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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Partnered Research in Healthcare Delivery Redesign for High-Need, High-Cost Patients: Development and Feasibility of an Intensive Management Patient-Aligned Care Team (ImPACT).
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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We employed a partnered research healthcare delivery redesign process to improve care for high-need, high-cost (HNHC) patients within the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system.
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Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated.
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Projected age- and sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Western Australian adults from 2005-2045.
Eur J Prev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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For decades, the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have declined. More recently, we have seen a halting in these declines, especially at younger ages. It is difficult to predict how these changing trends will impact CVD prevalence. We aimed to predict future prevalence of CVDs in Western Australian adults from 2005-2045 based on current incidence and mortality probabilities, population growth and ageing.
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Examination of the association between mental health, morbidity, and mortality in late life: findings from longitudinal community surveys.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Physical health has been demonstrated to mediate the mental health and mortality risk association. The current study examines an alternative hypothesis that mental health mediates the effect of physical health on mortality risk. Methods: Participants (N = 14,019; women = 91%), including eventual decedents (n = 3,752), were aged 70 years and older, and drawn from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project. Participants were observed on two to four occasions, over a 10-year period. Mediation analysis compared the converse mediation of physical and mental health on mortality risk. Results: For men, neither physical nor mental health was associated with mortality risk. For women, poor mental health reported only a small effect on mortality risk (Hazard Risk (HR) = 1.01; p < 0.001); more substantive was the risk of low physical health (HR = 1.04; p < 0.001). No mediation effects were observed. Conclusions: Mental health effects on mortality were fully attenuated by physical health in men, and partially so in women. Neither mental nor physical health mediated the effect of each other on mortality risk for either gender. We conclude that physical health is a stronger predictor of mortality risk than mental health.
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Sphagnum physiology in the context of changing climate: Emergent influences of genomics, modeling and host-microbiome interactions on understanding ecosystem function.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Peatlands harbor more than one-third of terrestrial carbon leading to the argument that the bryophytes, as major components of peatland ecosystems, store more organic carbon in soils than any other collective plant taxa. Plants of the genus Sphagnum is an important component of peatland ecosystems and are potentially vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. However, the response of Sphagnum to rising temperatures, elevated CO2 and shifts in local hydrology have yet to be fully characterized. In this review, we examine Sphagnum biology and ecology and explore the role of this keystone species and its associated microbiome in carbon and nitrogen cycling using literature review and model simulations. Several issues are highlighted including the consequences of a variable environment on plant-microbiome interactions, uncertainty associated with CO2 diffusion resistances and the relationship between fixed N and that partitioned to the photosynthetic apparatus. We note that the Sphagnum fallax genome is currently being sequenced and outline potential applications of population-level genomics and corresponding plant photosynthesis and microbial metabolic modeling techniques. We highlight Sphagnum as a model organism to explore ecosystem response to a changing climate, and to define the role that Sphagnum can play at the intersection of physiology, genetics and functional genomics.
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Predicting the risk of physical disability in old age using modifiable mid-life risk factors.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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We aimed to investigate the relationship between potentially modifiable risk factors in middle age and disability after 13?years using the Framingham Offspring Study (FOS). We further aimed to develop a disability risk algorithm to estimate the risk of future disability for those aged 45-65?years.
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Gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among women veterans deployed in service of operations in afghanistan and iraq.
J Womens Health (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) among women Veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) maternity benefits previously deployed in service of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND), and whether pregnancy complications were associated with VA use following delivery.
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Mortality trends among people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Australia: 1997-2010.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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With improvements in cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates among people with diabetes, mortality rates may also be changing. However, these trends may be influenced by coding practices of CVD-related deaths on death certificates. We analyzed trends of mortality over 13 years in people with diabetes and quantified the potential misclassification of CVD mortality according to current coding methods.
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Lateral epitaxial growth of two-dimensional layered semiconductor heterojunctions.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Two-dimensional layered semiconductors such as MoS2 and WSe2 have attracted considerable interest in recent times. Exploring the full potential of these layered materials requires precise spatial modulation of their chemical composition and electronic properties to create well-defined heterostructures. Here, we report the growth of compositionally modulated MoS2-MoSe2 and WS2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures by in situ modulation of the vapour-phase reactants during growth of these two-dimensional crystals. Raman and photoluminescence mapping studies demonstrate that the resulting heterostructure nanosheets exhibit clear structural and optical modulation. Transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping studies reveal a single crystalline structure with opposite modulation of sulphur and selenium distributions across the heterostructure interface. Electrical transport studies demonstrate that the WSe2-WS2 heterojunctions form lateral p-n diodes and photodiodes, and can be used to create complementary inverters with high voltage gain. Our study is an important advance in the development of layered semiconductor heterostructures, an essential step towards achieving functional electronics and optoelectronics.
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Efficient purging of deleterious mutations in plants with haploid selfing.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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In diploid organisms, selfing reduces the efficiency of selection in removing deleterious mutations from a population. This need not be the case for all organisms. Some plants, for example, undergo an extreme form of selfing known as intragametophytic selfing, which immediately exposes all recessive deleterious mutations in a parental genome to selective purging. Here, we ask how effectively deleterious mutations are removed from such plants. Specifically, we study the extent to which deleterious mutations accumulate in a predominantly selfing and a predominantly outcrossing pair of moss species, using genome-wide transcriptome data. We find that the selfing species purge significantly more nonsynonymous mutations, as well as a greater proportion of radical amino acid changes which alter physicochemical properties of amino acids. Moreover, their purging of deleterious mutation is especially strong in conserved regions of protein-coding genes. Our observations show that selfing need not impede but can even accelerate the removal of deleterious mutations, and do so on a genome-wide scale.
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Auditory neuropathy in individuals with Type 1 diabetes.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Peripheral neuropathy is a major consequence of diabetes mellitus with up to 50 % of patients showing clinically significant neural injury during the disease course. Hearing loss (as defined by impaired sound detection thresholds) is a recognized symptom of DM, but the possibility of auditory neuropathy (AN) has not been explored in this population. This pilot study investigated peripheral auditory function, auditory processing and speech perception in individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and compared the findings with measures of vestibular function, ocular pathology/visual acuity and overall neurologic profile. Ten adults with T1DM and ten matched controls underwent a battery of tests which included: audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem responses, temporal processing measures and speech perception. Six of the ten T1DM participants showed electrophysiologic evidence of AN and impaired functional hearing. Furthermore, auditory capacity was correlated with both visual acuity and degree of somatic peripheral neuropathy. This pilot investigation revealed functional-hearing deficits severe enough to impact upon everyday communication. Should the findings be confirmed by larger studies, auditory evaluation may form an important part of the management regimen for individuals with T1DM. This may be especially important for those with DM-related eye conditions, as deficits across multiple sensory modalities can have multiplicative detrimental effects on quality-of-life.
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Association of low birth weight and preterm birth with the incidence of knee and hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth have been associated with adverse adult outcomes including hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and reduced bone mass. It is unknown whether LBW and preterm birth affect the risk of osteoarthritis (OA). This study aims to examine whether LBW and preterm birth were associated with the incidence of knee and hip arthroplasty for OA. Methods: 3,604 participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study who reported their birth weight and history of preterm birth and were aged more than 40 years at the commencement of arthroplasty data collection. The incidence of knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis during 2002-2011 was determined by linking cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Results: One hundred and sixteen participants underwent knee arthroplasty and 75 underwent hip arthroplasty for OA. Low birth weight (yes vs. no, HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.11-3.75, p=0.02) and preterm birth (yes vs. no, HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.29-4.87, p=0.007) were associated with increased incidence of hip arthroplasty independent of age, sex, BMI, education level, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and physical activity. No significant association was observed for knee arthroplasty. Conclusions: Although these findings will need to be confirmed, they suggest that individuals born with LBW or preterm are at increased risk of hip arthroplasty for OA in adult life. The underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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Horizontal transfer of an adaptive chimeric photoreceptor from bryophytes to ferns.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Ferns are well known for their shade-dwelling habits. Their ability to thrive under low-light conditions has been linked to the evolution of a novel chimeric photoreceptor--neochrome--that fuses red-sensing phytochrome and blue-sensing phototropin modules into a single gene, thereby optimizing phototropic responses. Despite being implicated in facilitating the diversification of modern ferns, the origin of neochrome has remained a mystery. We present evidence for neochrome in hornworts (a bryophyte lineage) and demonstrate that ferns acquired neochrome from hornworts via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Fern neochromes are nested within hornwort neochromes in our large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of phototropin and phytochrome gene families. Divergence date estimates further support the HGT hypothesis, with fern and hornwort neochromes diverging 179 Mya, long after the split between the two plant lineages (at least 400 Mya). By analyzing the draft genome of the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus, we also discovered a previously unidentified phototropin gene that likely represents the ancestral lineage of the neochrome phototropin module. Thus, a neochrome originating in hornworts was transferred horizontally to ferns, where it may have played a significant role in the diversification of modern ferns.
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Multidisciplinary diabetes care with and without bariatric surgery in overweight people: a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Bariatric surgery improves glycaemia in obese people with type 2 diabetes, but its effects are uncertain in overweight people with this disease. We aimed to identify whether laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery can improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes who were overweight but not obese.
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Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses.
Evolution
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers- species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this paper we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary rate of eight niche descriptors and two multivariate niche gradients. We find little to no evidence for phylogenetic signal in most component descriptors of the ionic gradient, but interspecific variation along the hummock-hollow gradient shows considerable phylogenetic signal. We find support for a change in the rate of niche evolution within the genus- the hummock-forming subgenus Acutifolia has evolved along the multivariate hummock-hollow gradient faster than the hollow-inhabiting subgenus Cuspidata. Because peat mosses themselves create some of the ecological gradients constituting their own habitats, the classic microtopography of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is maintained by evolutionary constraints and the biological properties of related Sphagnum species. The patterns of phylogenetic signal observed here will instruct future study on the role of functional traits in peatland growth and reconstruction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Trajectories of terminal decline in the well-being of older women: the DYNOPTA project.
Psychol Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Terminal decline in well-being is well established. However, the examination of covarying physical health and functioning on mortality-related well-being decline is limited. This study tested the effect of physical health changes on mortality-related well-being decline and examined the extent to which mortality-related trajectories of different well-being dimensions are similar. Participants comprised 1,862 decedent Australian females (aged M = 69.59 years; SD = 8.08 years at baseline) from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimize Ageing (DYNOPTA) Study who were observed on up to 4 occasions for up to 16 years (M = 6.04 years; SD = 2.14 years) prior to death, and who provided data on 2 well-being indices, vitality and mental health. Although between and within-person change in physical health fully accounted for mortality-related well-being decline, further analysis indicated that prior level of physical health reported only small effects on subsequent level of well-being and was wholly unrelated to well-being change. Conversely, only prior vitality reported significant effects on the level of, and change in, physical health. In conclusion, terminal decline in vitality and mental health appears to be an artifact of within-person physical health change and not prior level of physical health. Future areas of research should focus on identifying other significant predictors of physical health change which subsequently impact on well-being decline. There is also a need to discriminate between different indices of well-being as mortality-related changes and associations with physical function are not consistent.
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Diabetes: a 21st century challenge.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The number of people with diabetes worldwide has more than doubled during the past 20 years. One of the most worrying features of this rapid increase is the emergence of type 2 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults. Although the role of traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes (eg, genetic, lifestyle, and behavioural risk factors) has been given attention, recent research has focused on identifying the contributions of epigenetic mechanisms and the effect of the intrauterine environment. Epidemiological data predict an inexorable and unsustainable increase in global health expenditure attributable to diabetes, so disease prevention should be given high priority. An integrated approach is needed to prevent type 2 diabetes, taking into account its many origins and heterogeneity. Thus, research needs to be directed at improved understanding of the potential role of determinants such as the maternal environment and other early life factors, as well as changing trends in global demography, to help shape disease prevention programmes.
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The performance of diabetes risk prediction models in new populations: the role of ethnicity of the development cohort.
Acta Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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It is believed that diabetes risk scores need to be ethnic specific. However, this prerequisite has not been tested. We examined the performance of several risk models, developed in various populations, in a Europid and a South Asian population. The performance of 14 published risk prediction models were tested in two prospective studies: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study and the Mauritius non-communicable diseases survey. Eight models were developed in Europid populations; the remainder in various non-Europid populations. Model performance was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (discrimination), Hosmer-Lemeshow tests (goodness-of-fit) and Brier scores (accuracy). In both AusDiab and Mauritius, discrimination was highest for a model developed in a mixed population (non-Hispanic white and African American) and lowest for a model developed in a Europid population. Discrimination for all scores was higher in AusDiab than in Mauritius. For almost all models, goodness-of-fit was poor irrespective of the ethnicity of the development cohort, and accuracy was higher in AusDiab compared to Mauritius. Our results suggest that similarity of ethnicity or similarity of diabetes risk may not be the best way of identifying models that will perform well in another population. Differences in study methodology likely account for much of the difference in the performance. Thus, identifying models which use measurements that are clearly described and easily reproducible for both research and clinical settings may be more important.
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Associations of overall sitting time and TV viewing time with fibrinogen and C reactive protein: the AusDiab study.
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Sedentary behaviour is associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Plasma fibrinogen and C reactive protein (CRP)-key inflammatory and/or haemostatic markers-may contribute to this association; however, few studies have examined their relationships with sedentary behaviours. We examined associations of overall sitting and TV viewing time with fibrinogen and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP).
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Maf-dependent bacterial flagellin glycosylation occurs before chaperone binding and flagellar T3SS export.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Bacterial swimming is mediated by rotation of a filament that is assembled via polymerization of flagellin monomers after secretion via a dedicated flagellar Type III secretion system. Several bacteria decorate their flagellin with sialic acid related sugars that is essential for motility. Aeromonas caviae is a model organism for this process as it contains a genetically simple glycosylation system and decorates its flagellin with pseudaminic acid (Pse). The link between flagellin glycosylation and export has yet to be fully determined. We examined the role of glycosylation in the export and assembly process in a strain lacking Maf1, a protein involved in the transfer of Pse onto flagellin at the later stages of the glycosylation pathway. Immunoblotting, established that glycosylation is not required for flagellin export but is essential for filament assembly since non-glycosylated flagellin is still secreted. Maf1 interacts directly with its flagellin substrate in vivo, even in the absence of pseudaminic acid. Flagellin glycosylation in a flagellin chaperone mutant (flaJ) indicated that glycosylation occurs in the cytoplasm before chaperone binding and protein secretion. Preferential chaperone binding to glycosylated flagellin revealed its crucial role, indicating that this system has evolved to favour secretion of the polymerization competent glycosylated form.
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Testicular self-examination amongst genitourinary medicine clinic attendees.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer now give a five-year survival rate of 97.2%. Delayed presentation remains the primary cause of poor outcome and recommendations have stressed that men, particularly those with risk factors, should undertake regular testicular self-examination. This study aimed to determine testicular self-examination knowledge and practices amongst 740 unselected men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic via questionnaire survey. Of respondents, 75.8% of men had heard of testicular cancer, and 79.9% had heard of testicular self-examination. Of these, 41% of men had been taught testicular self-examination; 73.9% of them by a doctor or nurse. Importantly, 79.2% had previously performed testicular self-examination. The most common reason for not performing testicular self-examination was 'Don't really know what to look for' (59.5%). Men previously taught testicular self-examination were 11.5 times more likely to perform the practice than those untaught. Of respondents, 74.1% wanted more information regarding testicular self-examination whilst attending the clinic. This study shows an increased level of testicular self-examination amongst genitourinary medicine attendees than has been previously demonstrated in other patient groups. There remains room for improvement via further health promotion and research on the effectiveness of testicular self-examination.
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The validity of self-reported cancer in an Australian population study.
Aust N Z J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The aim of this study is to determine the validity of self-reported cancer data by comparing it to the Australian Cancer Database (ACD).
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Changes in the rates of weight and waist circumference gain in Australian adults over time: a longitudinal cohort study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To assess in a single cohort whether annual weight and waist circumference (WC) change has varied over time.
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Diabetes in the Western pacific region--past, present and future.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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In the 2013 issue of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas, the prevalence of diabetes in the Western Pacific (WP) Region was reported to be 8.6% in 2013, or 138 million adults, and estimated to rise to 11.1%, or 201 million adults, in 2035. The prevalence estimates of impaired glucose tolerance in 2013 and 2035 were 6.8% and 9.0%, respectively. Over 50% of people with diabetes were undiagnosed. In 2013, 187 million deaths were attributable to diabetes, 44% of which occurred in the under the age of 60. The WP Region is home to one quarter of the world's population, and includes China with the largest number of people with diabetes as well as Pacific Islands countries with the highest prevalence rates. There is a rapid increase in diabetes prevalence in the young-to-middle aged adults, possibly driven by high rates of childhood obesity and gestational diabetes as well as rapid demographic and sociocultural transitions. Differences in genetics, ethnicity, cultures and socioeconomic development have led to complex host-environment-lifestyle interactions with marked disease heterogeneity, further influenced by access to care and treatment. Despite these challenges, the WP Region has provided notable examples to prevent and control diabetes.
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Twelve-year weight change, waist circumference change and incident obesity: the Australian diabetes, obesity and lifestyle study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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This study aimed to describe the changes in weight and waist circumference (WC), examine the incidence of obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI) and WC, and describe the changes in the prevalence of obesity over 12 years.
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Pregnancy And Neonatal Diabetes Outcomes in Remote Australia (PANDORA) Study.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2013
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Diabetes in pregnancy carries an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and foetus, but it also provides an excellent early opportunity for intervention in the life course for both mother and baby. In the context of the escalating epidemic of chronic diseases among Indigenous Australians, it is vital that this risk is reduced as early as possible in the life course of the individual. The aims of the PANDORA Study are to: (i) accurately assess rates of diabetes in pregnancy in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia, where 38% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers; (ii) assess demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, socioeconomic and early life development factors that may contribute to key maternal and neonatal birth outcomes associated with diabetes in pregnancy; and (iii) monitor relevant post-partum clinical outcomes for both the mothers and their babies.
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Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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India currently has more than 60 million people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and this is predicted to increase by nearly two-thirds by 2030. While management of those with T2DM is important, preventing or delaying the onset of the disease, especially in those individuals at high risk of developing T2DM, is urgently needed, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes in Kerala, India.Methods/designA total of 60 polling booths are randomised to the intervention arm or control arm in rural Kerala, India. Data collection is conducted in two steps. Step 1 (Home screening): Participants aged 30--60 years are administered a screening questionnaire. Those having no history of T2DM and other chronic illnesses with an Indian Diabetes Risk Score value of >=60 are invited to attend a mobile clinic (Step 2). At the mobile clinic, participants complete questionnaires, undergo physical measurements, and provide blood samples for biochemical analysis. Participants identified with T2DM at Step 2 are excluded from further study participation. Participants in the control arm are provided with a health education booklet containing information on symptoms, complications, and risk factors of T2DM with the recommended levels for primary prevention. Participants in the intervention arm receive: (1) eleven peer led small group sessions to motivate, guide and support in planning, initiation and maintenance of lifestyle changes; (2) two diabetes prevention education sessions led by experts to raise awareness on T2DM risk factors, prevention and management; (3) a participant handbook containing information primarily on peer support and its role in assisting with lifestyle modification; (4) a participant workbook to guide self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours, goal setting and goal review; (5) the health education booklet that is given to the control arm. Follow-up assessments are conducted at 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome is incidence of T2DM. Secondary outcomes include behavioural, psychosocial, clinical, and biochemical measures. An economic evaluation is planned.
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Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and progression from impaired fasting glucose to diabetes.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Obesity and dysglycaemia are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes. We determined if obese people undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) had a reduced risk of progressing from impaired fasting glucose (IFG) to diabetes.
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Plasma lipid profiling in a large population-based cohort.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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We have performed plasma lipid profiling using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry on a population cohort of more than 1,000 individuals. From 10 ?l of plasma we were able to acquire comparative measures of 312 lipids across 23 lipid classes and subclasses including sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids, and cholesterol esters (CEs) in 20 min. Using linear and logistic regression, we identified statistically significant associations of lipid classes, subclasses, and individual lipid species with anthropometric and physiological measures. In addition to the expected associations of CEs and triacylglycerol with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), ceramide was significantly higher in males and was independently associated with age and BMI. Associations were also observed for sphingomyelin with age but this lipid subclass was lower in males. Lysophospholipids were associated with age and higher in males, but showed a strong negative association with BMI. Many of these lipids have previously been associated with chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and may mediate the interactions of age, sex, and obesity with disease risk.
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Mifepristone-misoprostol dosing interval and effect on induction abortion times: a systematic review.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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To examine the effect of the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol administration on induction time (first misoprostol dose to abortion), total procedure time (mifepristone administration to abortion), and safety and efficacy in second-trimester induction abortion (13-24 weeks).
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Associations of strength training with impaired glucose metabolism: the AusDiab Study.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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To examine the association of strength training (ST) activity with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in Australian adults.
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Joint associations of poor diet quality and prolonged television viewing time with abnormal glucose metabolism in Australian men and women.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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To examine the independent and joint associations of diet quality and television viewing time with abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) in men and women.
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Selection is no more efficient in haploid than in diploid life stages of an angiosperm and a moss.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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The masking hypothesis predicts that selection is more efficient in haploids than in diploids, because dominant alleles can mask the deleterious effects of recessive alleles in diploids. However, gene expression breadth and noise can potentially counteract the effect of masking on the rate at which genes evolve. Land plants are ideal to ask whether masking, expression breadth, or expression noise dominate in their influence on the rate of molecular evolution, because they have a biphasic life cycle in which the duration and complexity of the haploid and diploid phase varies among organisms. Here, we generate and compile genome-wide gene expression, sequence divergence, and polymorphism data for Arabidopsis thaliana and for the moss Funaria hygrometrica to show that the evolutionary rates of haploid- and diploid-specific genes contradict the masking hypothesis. Haploid-specific genes do not evolve more slowly than diploid-specific genes in either organism. Our data suggest that gene expression breadth influence the evolutionary rate of phase-specific genes more strongly than masking. Our observations have implications for the role of haploid life stages in the purging of deleterious mutations, as well as for the evolution of ploidy.
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Diabetes prevention and treatment strategies: are we doing enough?
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Effective interventions to prevent, delay, or remit diabetes are currently available. However, their impact on the prevalence of diabetes at the population level is unknown. This study aimed to estimate the impact of a range of diabetes interventions on the population prevalence of diabetes for Australian adults between 2010 and 2025.
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Long-term metabolic effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and intensive multiple daily insulin injections (iMDI) program are treatment options in patients with type 1 diabetes not achieving optimal glycemic control. The long-term effects of CSII in patients with type 1 diabetes in comparison with those educated for iMDI are poorly documented.
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To sling or not to sling at time of abdominal sacrocolpopexy: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We compare the cost-effectiveness of 3 strategies for the use of a mid urethral sling to prevent occult stress urinary incontinence in patients undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy.
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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and the 5-year incidence of CKD.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels have been associated with chronic kidney disease in cross-sectional studies. However, this association has not been studied prospectively in a large general population-based cohort.
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Diabetes in rural towns: effectiveness of continuing education and feedback for healthcare providers in altering diabetes outcomes at a population level: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases internationally. The health complications associated with type 2 diabetes can be prevented, delayed, or improved via early diagnosis and effective management. This research aims to examine the impact of a primarily web-based educational intervention on the diabetes care provided by general practitioners (GPs) in rural areas, and subsequent patient outcomes. A population-level approach to outcome assessment is used, via whole-town de-identified pathology records.
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Psychosocial stress predicts abnormal glucose metabolism: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The evidence supporting a relationship between stress and diabetes has been inconsistent.
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Psychosocial stress is positively associated with body mass index gain over 5 years: Evidence from the longitudinal AusDiab study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that psychosocial stress may influence weight gain. The relationship between stress and weight change and whether this was influenced by demographic and behavioral factors was explored. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 5,118 participants of AusDiab were prospectively followed from 2000 to 2005. The relationship between stress at baseline and BMI change was assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Among those who maintained/gained weight, individuals with high levels of perceived stress at baseline experienced a 0.20 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.07-0.33) greater mean change in BMI compared with those with low stress. Additionally, individuals who experienced 2 or ?3 stressful life events had a 0.13 kg/m(2) (0.00-0.26) and 0.26 kg/m(2) (0.14-0.38) greater increase in BMI compared with people with none. These relationships differed by age, smoking, and baseline BMI. Further, those with multiple sources of stressors were at the greatest risk of weight gain. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial stress, including both perceived stress and life events stress, was positively associated with weight gain but not weight loss. These associations varied by age, smoking, obesity, and multiple sources of stressors. Future treatment and interventions for overweight and obese people should consider the psychosocial factors that may influence weight gain.
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The cost of diabetes in adults in Australia.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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To assess and compare costs associated with diabetes and lesser degrees of glucose intolerance in Australia.
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Cardiometabolic risk indicators that distinguish adults with psychosis from the general population, by age and gender.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.
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Inclusion of plasma lipid species improves classification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A significant proportion of individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance have fasting plasma glucose less than 6.1 mmol/L and so are not identified with fasting plasma glucose measurements. In this study, we sought to evaluate the utility of plasma lipids to improve on fasting plasma glucose and other standard risk factors for the identification of type 2 diabetes or those at increased risk (impaired glucose tolerance).
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Plasma lipid profiling shows similar associations with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The relationship between lipid metabolism with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly defined. We hypothesized that a lipidomic analysis of plasma lipids might improve the understanding of this relationship. We performed lipidomic analysis measuring 259 individual lipid species, including sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids and cholesterol esters, on fasting plasma from 117 type 2 diabetes, 64 prediabetes and 170 normal glucose tolerant participants in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) then validated our findings on 1076 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS). Logistic regression analysis of identified associations with type 2 diabetes (135 lipids) and prediabetes (134 lipids), after adjusting for multiple covariates. In addition to the expected associations with diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and cholesterol esters, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes were positively associated with ceramide, and its precursor dihydroceramide, along with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. Significant negative associations were observed with the ether-linked phospholipids alkylphosphatidylcholine and alkenylphosphatidylcholine. Most of the significant associations in the AusDiab cohort (90%) were subsequently validated in the SAFHS cohort. The aberration of the plasma lipidome associated with type 2 diabetes is clearly present in prediabetes, prior to the onset of type 2 diabetes. Lipid classes and species associated with type 2 diabetes provide support for a number of existing paradigms of dyslipidemia and suggest new avenues of investigation.
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Current controversies in the use of haemoglobin A(1c).
J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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Haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c) ) has recently been adopted by the World Health Organisation into its recommended criteria for diabetes diagnosis. Much debate continues regarding the relative benefits and potential disadvantages surrounding the use of HbA(1c) for this purpose. There is a lack of consensus as to whether this alteration to the definition of diabetes is a step forward or whether it could add further confusion and ambiguity to the debate on the method and criteria for the diagnosis of this globally important disease. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current issues surrounding how HbA(1c) is measured and reported; and of the evidence for and against its use in diagnosis.
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High genetic diversity in a remote island population system: sans sex.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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It has been proposed that long-distance dispersal of mosses to the Hawaiian Islands rarely occurs and that the Hawaiian population of the allopolyploid peat moss Sphagnum palustre probably resulted from a single dispersal event. Here, we used microsatellites to investigate whether the Hawaiian population of the dioicous S. palustre had a single founder and to compare its genetic diversity to that found in populations of S. palustre in other regions. The genetic diversity of the Hawaiian population is comparable to that of larger population systems. Several lines of evidence, including a lack of sporophytes and an apparently restricted natural distribution, suggest that sexual reproduction is absent in the Hawaiian plants. In addition, all samples of Hawaiian S. palustre share a genetic trait rare in other populations. Time to most recent ancestor (TMRCA) analysis indicates that the Hawaiian population was probably founded 49-51 kyr ago. It appears that all Hawaiian plants of S. palustre descend from a single founder via vegetative propagation. The long-term viability of this clonal population coupled with the development of significant genetic diversity suggests that vegetative propagation in a moss does not necessarily preclude evolutionary success in the long term.
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Explaining the increase of diabetes prevalence and plasma glucose in Mauritius.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Secular trends in the epidemiology of diabetes are best described by studying the same population over time, but few such studies exist. Using surveys from Mauritius in 1987 and 2009, we examined 1) the change in the prevalence of diabetes, 2) the extent to which changes in traditional diabetes risk factors explained the increase, and 3) the change in the distribution of plasma glucose levels over time.
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Oceanic islands are not sinks of biodiversity in spore-producing plants.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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Islands have traditionally been considered as migratory and evolutionary dead ends for two main reasons: island colonizers are typically assumed to lose their dispersal power, and continental back colonization has been regarded as unlikely because of niche preemption. The hypothesis that islands might actually represent dynamic refugia and migratory stepping stones for species that are effective dispersers, and in particular, for spore-producing plants, is formally tested here, using the archipelagos of the Azores, Canary Islands, and Madeira, as a model. Population genetic analyses based on nuclear microsatellite variation indicate that dispersal ability of the moss Platyhypnidium riparioides does not decrease in the island setting. The analyses further show that, unlike island populations, mainland (southwestern Europe and North Africa) populations underwent a severe bottleneck during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Our results thus refute the traditional view of islands as the end of the colonization road and point to a different perception of North Atlantic archipelagos as major sources of biodiversity for the postglacial recolonization of Europe by spore-producing plants.
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IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Diabetes is an increasingly important condition globally and robust estimates of its prevalence are required for allocating resources.
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Isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease: an individual participant data meta-analysis of 23 studies in the Asia-Pacific region.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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Previous studies have suggested that there is a novel dyslipidemic profile consisting of isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level that is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, and that this trait may be especially prevalent in Asian populations.
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A phylogeny of the northern temperate leafy liverwort genus Scapania (Scapaniaceae, Jungermanniales).
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Scapania is a northern temperate genus with a few disjunctions in the south. Despite receiving considerable attention, the supraspecific classification of this genus remains unsatisfactorily solved. We use three molecular markers (nrITS, cpDNA trnL-F region, atpB-rbcL spacer) and 175 accessions belonging to 50 species (plus eight outgroup taxa) to estimate the phylogeny and to test current classification systems. Our data support the classification of Scapania into six rather than three subgenera, rearrangements within numerous sections, and inclusion of Macrodiplophyllum microdontum. Scapania species with a plicate perianth form three early diverging lineages; the most speciose subgenus, Scapania s.str., represents a derived clade. Most morphological species concepts are supported by the molecular topologies but classification of sect. Curtae requires further study. Southern lineages are nested in northern hemispheric clades. Palearctic-Nearctic distribution ranges are supported for several species.
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Long-term non-invasive ventilation in cystic fibrosis -- experience over two decades.
J. Cyst. Fibros.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is accepted as a bridge to lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis (CF) but there is little evidence to support its use outside this setting.
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Formalizing morphologically cryptic biological entities: new insights from DNA taxonomy, hybridization, and biogeography in the leafy liverwort Porella platyphylla (Jungermanniopsida, Porellales).
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Recognition and formalization of morphologically cryptic species is a major challenge to modern taxonomy. An extreme example in this regard is the Holarctic Porella platyphylla s.l. (P. platyphylla plus P. platyphylloidea). Earlier studies demonstrated the presence of three isozyme groups and two molecular lineages. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the molecular diversity of P. platyphylla s.l. and the distribution of its main clades, and to evaluate evidence for the presence of one vs. several species.
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Transcriptional hierarchy of Aeromonas hydrophila polar-flagellum genes.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Aeromonas hydrophila polar-flagellum class I gene transcription is ?70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that the A. hydrophila polar flagellum is constitutively expressed. In contrast to other bacteria with dual flagellar systems such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the A. hydrophila LafK protein does not compensate for the lack of the polar-flagellum regulator FlrA (V. parahaemolyticus FlaK homologue). This is consistent with the fact that the A. hydrophila FlrA mutation abolishes polar-flagellum formation in liquid and on solid surfaces but does not affect inducible lateral-flagellum formation. The results highlight that the polar- and lateral-flagellum interconnections and control networks are specific and that there are differences between the dual flagellar systems in A. hydrophila and V. parahaemolyticus. Furthermore, our results indicate that the A. hydrophila polar-flagellum transcriptional hierarchy (also in class II, III, and IV genes) shares some similarities with but has many important differences from the transcriptional hierarchies of Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The A. hydrophila flhF and flhG genes are essential for the assembly of a functional polar flagellum because in-frame mutants fail to swim in liquid medium and lack the polar flagellum. In Vibrio and Pseudomonas flhG disruption increases the number of polar flagella per cell, and Pseudomonas flhF disruption gives an aberrant placement of flagellum. Here, we propose the gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila polar flagellum.
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Future predictions of body mass index and overweight prevalence in Australia, 2005-2025.
Health Promot Int
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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To predict current and future body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children and adults based on sex, age and year of birth (cohort). These predictions are needed for population health planning and evaluation. Data were drawn from 11 cross-sectional national or state population surveys conducted in Australia between 1969 and 2004. These included representative population samples of children (n= 27,635) and adults (n= 43,447) aged 5 years or older with measured height and weight data. Multiple linear regression analyses of measured log-transformed BMI data were conducted to determine the independent effects of age and year of birth (cohort) on ln(BMI) for males and females, respectively. Regression coefficients for cohort obtained from these analyses were applied to the National Nutrition Survey 1995 data set to predict mean BMI and prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.99 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) in 2005, 2015 and 2025. Based on past trends, BMI is predicted to continue to increase for both males and females and across the age span. This would result in increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity of between 0.4 and 0.8% per year, such that by 2025 around one-third of 5-19 year olds will be overweight or obese as will 83% of males and 75% of females aged 20 years and over. The increases in prevalence and mean BMI predicted in this study will have significant impacts on disease burden, healthcare costs and need for prevention and treatment programmes.
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Evolution of sexual systems, dispersal strategies and habitat selection in the liverwort genus Radula.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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• Shifts in sexual systems are among the most common and important transitions in plants and are correlated with a suite of life-history traits. The evolution of sexual systems and their relationships to gametophyte size, sexual and asexual reproduction, and epiphytism are examined here in the liverwort genus Radula. • The sequence of trait acquisition and the phylogenetic correlations between those traits was investigated using comparative methods. • Shifts in sexual systems recurrently occurred from dioecy to monoecy within facultative epiphyte lineages. Production of specialized asexual gemmae was correlated to neither dioecy nor strict epiphytism. • The significant correlations among life-history traits related to sexual systems and habitat conditions suggest the existence of evolutionary trade-offs. Obligate epiphytes do not produce gemmae more frequently than facultative epiphytes and disperse by whole gametophyte fragments, presumably to avoid the sensitive protonemal stage in a habitat prone to rapid changes in moisture availability. As dispersal ranges correlate with diaspore size, this reinforces the notion that epiphytes experience strong dispersal limitations. Our results thus provide the evolutionary complement to metapopulation, metacommunity and experimental studies demonstrating trade-offs between dispersal distance, establishment ability, and life-history strategy, which may be central to the evolution of reproductive strategies in bryophytes.
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Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women.
Aust N Z J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs).
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High rates of albuminuria but not of low eGFR in urban indigenous Australians: the DRUID study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Indigenous Australians have an incidence of end stage kidney disease 8-10 times higher than non-Indigenous Australians. The majority of research studies concerning Indigenous Australians have been performed in rural or remote regions, whilst the majority of Indigenous Australians actually live in urban settings. We studied prevalence and factors associated with markers of kidney disease in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort, and compared results with those for the general Australian population.
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Associations between television viewing time and overall sitting time with the metabolic syndrome in older men and women: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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To examine associations between self-reported television (TV) viewing time and overall sitting time with the metabolic syndrome and its components.
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Objectively measured physical activity and the subsequent risk of incident dysglycemia: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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To investigate pedometer-measured physical activity (PA) in 2000 and change in PA over 5 years with subsequent risk of dysglycemia by 2005.
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Diabetic retinopathy is related to both endothelium-dependent and -independent responses of skin microvascular flow.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Endothelial dysfunction has been hypothesized as a possible pathogenic factor in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We examined the relationship of DR to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses in skin microvascular flow.
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Bryophyte diversity and evolution: windows into the early evolution of land plants.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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The "bryophytes" comprise three phyla of plants united by a similar haploid-dominant life cycle and unbranched sporophytes bearing one sporangium: the liverworts (Marchantiophyta), mosses (Bryophyta), and hornworts (Anthocerophyta). Combined, these groups include some 20000 species. As descendents of embryophytes that diverged before tracheophytes appeared, bryophytes offer unique windows into the early evolution of land plants. We review insights into the evolution of plant life cycles, in particular the elaboration of the sporophyte generation, the major lineages within bryophyte phyla, and reproductive processes that shape patterns of bryophyte evolution. Recent transcriptomic work suggests extensive overlap in gene expression in bryophyte sporophytes vs. gametophytes, but also novel patterns in the sporophyte, supporting Bowers antithetic hypothesis for origin of alternation of generations. Major lineages of liverworts, mosses, and hornworts have been resolved and general patterns of morphological evolution can now be inferred. The life cycles of bryophytes, arguably more similar to those of early embryophytes than are those in any other living plant group, provide unique insights into gametophyte mating patterns, sexual conflicts, and the efficacy and effects of spore dispersal during early land plant evolution.
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Type 2 diabetes strengthens the association between pulse pressure and chronic kidney disease: the AusDiab study.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious disorder with significant public health impact. Identification of factors associated with risk of progression of kidney disease may help in earlier intervention in high-risk groups. We investigated whether brachial pulse pressure (PP) was associated with 5-year changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and incident CKD and whether type 2 diabetes modified these associations.
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Diabetes prevalence and determinants in Indigenous Australian populations: A systematic review.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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To perform a systematic review of the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Indigenous Australians in order to clarify overall patterns, by determinants such as age, gender, region, ethnicity and remoteness.
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Frequent walking, but not total physical activity, is associated with increased fracture incidence: a 5-year follow-up of an Australian population-based prospective study (AusDiab).
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Current public health physical activity (PA) guidelines recommend that older adults accumulate ? 2.5 hours per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA to optimize health. The aim of this study was to examine (1) whether adults who meet the current PA guidelines are at reduced risk of fracture, (2) whether fracture risk varies by PA type/intensity and frequency, and (3) whether prolonged TV viewing, as a marker of sedentary behavior, is associated with fracture risk. This national, population-based prospective study with a 5-year follow-up included 2780 postmenopausal women and 2129 men aged 50 years or older. Incident nontraumatic clinical fractures were self-reported. Overall, 307 (6.3%) participants sustained at least one incident low-trauma fracture (women 9.3%, men 2.3%). Multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), physical function, previous fracture history, smoking, and dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, showed that women who walked more than 3 hours per week or completed at least 6 weekly bouts of walking had a 51% and 56% increased fracture risk, respectively, compared with women who did no walking [odds ratio (OR) time = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.24; OR frequency = 1.56, 95% CI 1.07-2.27]. However, total and moderate to vigorous PA time and the accumulation of 2.5 hours per week or more of PA and TV viewing time were not associated with incident fractures. In men, there also was an increased fracture risk for those who walked more than 3 hours per week (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.06-4.97) compared with those who reported no walking. In conclusion, older adults who adhered to the current PA guidelines were not protected against fragility fractures, but more frequent walking was associated with an increased fracture risk.
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Diagnosis of prediabetes.
Med. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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A rational approach to diagnosing prediabetes is essential to identify those who would benefit from entering diabetes prevention programs. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are similar in relation to their ability to identify those at risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease; however, because they identify different segments of the at-risk population, there is value in undertaking glucose tolerance testing to ensure that both conditions can be diagnosed. Simple noninvasive diabetes risk scores offer a valuable entry point in the diagnosis of prediabetes, enabling the identification of those who need blood testing.
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A multi-locus molecular phylogeny of the Lepidoziaceae: laying the foundations for a stable classification.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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The Lepidoziaceae, with over 700 species in 30 genera, is one of the largest leafy liverwort families. Despite receiving considerable attention, the composition of subfamilies and genera remains unsatisfactorily resolved. In this study, 10 loci (one nuclear 26S, two mitochondrial nad1 and rps3, and seven chloroplast atpB, psbA, psbT-psbH, rbcL, rps4, trnG and trnL-trnF) are used to estimate the phylogeny of 93 species of Lepidoziaceae. These molecular data provide strong evidence against the monophyly of three subfamilies; Lepidozioideae, Lembidioideae and Zoopsidoideae, and seven of the 20 sampled genera; Lepidozia, Telaranea, Kurzia, Zoopsis, Lembidium, Paracromastigum and Chloranthelia. Several robust clades are recognised that might provide the basis for a revised subfamily circumscription including a narrower circumscription of the Lepidozioideae and a more inclusive Lembidioideae. Neogrollea notabilis is returned to the Lepidoziaceae and Megalembidium insulanum is placed in the Lembidioideae.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.