphenol, has several anti-tumor effects and has been shown to target CSCs. Here, we aimed at evaluating (i) the mechanisms underlying the aggravated migration potential of breast CSCs (bCSCs), and (ii) the effects of curcumin in modulating the same.
We sought to determine if single-dose external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) could modulate the expression signature of T-cell costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules in human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines in vitro. We investigated the functional impact of irradiated PCa cells with a modulated costimulatory profile on responder T-cell activity. We used three PCa cell lines (DU145, PC3, and LNCaP) and two epithelial cell lines from noncancerous prostate and lung tissue. After 72 hours of EBRT, surface expression of four immunostimulatory molecules (CD70, CD275/ICOSL, CD134L/OX40L, and CD137L/41BBL) and two immunosuppressive markers (CTLA-4/CD152 and PD-L1/CD274) were evaluated by flow cytometry. We evaluated the impact of several radiation doses and the longevity of modulated expression. We examined the functional impact of radiation-induced modulation of cancer cells by cytotoxic T cells (CTL) cytotoxicity and ELISPOT assay for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) production. Last, we evaluated whether IFN-?-induced PD-L1 expression could be reversed by EBRT. After 10 Gy EBRT, expression of OX40L and 41BBL increased in all three PCa cell lines; expression of CD70 and ICOSL increased in PC3 cells. Conversely, a decrease in PD-L1 expression in DU145 and PC3 cells was detectable up to 144 hours after EBRT. No PD-L1 was detected in LNCaP. Epithelial cells from normal prostate were not modulated by radiation. CTL cytolytic activity and IFN-? production were enhanced by interaction with irradiated PCa cells. Finally, EBRT failed to prevent IFN-?-induced upregulation of PD-L1. We demonstrate that a single dose of EBRT increased surface expression of costimulatory molecules and decreased the expression of coinhibitory molecules in human PCa cell lines. Changes in irradiated tumor cells led to functional enhancement of T-cell activity, despite EBRT failing to reduce IFN-?-induced expression of PD-L1. These data suggest that combining radiotherapy with T-cell stimulating immunotherapy may be an attractive strategy for cancer treatment.
Currently, there is no specific medication for essential hypertension (EH), a major form of the condition, in man. As acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) is reported to stimulate the synthesis of renal (r)-cortexin, an anti-essential hypertensive protein, and, as aspirin is reported to inhibit dermcidin isoform 2 (dermcidin), a causative protein for EH, the role of aspirin in the control of EH in man was studied. Oral administration of 150 mg aspirin/70 kg body weight in subjects with EH was found to reduce both the elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures to normal levels within 3 h due to the normalization of dermcidin level in these subjects. The plasma cortexin level at day 0, 1, 30 and 90 were 0.5 pmol/ml, 155.5 pmol/ml, 160.2 pmol/ml, 190.5 pmol/ml respectively with increased NO synthesis (r=+0.994). In vitro studies demonstrated that the incubation of the goat kidney cortex cells with aspirin stimulated (r)-cortexin synthesis due to NO synthesis. It could be suggested that the use of aspirin might control EH in man.
Hemodynamics assessment is important for detecting and treating post-implant residual heart failure, but its accuracy is unverified in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs).
To evaluate, in a gynecologic cancer setting, changes in bowel position, dose-volume parameters, and biological indices that arise between full-bladder (FB) and empty-bladder (EB) treatment situations; and to evaluate, using cone beam computed tomography (CT), the validity of FB treatment presumption.
How does a protocol based on a single serum progesterone measurement perform as a triage tool in women with pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) in comparison to protocols based on serial hCG measurement?
Genome-wide association studies have provided strong evidence for association of the SNP rs1344706 in the ZNF804A gene with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that variation at rs1344706 may be associated with neural endophenotypes such as white matter volumes and densities. However, analyses of white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have produced conflicting results. We examined the association between rs1344706 and white matter microstructure in 107 healthy individuals using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). TBSS analysis showed significant association between the risk allele and lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, left forceps minor, and right parietal white matter (p<.05; FWE corrected). Post-hoc analyses indicated that this association was largely driven by alterations in radial diffusivity, consistent with an effect of genotype on myelination. In light of the strong DTI evidence for white matter microstructural abnormalities in schizophrenia, the current results implicate a potential mechanism for schizophrenia risk formation by ZNF804A rs1344706 genotype.
In this work we study, using experiments and theoretical modeling, the mechanical and optical properties of tensile strained Ge microstructures directly fabricated in a state-of-the art complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication line, using fully qualified materials and methods. We show that these microstructures can be used as active lasing materials in mm-long Fabry-Perot cavities, taking advantage of strain-enhanced direct band gap recombination. The results of our study can be realistically applied to the fabrication of a prototype platform for monolithic integration of near infrared laser sources for silicon photonics.
Current treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are often limited by the presence of underlying liver disease. In patients with liver cirrhosis, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy all carry a high risk of hepatic complications, ranging from ascites to fulminant liver failure. For patients receiving radiation therapy, cirrhosis dramatically reduces the already limited radiation tolerance of the liver and represents the most important clinical risk factor for the development of radiation-induced liver disease. Although improvements in conformal radiation delivery techniques have improved our ability to safely irradiate confined areas of the liver to increasingly higher doses with excellent local disease control, patients with moderate-to-severe liver cirrhosis continue to face a shortage of treatment options for HCC. In recent years, evidence has emerged supporting the use of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) as a promising treatment for liver cirrhosis, with several clinical studies demonstrating sustained improvement in clinical parameters of liver function after autologous BMSC infusion. Three predominant populations of BMSCs, namely hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and endothelial progenitor cells, seem to have therapeutic potential in liver injury and cirrhosis. Preclinical studies of BMSC transplantation have identified a range of mechanisms through which these cells mediate their therapeutic effects, including hepatocyte transdifferentiation and fusion, paracrine stimulation of hepatocyte proliferation, inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells, enhancement of fibrolytic matrix metalloproteinase activity, and neovascularization of regenerating liver. By bolstering liver function in patients with underlying Child's B or C cirrhosis, autologous BMSC infusion holds great promise as a therapy to improve the safety, efficacy, and utility of surgery, chemotherapy, and hepatic radiation therapy in the treatment of HCC.
Pancreatectomy is associated with significant morbidity and unpredictable outcome, with few diagnostic tools to determine, which patients gain the most benefit from this treatment, especially before the operation. This study aimed to define a preoperative signature panel of serum markers to indicate response to pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. Over 1000 patients with pancreatic cancer treated at two independent high-volume institutions were included in this study and were divided into three groups, including resected, locally advanced and metastatic. Eight serum tumor markers most commonly used in gastrointestinal cancers were analyzed for patient outcome. Preoperative CA19-9 independently indicated surgical response in pancreatic cancer. Patients with CA19-9 ?1000 U/mL generally had a poor surgical benefit. However, a subset of these patients still achieved a survival advantage when CA19-9 levels decreased postoperatively. CEA and CA125 in the presence of CA19-9 ?1000 U/mL could independently predict the non-decrease of CA19-9 postoperatively. The combination of the three markers was useful for predicting a worse surgical outcome with a median survival of 5.1 months vs. 23.0 months (p?0.001) for the training cohort and 7.0 months vs. 18.2 months (p?0.001) for the validation cohort and also suggested a higher prevalence of early distant metastasis after surgery. Resected patients with this proposed signature showed no survival advantage over patients in the locally advanced group who did not receive pancreatectomy. Therefore, a preoperative serum signature of CEA(+) /CA125(+) /CA19-9 ?1000 U/mL is associated with poor surgical outcome and can be used to select appropriate patients with pancreatic cancer for pancreatectomy.
Noninvasive tests cannot differentiate between adjacent stages of fibrosis, which limits assessment of disease progression and regression during therapy. We investigated whether levels of cytokines and extracellular matrix proteins in serum and biopsy samples can be used to determine actual stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and in prognosis.
DNA copy number variations (CNVs) have been shown to be associated with cancer development and progression. The detection of these CNVs has the potential to impact the basic knowledge and treatment of many types of cancers, and can play a role in the discovery and development of molecular-based personalized cancer therapies. One of the most common types of high-resolution chromosomal microarrays is array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) methods that assay DNA CNVs across the whole genomic landscape in a single experiment. In this article we propose methods to use aCGH profiles to predict disease states. We employ a Bayesian classification model and treat disease states as outcome, and aCGH profiles as covariates in order to identify significant regions of the genome associated with disease subclasses. We propose a principled two-stage method where we first make inferences on the underlying copy number states associated with the aCGH emissions based on hidden Markov model (HMM) formulations to account for serial dependencies in neighboring probes. Subsequently, we infer associations with disease outcomes, conditional on the copy number states, using Bayesian linear variable selection procedures. The selected probes and their effects are parameters that are useful for predicting the disease categories of any additional individuals on the basis of their aCGH profiles. Using simulated datasets, we investigate the method's accuracy in detecting disease category. Our methodology is motivated by and applied to a breast cancer dataset consisting of aCGH profiles assayed on patients from multiple disease subtypes.
Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT) was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data.
Development of sensitive and specific biomarkers, preferably those circulating in body fluids is critical for early diagnosis of cancer. This study performed profiling of microRNAs (miRNAs) in exocrine pancreatic secretions (pancreatic juice) by microarray analysis utilizing pancreatic juice from 6 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and two pooled samples from 6 non-pancreatic, non-healthy (NPNH) as controls. Differentially circulating miRNAs were subsequently validated in 88 pancreatic juice samples from 50 PDAC, 19 chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients and 19 NPNH controls. A marked difference in the profiles of four circulating miRNAs (miR-205, miR-210, miR-492, and miR-1427) was observed in pancreatic juice collected from patients with PDAC and those without pancreatic disease. Elevated levels of the four miRNAs together predicted PDAC with a specificity of 88% and sensitivity of 87%. Inclusion of serum CA19-9 level increased the sensitivity to 91% and the specificity to 100%. Enrichment of the four miRNAs in pancreatic juice was associated with decreased OS, as was the combination of miR-205 and miR-210. Higher contents of miR-205 and miR-210 were also associated with lymph node metastasis. Elevated levels of circulating miR-205, miR-210, miR-492, and miR-1247 in pancreatic juice are, therefore, promising candidate biomarkers of disease and poor prognosis in patients with PDAC.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite decades of research, the treatment options for lung cancer patients remain inadequate, either to offer a cure or even a substantial survival advantage owing to its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy. Our results propose the effectiveness of capsaicin in down-regulating VEGF expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in hypoxic environment. Capsaicin-treatment re-activated p53-SMAR1 positive feed-back loop in these cells to persuade p53-mediated HIF-1? degradation and SMAR1-induced repression of Cox-2 expression that restrained HIF-1? nuclear localization. Such signal-modulations consequently down regulated VEGF expression to thwart endothelial cell migration and network formation, pre-requisites of angiogenesis in tumor micro-environment. The above results advocate the candidature of capsaicin in exclusively targeting angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF in tumor cells to achieve more efficient and cogent therapy of resistant NSCLC.
MUC4 shows aberrant expression in early pancreatic lesions and a high specificity for pancreatic cancer (PC). It thus has a high potential to be a sensitive and specific biomarker. Unfortunately, its low serum level limits its diagnostic/prognostic potential. We here report that a multi-faceted acute phase protein lipocalin 2, regulated by MUC4, could be a potential diagnostic/prognostic marker for pancreatic cancer. Experimental Designs and RESULTS: Overexpression/knockdown, luciferase reporter and molecular inhibition studies revealed that MUC4 regulates lipocalin 2 by stabilizing HER2 and stimulating AKT, which results in the activation of NF-?B. Immunohistochemical analyses of lipocalin 2 and MUC4 showed a significant positive correlation between MUC4 and lipocalin 2 in primary, metastatic tissues (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.71, p-value=0.002) from rapid autopsy tissue sample from PC patients as well as in serum and tissue samples from spontaneous KRASG12D mouse PC model (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.98, p-value <0.05). Lipocalin 2 levels increased progressively with disease advancement (344.2 ±22.8 ng/ml for 10 week to 3067.2±572.6 for 50 week; p<0.0001). In human PC cases, significantly elevated levels of lipocalin 2 were observed in PC patients (148±13.18 ng/ml) in comparison to controls (73.27±4.9 ng/ml, p-value=0.014). Analyses of pre- and post-chemotherapy patients showed higher lipocalin 2 levels in pre-chemotherapy patients (121.7 ng/ml, 95% C.I. 98.1-150.9) in comparison to the post-chemotherapy (92.6 ng/ml, 95% C.I. 76.7-111.6, p-value=0.06) group.
The effect of annelation and carbonylation on the electronic and ligating properties of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been studied quantum chemically. The thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these NHCs have been assessed on the basis of their singlet-triplet and HOMO-LUMO gaps respectively. Both annelation and carbonylation have been found to decrease the stability of NHCs. Compared to nonannelated carbenes, annelated and carbonylated carbenes are found to be weaker ? donors but better ? acceptors. However, the effect of carbonylation is more pronounced than annelation toward increasing the ? acidity of the NHCs. The reactivity of these carbenes has been discussed in terms of nucleophilicity and electrophilicity indices. The calculated values of the relative redox potential and (31)P NMR chemical shifts of corresponding carbene-phosphinidene adducts have been found to correlate well with the ? acidity of the NHCs.
The two newer antiplatelet drugs, prasugrel and ticagrelor have both been incorporated in various national guidelines and are both under consideration for approval or have already been approved by various drug regulatory authorities. Mortality benefits with clopidogrel were comparable to newer anti-platelets, and prasugrel had great anti-ischemic potency than ticagrelor. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials conducted between 1990 and 2012 that assessed clinical outcomes with prasugrel or ticagrelor. The comparator was standard dosage of clopidogrel. Outcomes assessed were the risk of all causes mortality, TIMI non-CABG major bleeding, and a composite of stent thrombosis, recurrent ischemia and serious recurrent ischemia in the intervention groups versus the comparator groups. Event rates were compared using a forest plot of relative risk using a random effects model (Mantel-Haenszel); and Odds ratio was calculated in the absence of significant heterogeneity. Prasugrel was indirectly compared with ticagrelor using network meta-analysis. Four studies (total N = 34,126) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Both drugs had improved mortality and greater risk of bleeding compared to clopidogrel; but outcomes were comparable for both (p = NS). However a composite of recurrent ischemic events, including rates of stent thrombosis (p = 0.045) was reduced to a modest degree with prasugrel compared with ticagrelor. This systematic review suggests greater clinical efficacy of both prasugrel and ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel and an indirect comparison indicates prasugrel may be more effective than ticagrelor for preventing stent thrombosis and recurrent ischemic events.
Aim: We report a magneto-fluorescent theranostic nanocomplex targeted to neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for imaging and therapy of pancreatic cancer. Materials & methods: Gold nanoshells resonant at 810 nm were encapsulated in silica epilayers doped with iron oxide and the near-infrared (NIR) dye indocyanine green, resulting in theranostic gold nanoshells (TGNS), which were subsequently conjugated with antibodies targeting NGAL in AsPC-1-derived xenografts in nude mice. Results: Anti-NGAL-conjugated TGNS specifically targeted pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo providing contrast for both NIR fluorescence and T2-weighted MRI with higher tumor contrast than can be obtained using long-circulating, but nontargeted, PEGylated nanoparticles. The nanocomplexes also enabled highly specific cancer cell death via NIR photothermal therapy in vitro. Conclusion: TGNS with embedded NIR and magnetic resonance contrasts can be specifically targeted to pancreatic cancer cells with expression of early disease marker NGAL, and enable molecularly targeted imaging and photothermal therapy. Original submitted 6 November 2012; Revised submitted 25 March 2013.
A workshop entitled "Lessons Learned from Radiation Oncology Trials" was held on December 7-8, 2011, in Bethesda, MD, to present and discuss some of the recently conducted radiation oncology clinical trials with a focus on those that failed to refute the null hypothesis. The objectives of this workshop were to summarize and examine the questions that these trials provoked, to assess the quality and limitations of the preclinical data that supported the hypotheses underlying these trials, and to consider possible solutions to these challenges for the design of future clinical trials. Several themes emerged from the discussions: (i) opportunities to learn from null-hypothesis trials through tissue and imaging studies; (ii) value of preclinical data supporting the design of combinatorial therapies; (iii) significance of validated biomarkers; (iv) necessity of quality assurance in radiotherapy delivery; (v) conduct of sufficiently powered studies to address the central hypotheses; and (vi) importance of publishing results of the trials regardless of the outcome. The fact that well-designed hypothesis-driven clinical trials produce null or negative results is expected given the limitations of trial design and complexities of cancer biology. It is important to understand the reasons underlying such null results, however, to effectively merge the technologic innovations with the rapidly evolving biology for maximal patient benefit through the design of future clinical trials.
Despite rising interest on the concept of societal resilience and its measurement, little has been done to provide operational indicators. Importantly, an evidence-based approach to assess the suitability of indicators remains unexplored. Furthermore few approaches that exist do not investigate indicators of psychological resilience, which is emerging as an important component of societal resilience to disasters. Disasters are events which overwhelm local capacities, often producing human losses, injury and damage to the affected communities. As climate hazards and disasters are likely to increase in the coming decades, strengthening the capacity of societies to withstand these shocks and recover quickly is vital. In this review, we search the Web of Knowledge to summarize the evidence on indicators of psychological resilience to disasters and provided a qualitative assessment of six selected studies. We find that an evidence-based approach using features from systematic reviews is useful to compile, select and assess the evidence and elucidate robust indicators. We conclude that strong social support received after a disaster is associated with an increased psychological resilience whereas a female gender is connected with a decrease in the likelihood of a resilient outcome. These results are consistent across disaster settings and cultures and are representative of approximately 13 million disaster-exposed civilians of adult age. An approach such as this that collects and evaluates evidence will allow indicators of resilience to be much more revealing and useful in the future. They will provide a robust basis to prioritize indicators to act upon through intersectoral policies and post-disaster public health interventions.
Zerumbone derived from a subtropical ginger, Zingiber zerumbet Smith, was previously reported to have antitumor growth and anti-inflammatory properties in some types of cancer. However, the effects of zerumbone against cancer angiogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we clarified the role of zerumbone in gastric cancer angiogenesis. We examined the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in gastric cancer cell lines both in the basal state and following zerumbone treatment by real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes in gastric cancer cell proliferation in response to zerumbone treatment were measured by WST-1 assay. Additionally, the effects of zerumbone on NF-?B activity were examined in AGS cells. Finally, the effects of zerumbone on angiogenesis in AGS cells were measured by in vitro angiogenesis assay in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts were cocultured with AGS cells. Among the 6 gastric cancer cell lines tested, AGS cells exhibited the highest expression of VEGF. Cell proliferation, VEGF expression and NF-?B activity in AGS cells were all significantly inhibited by zerumbone. Moreover, the tube formation area of HUVECs was increased by coculture with AGS cells, and this effect was inhibited by zerumbone. Both VEGF expression and NF-?B activity in AGS cells were reduced by treatment with zerumbone, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis. Thus, zerumbone may become a new anti-angiogenic and antitumor drug in the treatment of gastric cancer.
Does a logistic regression model and scoring system to predict viability of an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV) perform as well in an independent patient group as the original patient group?
It has recently been shown [D. Adil and S. Guha, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 12779 (2012)] that a large enhancement in the Raman intensity due to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is observed from pentacene when probed through the Au contact in organic field-effect transistors (OFET) structures. Here, the SERS spectrum is shown to exhibit a high sensitivity to disorder introduced in the pentacene film by Au atoms. The Raman signature of the metal-semiconductor interface in pentacene OFETs is calculated with density-functional theory by explicitly considering the Au-pentacene interaction. The observed enhancement in the 1380 cm(-1) and the 1560 cm(-1) regions of the experimental Raman spectrum of pentacene is successfully modeled by Au-pentacene complexes, giving insights into the nature of disorder in the pentacene sp(2) network. Finally, we extend our previous work on high-operating voltage pentacene OFETs to low-operating voltage pentacene OFETs. No changes in the SERS spectra before and after subjecting the OFETs to a bias stress are observed, concurrent with no degradation in the threshold voltage. This shows that bias stress induced performance degradation is, in part, caused by field-induced structural changes in the pentacene molecule. Thus, we confirm that the SERS spectrum can be used as a visualization tool for correlating transport properties to structural changes, if any, in organic semiconductor based devices.
Recently, the chemistry of element (0) compounds has attracted the attention of both experimental and theoretical chemists. In this article, some new Si(0) and Ge(0) compounds stabilized by different silylene and germylene ligands are studied theoretically by applying quantum chemical calculations and topography mapping of molecular electrostatic potential (MESP). These compounds are found to have high donor-acceptor bond strengths and are thermodynamically stable. The nature of the molecular orbitals, negative values of MESP at its critical points, as well as proton affinity values suggest that they are very good nucleophiles. Calculated proton affinity values suggest the possible isolation of their diprotonated salts.
It has long been recognized that generalized deficits in cognitive ability represent a core component of schizophrenia (SCZ), evident before full illness onset and independent of medication. The possibility of genetic overlap between risk for SCZ and cognitive phenotypes has been suggested by the presence of cognitive deficits in first-degree relatives of patients with SCZ; however, until recently, molecular genetic approaches to test this overlap have been lacking. Within the last few years, large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of SCZ have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of the heritability of the disorder is explained by a polygenic component consisting of many common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of extremely small effect. Similar results have been reported in GWAS of general cognitive ability. The primary aim of the present study is to provide the first molecular genetic test of the classic endophenotype hypothesis, which states that alleles associated with reduced cognitive ability should also serve to increase risk for SCZ. We tested the endophenotype hypothesis by applying polygenic SNP scores derived from a large-scale cognitive GWAS meta-analysis (~5000 individuals from nine nonclinical cohorts comprising the Cognitive Genomics consorTium (COGENT)) to four SCZ case-control cohorts. As predicted, cases had significantly lower cognitive polygenic scores compared to controls. In parallel, polygenic risk scores for SCZ were associated with lower general cognitive ability. In addition, using our large cognitive meta-analytic data set, we identified nominally significant cognitive associations for several SNPs that have previously been robustly associated with SCZ susceptibility. Results provide molecular confirmation of the genetic overlap between SCZ and general cognitive ability, and may provide additional insight into pathophysiology of the disorder.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 17 December 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.166.
Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease.
Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a serious side-effect of thoracic radiotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is essential for the function and survival of cardiomyocytes. Hence, agents that target the EGFR pathway are cardiotoxic. Tocotrienols protect from radiation injury, but may also enhance the therapeutic effects of EGFR pathway inhibitors in cancer treatment. This study investigated the effects of local irradiation on the EGFR pathway in the heart and tests whether tocotrienols may modify radiation-induced changes in this pathway.
Endothelial cells (ECs) are an essential component of the hematopoietic microenvironment, which maintains and regulates hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Although ECs can support the regeneration of otherwise lethally-irradiated HSCs, the mechanisms are not well understood. To further understand this phenomenon, we studied HSC regeneration from irradiated bone marrow using co-culture with human aortic ECs (HAECs). Co-culture with HAECs induced a 24-fold expansion of long-term HSCs (CD150(+), lineage(lo), Sca-1(+), c-Kit(+); CD150(+)LSK cells) in vitro. These cells gave rise to functional hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with colony-forming activity, multilineage reconstitution and serial transplantation potential. Furthermore, HAECs significantly reduced DNA damage in irradiated LSK cells within 24h. Remarkably, we were able to delay the exposure of irradiated bone marrow to the regenerative, HAEC-derived signals for up to 48h and still rescue functional HSCs. G-CSF is the gold standard for promoting hematopoietic regeneration in vivo. However, when compared to HAECs, in vitro G-CSF treatment promoted lineage differentiation and regenerated 5-fold fewer CD150(+)LSK cells. Together, our results show that HAECs are powerful, direct mitigators of HSC injury and DNA damage. Identification of the HAEC-derived factors that rescue HSCs may lead to improved therapies for hematopoietic regeneration after radiation injury.
The selective proliferation of transplanted hepatocytes with a growth stimulus, such as partial hepatectomy or hepatocyte growth factor, concomitant with hepatic irradiation (HIR), which can suppress proliferation of host hepatocytes, has been reported. We have conducted experiments that focused on less invasive and clinically applicable techniques and progenitor cells.
The first annual workshop for preclinical and clinical development of radiosensitizers took place at the National Cancer Institute on August 8-9, 2012. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly applied and effective oncologic treatments for solid tumors. It is well recognized that improved clinical efficacy of radiotherapy would make a substantive impact in clinical practice and patient outcomes. Advances in genomic technologies and high-throughput drug discovery platforms have brought a revolution in cancer treatment by providing molecularly targeted agents for various cancers. Development of predictive biomarkers directed toward specific subsets of cancers has ushered in a new era of personalized therapeutics. The field of radiation oncology stands to gain substantial benefit from these advances given the concerted effort to integrate this progress into radiation therapy. This workshop brought together expert clinicians and scientists working in various disease sites to identify the exciting opportunities and expected challenges in the development of molecularly targeted agents in combination with radiation therapy.
The chemistry of nitrogen fixation has been the subject of considerable research with a view to gaining a proper understanding of the mechanistic details. In this article, density functional calculations are performed on all the mechanistic possibilities for dinitrogen reduction mediated by the tripodal iron complexes [(SiP(Me)3)Fe(I)] ([Fe(Si)]) and [(BP(Me)3)Fe(0)] ([Fe(B)]). Dinitrogen addition to the neutral bare complex is found to be thermodynamically more favorable than that to the anionic one. Both symmetric and asymmetric pathways, along with the possible intermediates and transition states, are considered in this study. For both systems, the symmetric path is found to be more likely, although the prospect of the asymmetric path cannot be ignored. Moreover, interconversions between these two pathways are found to be less likely. This study corroborates most experimental observations and provides theoretical insight into the possible existence of some hitherto unknown intermediates such as multiple-bonded Fe-N species in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Furthermore, in agreement with experimental observations, this study also highlights the possibility of hydrogen and hydrazine evolution during the complete reduction of dinitrogen.
We report on an x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of helical poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene] (PF2/6) under high quasihydrostatic pressure and show an effect of pressure on the torsion angle (dihedral angle) between adjunct repeat units and on the hexagonal unit cell. A model for helical backbone conformation is constructed. The theoretical position for the most prominent 00l x-ray reflection is calculated as a function of torsion angle. The XRD of high molecular weight PF2/6 (M(n)=30 kg/mol) is measured through a diamond anvil cell upon pressure increase from 1 to 10 GPa. The theoretically considered 00l reflection is experimentally identified, and its shift with the increasing pressure is found to be consistent with the decreasing torsion angle between 2 and 6 GPa. This indicates partial backbone planarization towards a more open helical structure. The h00 peak is identified, and its shift together with the broadening of 00l implies impairment of the ambient hexagonal order, which begins at or below 2 GPa. Previously collected high-pressure photoluminescence data are reanalyzed and are found to be qualitatively consistent with the XRD data. This paper provides an example of how the helical ?-conjugated backbone structure can be controlled by applying high quasihydrostatic pressure without modifications in its chemical structure. Moreover, it paves the way for wider use of high-pressure x-ray scattering in the research of ?-conjugated polymers.
Ataxia telangiectasia patients develop lymphoid malignancies of both B- and T-cell origin. Similarly, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm)-deficient mice exhibit severe defects in T-cell maturation and eventually develop thymomas. The function of ATM is known to be influenced by the mammalian orthologue of the Drosophila MOF (males absent on the first) gene. Here, we report the effect of T-cell-specific ablation of the mouse Mof (Mof) gene on leucocyte trafficking and survival. Conditional Mof(Flox/Flox) (Mof (F/F)) mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the T-cell-specific Lck proximal promoter (Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+)) display a marked reduction in thymus size compared with Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(-) mice. In contrast, the spleen size of Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) mice was increased compared with control Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(-) mice. The thymus of Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) mice contained significantly reduced T cells, whereas thymic B cells were elevated. Within the T-cell population, CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T-cell levels were reduced, whereas the immature CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) population was elevated. Defective T-cell differentiation is also evident as an increased DN3 (CD44(-)CD25(+)) population, the cell stage during which T-cell receptor rearrangement takes place. The differentiation defect in T cells and reduced thymus size were not rescued in a p53-deficient background. Splenic B-cell distributions were similar between Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) and Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(-) mice except for an elevation of the ? light-chain population, suggestive of an abnormal clonal expansion. T cells from Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) mice did not respond to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, whereas LPS-stimulated B cells from Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) mice demonstrated spontaneous genomic instability. Mice with T-cell-specific loss of MOF had shorter lifespans and decreased survival following irradiation than did Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(-) mice. These observations suggest that Mof plays a critical role in T-cell differentiation and that depletion of Mof in T cells reduces T-cell numbers and, by an undefined mechanism, induces genomic instability in B cells through bystander mechanism. As a result, these mice have a shorter lifespan and reduced survival after irradiation.
Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer.
Copy number variants (CNVs) are risk factors in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID) and schizophrenia. Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), defined as onset before the age of 13 years, is a rare and severe form of the disorder, with more striking array of prepsychotic developmental disorders and abnormalities in brain development. Because of the well-known phenotypic variability associated with pathogenic CNVs, we conducted whole genome genotyping to detect CNVs and then focused on a group of 46 rare CNVs that had well-documented risk for adult onset schizophrenia (AOS), autism, epilepsy and/or ID. We evaluated 126 COS probands, 69 of which also had a healthy full sibling. When COS probands were compared with their matched related controls, significantly more affected individuals carried disease-related CNVs (P=0.017). Moreover, COS probands showed a higher rate than that found in AOS probands (P<0.0001). A total of 15 (11.9%) subjects exhibited at least one such CNV and four of these subjects (26.7%) had two. Five of 15 (4.0% of the sample) had a 2.5-3?Mb deletion mapping to 22q11.2, a rate higher than that reported for adult onset (0.3-1%) (P<0.001) or autism spectrum disorder and, indeed, the highest rate reported for any clinical population to date. For one COS subject, a duplication found at 22q13.3 had previously only been associated with autism, and for four patients CNVs at 8q11.2, 10q22.3, 16p11.2 and 17q21.3 had only previously been associated with ID. Taken together, these findings support the well-known pleiotropic effects of these CNVs suggesting shared abnormalities early in brain development. Clinically, broad CNV-based population screening is needed to assess their overall clinical burden.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 May 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.59.
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), or allergic granulomatosis, is a rare disease manifested by tissue infiltration, hypereosinophilia and vasculitis. Renal involvement may be seen in up to 50% of cases. We report the case of a 25-yearold man who presented with a history of fever for two months, tingling, numbness, and paraesthesia of the upper limbs and left lower limb, along with diarrhoea for one month and an inability to walk for the past seven days. Serial laboratory investigations helped to reach the final diagnosis of CSS with mononeuritis multiplex, and skin, pulmonary and gastrointestinal involvement with hypertension. This is due to renal involvement in the form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis without any nephrotic range proteinuria, which is a very rare clinical entity. The patients symptoms were relieved after the administration of an unconventional mode of therapy.
Can we accurately define a group of pregnancies of unknown location (PULs) as low risk in order to safely reduce follow-up for these pregnancies and allocate resources to pregnancies at an increased risk of being ectopic?
Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is the most intact retrovirus in the human genome. There are multiple full-length or near full-length HERV-K proviruses in it. To analyze which HERV-K proviruses give rise to viral transcripts in cancer cell lines and to test whether ionizing radiation can alter the levels of HERV-K transcripts, RT-PCR studies were undertaken using multiple human cancer cell lines. Primers from several positions in the viral genome were used and included pairs designed to cross splice junctions in viral RNAs. In the absence of ionizing radiation, transcripts were detected from multiple HERV-K proviruses in cell lines from human prostate, cervical, head and neck, or breast cancers, and the proviruses from which the transcripts originated varied among the different lines. Only one of 13 cell lines tested (cervical cancer line C33A) failed to show HERV-K transcripts. Spliced RNAs detected included viral RNAs spliced as expected at the conventional viral splice sites, plus several alternatively spliced RNAs. Alternatively spliced transcripts arose from specific proviruses, and were detected in most of the cell lines used. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to assess the effects of ionizing radiation. These analyses showed that HERV-K transcripts were elevated in four of twelve lines tested, specifically all three prostate cancer lines used and one breast cancer line. The increases were transient, peaking at 24 hours following a single dose of gamma-irradiation that ranged from 2.5 to 20 Gy, and returning to baseline levels by 72 hours. In summary, these studies showed that ionizing radiation can affect the levels of HERV-K transcripts in cells, and these effects vary among different cells. The changes in HERV-K transcript levels might affect multiple biological processes in cells, and future studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on HERV-K are worth pursuing.
Risk prediction for a particular disease in a population through SNP genotyping exploits tests whose primary goal is to rank the SNPs on the basis of their disease association. This manuscript reveals a different approach of predicting the risk through network representation by using combined genotypic data (instead of a single allele/haplotype). The aim of this study is to classify diseased group and prediction of disease risk by identifying the responsible genotype. Genotypic combination is chosen from five independent loci present on platelet receptor genes P2RY1 and P2RY12. Genotype-sets constructed from combinations of genotypes served as a network input, the network architecture constituting super-nodes (e.g., case and control) and nodes representing individuals, each individual is described by a set of genotypes containing M markers (M = number of SNP). The analysis becomes further enriched when we consider a set of networks derived from the parent network. By maintaining the super-nodes identical, each network is carrying an independent combination of M-1 markers taken from M markers. For each of the network, the ratio of case specific and control specific connections vary and the ratio of super-node specific connection shows variability. This method of network has also been applied in another case-control study which includes oral cancer, precancer and control individuals to check whether it improves presentation and interpretation of data. The analyses reveal a perfect segregation between super-nodes, only a fraction of mixed state being connected to both the super-nodes (i.e. common genotype set). This kind of approach is favorable for a population to classify whether an individual with a particular genotypic combination can be in a risk group to develop disease. In addition with that we can identify the most important polymorphism whose presence or absence in a population can make a large difference in the number of case and control individuals.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive energy delivery technique increasingly used for focal therapy to eradicate localized disease. RFA-induced tumor-cell necrosis generates an immunogenic source of tumor antigens known to induce antitumor immune responses. However, RFA-induced antitumor immunity is insufficient to control metastatic progression. We sought to characterize (a) the role of RFA dose on immunogenic modulation of tumor and generation of immune responses and (b) the potential synergy between vaccine immunotherapy and RFA aimed at local tumor control and decreased systemic progression.
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are transcribed in many cancers including prostate cancer. Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) of the HML2 subtype is the most recently integrated and most intact retrovirus in the human genome, with many of the viral genomes encoding full- or partial-length viral proteins. To assess transcripts of HERV-K in prostate cancer cell lines and identify the specific HERV-K elements in the human genome that are transcribed, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and cDNA sequencing were undertaken. Strand-specific RT-PCR, plasmid subcloning, and cDNA sequencing detected the presence of HERV-K(HML2) coding strand transcripts within four prostate cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and VCaP). RT-PCR across splice junctions revealed splicing variants for env gene mRNA in three cell lines, two involving previously undescribed alternative splice sites. To determine the HERV-K loci from which the transcripts arose, RepeatMasker was used to compile a list of over 200 HERV-K internal genome segment fragments and over 1,000 HERV-K solo long terminal repeat (LTR) fragments in the human genome. Surprisingly, the sequences identified from internal positions of the viral genome were mostly smaller segments, while the LTRs were relatively intact. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The transcripts in the cell lines tested, arose from several HERV-K loci, with some proviruses being detected in multiple cell lines and others in only one of the four used. In some instances, transcripts from viral antisense strands was also detected. In addition, transcripts from both strands of solo LTRs were detected. These data show that transcripts from HERV-K loci commonly occur in prostate cancer cell lines and that transcription of either strand can occur. They also emphasize the importance of single nucleotide level analysis to identify the specific, individual HERV-K loci that are transcribed, and indicate that HERV-K expression in prostate cancer warrants further study.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.