JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends.
Related JoVE Video
Three-dimensional modeling of CPA to the multimillijoule level in tapered Yb-doped fibers for coherent combining systems.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We developed a three-dimensional numerical model of Large-Mode-Area chirped pulse fiber amplifiers which includes nonlinear beam propagation in nonuniform multimode waveguides as well as gain spectrum dynamics in quasi-three-level active ions. We used our model in tapered Yb-doped fiber amplifiers and showed that single-mode propagation is maintained along the taper even in the presence of strong Kerr nonlinearity and saturated gain, allowing extraction of up to 3 mJ of output energy in 1 ns pulse. Energy scaling and its limitation as well as the influence of fiber taper bending and core irregularities on the amplifier performance were studied. We also investigated numerically the capabilities for compression and coherent combining of up to 36 perturbed amplifying channels and showed more than 70% combining efficiency, even with up to 11% of high-order modes in individual channels.
Related JoVE Video
HIV and STI Prevalence and Injection Behaviors Among People Who Inject Drugs in Nairobi: Results from a 2011 Bio-behavioral Study Using Respondent-Driven Sampling.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a dearth of evidence on injection drug use and associated HIV infections in Kenya. To generate population-based estimates of characteristics and HIV/STI prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Nairobi, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 269 PWID using respondent-driven sampling. PWID were predominantly male (92.5 %). An estimated 67.3 % engaged in at least one risky injection practice in a typical month. HIV prevalence was 18.7 % (95 % CI 12.3-26.7), while STI prevalence was lower [syphilis: 1.7 % (95 % CI 0.2-6.0); gonorrhea: 1.5 % (95 % CI 0.1-4.9); and Chlamydia: 4.2 % (95 % CI 1.2-7.8)]. HIV infection was associated with being female (aOR, 3.5; p = 0.048), having first injected drugs 5 or more years ago (aOR, 4.3; p = 0.002), and ever having practiced receptive syringe sharing (aOR, 6.2; p = 0.001). Comprehensive harm reduction programs tailored toward PWID and their sex partners must be fully implemented as part of Kenya's national HIV prevention strategy.
Related JoVE Video
Body Fat Indices and Biomarkers of Inflammation: A Cross-Sectional Study with Implications for Obesity and Peri-implant Oral Health.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the relationships between three measures of body fat-body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat percent-and markers of inflammation around dental implants in stable periodontal maintenance patients.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of causative mutation in a korean family with crouzon syndrome using whole exome sequencing.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Craniosynostosis is a heterogeneous disorder that results in a common malformation which causes premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was recently developed as a powerful genetic strategy for identifying pathogenic mutations of heterogeneous disorders with various causative genes. A 24-year-old woman visited our department for evaluation of persistent hearing impairment and absence of an external auditory canal from birth. In this study, we performed WES to identify the causative mutation in a Korean family who has Crouzon Syndrome (CS). We first focused on 16 genes associated with craniosynostosis and sorted the heterozygous variations according to the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of her family. After the bioinformatic analysis for filtering and detecting variations, three non-synonymous variations in different genes were selected for additional analysis. Among these, the p.C278F mutation in the FGFR2 gene was only absent from both dbSNP and the 1000 Genomes database. We considered the p.C278F mutation in the FGFR2 gene as the causative mutation for the CS. This result suggests that the application of WES will be valuable for diagnosis of congenital disorders with clinical and genetics heterogeneities.
Related JoVE Video
Primary Histiocytic Sarcoma of the Central Nervous System.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Histiocytic sarcoma is a type of lymphoma that rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS). Its rarity can easily lead to a misdiagnosis. We describe a patient with primary CNS histocytic sarcoma involving the cerebral hemisphere and spinal cord, who had been initially misdiagnosed as demyelinating disease. Two biopsies were necessary before a correct diagnosis was made. A histologic examination showed bizarre shaped histiocytes with larger nuclei and nuclear atypia. The cells were positive for CD68, CD163, and S-100 protein. As a resection was not feasible due to multifocality, he was treated with highdose methotrexate, but showed no response. As a result, he was switched to high dose cytarabine; but again, showed no response. The patient died 2 months from the start of chemotherapy and 8 months from the onset of symptoms. Since few patients with this condition have been described and histopathology is difficult to diagnose, suspicion of the disease is essential.
Related JoVE Video
A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Biomarker Levels Around Implants Versus Natural Teeth in Periodontal Maintenance Patients.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Recent studies point to the clinical utility of using peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) as a valuable diagnostic aid for monitoring peri-implant tissue health. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of key biomarkers in PISF in periodontal maintenance participants and compare them to their corresponding levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) obtained from the same participants. Methods: PISF and GCF were collected from an implant and a contralateral natural tooth, after the clinical examination of 73 participants. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, C-reactive protein (CRP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), leptin, and adiponectin were determined using multiplex proteomic immunoassays. The correlation of biomarker concentrations between GCF versus PISF, within GCF or PISF, and with several covariates (age, brushing frequency, days since professional cleaning, probing depth and plaque index) were also determined. Results: Significantly higher levels of IL-17A (p=0.02) and TNF-? (p=0.03) were noted in PISF, when compared to their levels in GCF. Significant positive correlations were noted between the concentrations of cytokines in PISF versus their levels in GCF. Among the covariates, significant positive correlation was noted between mean probing depths around implants and levels of IL-1? (p<0.05) and IL-8 levels (p<0.05) in PISF. Conclusions: The results of this study point to the differential expression of specific biomarkers in GCF versus their levels in PISF in periodontal maintenance patients, which is critical information prior to establishing PISF as a diagnostic fluid to monitor peri-implant health.
Related JoVE Video
Development of computer-tailored education program for patients with total hip replacement.
Healthc Inform Res
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based computer-tailored education program to promote self-care for patients with total hip replacement.
Related JoVE Video
Tumor LINE-1 methylation level and microsatellite instability in relation to colorectal cancer prognosis.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypomethylation in long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) and high-degree microsatellite instability (MSI-high) in colorectal cancer (CRC) have been associated with inferior and superior survival, respectively; however, it remains uncertain whether the prognostic association of LINE-1 hypomethylation differs by MSI status. We hypothesized that the adverse prognostic association of LINE-1 hypomethylation might be stronger in MSI-high CRCs than in microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs.
Related JoVE Video
Anisi stellati fructus extract attenuates the in vitro and in vivo metastatic and angiogenic potential of malignant cancer cells by downregulating proteolytic activity and pro-angiogenic factors.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anisi stellati fructus (ASF), commonly known as star anise, has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation, nervousness, insomnia and pain. In recent studies, it has been demonstrated that ASF possesses anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidant activities, as well as exhibits inhibitory effects on capillary?like tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the effects of ASF extract on the metastatic potential of malignant tumor cells have not been examined. In this study, we found that daily oral administration of ASF (50 mg/kg) remarkably reduced the number of pulmonary metastatic colonies of B16F10 cells in C57BL/6J mice with no observed systemic toxicity. In an in vitro system, ASF inhibited metastatic properties, including anchorage?independent colony formation, migration and invasion. Upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -9, -13, -14 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) decreased in a dose-dependent manner with ASF treatment. Gelatinase, type I collagenase, and uPA activities were also suppressed efficiently by ASF treatment. In response to PMA, NF-?B and AP-1 activation as well as p38 phosphorylation, which are crucial for MMP activation, were significantly decreased by ASF. In particular, ASF considerably inhibited tumor-induced HUVEC migration and tube formation and suppressed in vivo tumor-induced angiogenesis via a reduction of pro-angiogenic factors in tumors. These results collectively indicate that ASF might be useful in the management of metastatic malignant tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of human complement factor B as a novel biomarker candidate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic cancer (PC; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 has been known as a PC biomarker, it is not commonly used for general screening because of its low sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a new biomarker for PC diagnosis in the earlier stage of cancer. To search for a novel serologic PC biomarker, we carried out an integrated proteomic analysis for a total of 185 pooled or individual plasma from healthy donors and patients with five disease groups including chronic pancreatitis (CP), PC, and other cancers (e.g., hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and gastric cancer) and identified complement factor b (CFB) as a candidate serologic biomarker for PC diagnosis. Immunoblot analysis of CFB revealed more than two times higher expression in plasma samples from PC patients compared with plasma from individuals without PC. Immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry analysis confirmed both molecular identity and higher expression of CFB in PC samples. CFB showed distinctly higher specificity than CA 19-9 for PC against other types of digestive cancers and in discriminating PC patients from non-PC patients (p < 0.0001). In receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, CFB showed an area under curve of 0.958 (95% CI: 0.956 to 0.959) compared with 0.833 (95% CI: 0.829 to 0.837) for CA 19-9. Furthermore, the Y-index of CFB was much higher than that of CA 19-9 (71.0 vs 50.4), suggesting that CFB outperforms CA 19-9 in discriminating PC from CP and other gastrointestinal cancers. This was further supported by immunoprecipitation and qRT-PCR assays showing higher expression of CFB in PC cell lines than in normal cell lines. A combination of CFB and CA 19-9 showed markedly improved sensitivity (90.1 vs 73.1%) over that of CFB alone in the diagnosis of PC against non-PC, with similar specificity (97.2 vs 97.9%). Thus, our results identify CFB as a novel serologic PC biomarker candidate and warrant further investigation into a large-scale validation and its role in molecular mechanism of pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects Associated with Down Syndrome in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Congenital heart defect (CHD) is common in infants with Down syndrome (DS), which is the principle cause of mortality. However, there is no data available for the frequency and types of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. We investigated the frequency of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was conducted throughout the country, the prevalence of CHD in DS in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was conducted based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of total births in Korea was 888,263 in 2005-2006; of them, 25,975 cases of birth defects were identified. The prevalence of DS was 4.4 per 10,000 total births, accounting for 1.5% of all birth defects. Of the 394 infants with DS, 224 (56.9%) had a CHD. Atrial septal defect was the most common defect accounting for 30.5% of DS followed by ventricular septal defect (19.3%), patent duct arteriosus (17.5%), and atrioventricular septal defect (9.4%). Our study will be helpful to demonstrate the current status of DS and to identify the distribution of CHD in infants with DS in Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction of metastatic and angiogenic potency of malignant cancer by Eupatorium fortunei via suppression of MMP-9 activity and VEGF production.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eupatorium fortunei has long been used to treat nausea and poor appetite, and has been prescribed as a diuretic and detoxifying drug in Chinese medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that E. fortunei possesses anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic activities, as well as cytotoxicity to human leukemia cells. However, at non-toxic concentrations, the effects of an aqueous extract of E. fortunei (WEF) on the metastatic and angiogenic potential of malignant tumor cells have not been reported. In this study, we found that WEF suppressed the metastatic properties, including anchorage-independent colony formation, migration, and invasion, by downregulating the proteolytic activity of MMP-9. NF-?B activation and the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK were reduced significantly by WEF. Additionally, WEF inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis markedly, affecting HUVEC migration, tube formation by HUVECs, and microvessel sprouting from rat aortic rings via a reduction in VEGF in tumors. In a pulmonary metastasis model, daily administration of WEF at 50?mg/kg markedly decreased metastatic colonies of intravenously injected B16F10 cells on the lung surface in C57BL/6J mice. Further, none of the WEF-administered mice exhibited systemic toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that WEF is a potential therapeutic herbal product that may be useful for controlling malignant metastatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Nanometrology and Its Perspectives in Environmental Research.
Environ Health Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives: Rapid increasing engineered nanoparticles in many goods has raised a significant concern about their environmental safety. The proper methodologies are, therefore, needed to conduct the toxicity and exposure assessment of nanoparticles in environment. The study reviewed several analytical techniques for nanoparticles and summarized the principles, advantages and disadvantages, and the state of the art, and the perspectives of nanometrology to ENP studies Methods: Nanometrology is divided into five techniques with regard to the instrumental principle; microscopy, light scattering, spectroscopy, separation, and single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Discussion: Each analytical method has its own drawbacks such as detection limit, ability to quantify or qualify ENPs, and matrix effects. More than two different analytical methods should be used to better characterize ENPs. Characterizing ENPs, the researchers should understand the nanometrology and its demerits as well as merits to properly interpret their experimental results. Challenges lay on the nanometrology, pretreatment of ENPs from various matrix; extracting without dissolution or aggregation and concentrating ENPs to satisfy the instrumental detection limit.
Related JoVE Video
Liposomal bladder instillations for IC/BPS: an open-label clinical evaluation.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intravesical instillation of liposomes is a potentially new therapeutic option for subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). The aim of this study was to explore the safety and clinical outcomes of 4 weekly instillations of sphingomyelin liposomes in an open-label cohort of subjects with IC/BPS.
Related JoVE Video
SMO Expression in Colorectal Cancer: Associations with Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Smoothened, frizzled family receptor (SMO) is an important component of the hedgehog signaling pathway, which has been implicated in various human carcinomas. However, clinical, molecular, and prognostic associations of SMO expression in colorectal cancer remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Predicted 25(OH)D score and colorectal cancer risk according to vitamin D receptor expression.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite accumulating evidence for the preventive effect of vitamin D on colorectal carcinogenesis, its precise mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that vitamin D was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer with high-level vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, but not with risk of tumor with low-level VDR expression.
Related JoVE Video
Draft Genome Sequence of Endocarpon pusillum Strain KoLRILF000583.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lichen Endocarpon pusillum is a highly desiccation-tolerant and dominant species in biological soil crusts in arid and semi-arid regions. We report the draft genome sequence of a lichen-forming fungus, E. pusillum strain KoLRILF000583. The draft genome assembly has a size of 37,173,200 bp with a GC content of 49.71%, consisting of 40 scaffolds.
Related JoVE Video
Draft Genome Sequence of Umbilicaria muehlenbergii KoLRILF000956, a Lichen-Forming Fungus Amenable to Genetic Manipulation.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Umbilicaria muehlenbergii strain KoLRILF000956 is amenable to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), making it the only known genetically tractable lichen-forming fungus to date. We report another advancement in lichen genetics, a draft genome assembly for U. muehlenbergii with a size of 34,812,353 bp and a GC content of 47.12%, consisting of seven scaffolds.
Related JoVE Video
Guibitang, a traditional herbal medicine, induces apoptotic death in A431 cells by regulating the activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guibi-tang (GBT), a traditional herbal formula, mainly has been shown to possess immune regulation, antioxidant and protective effect of the gastric mucosa. Constituent herbs of GBT are frequently used to treat various diseases; however, their pharmacological effects, especially on cancer cells, differ from those of GBT. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms behind effects of GBT remain unclear. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic efficacy of GBT against human squamous cell carcinoma without cytotoxicity in normal cells and proved the efficacy of GBT through performing in vivo xenograft assay.
Related JoVE Video
Risk Factors for Falls in Older Korean Adults: The 2011 Community Health Survey.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Falls are a major health problem for elderly populations worldwide. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey to identify potential risk factors for falls in a representative population-based sample of community-dwelling older Korean adults. Risk factors for falls were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. The prevalence of falls was 36.5% in males and 63.5% in females. Age and female sex were associated with a higher risk of falls. Similarly, living alone, living in an urban area, poor self-rated health, and high stress were associated with a high risk of falls. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, stroke, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, cataracts, or depression had a high risk of falls. However, subjects with hypertension were at low risk for falls. In conclusion, age, female sex, marital status, residence location, self-rated health, stress, and several chronic conditions were significantly associated with the risk for falls in the older Korean adults. Our findings suggest that these risk factors should be addressed in public health policies for preventing falls.
Related JoVE Video
Engagement in HIV care among Kenyan adults and adolescents: results from a national population-based survey.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing access to care and treatment for HIV-infected persons is a goal in Kenya's response to the HIV epidemic. Using data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012), we describe coverage of services received among adults and adolescents who were enrolled in HIV care.
Related JoVE Video
Orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based survey.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Kenya, it is estimated that there are approximately 3.6 million children aged <18 years who have been orphaned or who are vulnerable. We examined the data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to determine the number and profile of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Kenya who were aged <18 years.
Related JoVE Video
Burden of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Kenya, mathematical models estimate that there are approximately 220,000 children aged less than 15 years infected with HIV. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years.
Related JoVE Video
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kenya has an estimated 13,000 new infant HIV infections that occur annually. We measured the burden of HIV infection among women of childbearing age and assessed access to and coverage of key prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Populations at increased risk for HIV infection in Kenya: results from a national population-based household survey, 2012.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Populations with higher risks for HIV exposure contribute to the HIV epidemic in Kenya. We present data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the size and HIV prevalence of populations with high-risk characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
Status of voluntary medical male circumcision in Kenya: findings from 2 nationally representative surveys in Kenya, 2007 and 2012.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Kenyan Ministry of Health initiated a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program in 2008. We used data from 2 nationally representative surveys to estimate trends in the number, demographic characteristics, and sexual behaviors of recently circumcised and uncircumcised HIV-uninfected men in Kenya.
Related JoVE Video
The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: rationale, methods, description of participants, and response rates.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cross-sectional population-based surveys are essential surveillance tools for tracking changes in HIV epidemics. In 2007, Kenya implemented the first AIDS Indicator Survey [Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007)], a nationally representative, population-based survey that collected demographic and behavioral data and blood specimens from individuals aged 15-64 years. Kenya's second AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was conducted to monitor changes in the epidemic, evaluate HIV prevention, care, and treatment initiatives, and plan for an efficient and effective response to the HIV epidemic.
Related JoVE Video
The status of HIV testing and counseling in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based survey.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is essential for successful HIV prevention and treatment programs. The national target for HTC is 80% of the adult population in Kenya. Population-based data to measure progress towards this HTC target are needed to assess the country's changing needs for HIV prevention and treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012-2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, sociodemographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice.
Related JoVE Video
Using information and communications technology in a national population-based survey: the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With improvements in technology, electronic data capture (EDC) for large surveys is feasible. EDC offers benefits over traditional paper-based data collection, including more accurate data, greater completeness of data, and decreased data cleaning burden.
Related JoVE Video
Antiretroviral treatment scale-up among persons living with HIV in Kenya: results from a nationally representative survey.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2007, 29% of HIV-infected Kenyans in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART), based on an immunologic criterion of CD4 ?350 cells per microliter, were receiving ART. Since then, substantial treatment scale-up has occurred in the country. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to assess progress of treatment scale-up in Kenya.
Related JoVE Video
Tuberculosis and HIV at the national level in Kenya: results from the Second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Co-morbidity with tuberculosis and HIV is a common cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. In the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey, we collected data on knowledge and experience of HIV and tuberculosis, as well as on access to and coverage of relevant treatment services and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya.
Related JoVE Video
The lichen genus sticta in South Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sticta (Schreber.) Ach. is one of the common lichen genera in tropical and subtropical regions, but not in the Korean Peninsula. For almost two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been done on this genus. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified on the basis of recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eight species of Sticta, including a newly recorded one are documented. These species include Sticta fuliginosa (Dicks.) Ach., Sticta gracilis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Sticta limbata (Sm.) Ach., Sticta nylanderiana Zahlbr., Sticta sublimbata (J. Steiner) Swinscow & Krog, Sticta weigelii (Ach.) Vain., Sticta wrightii Tuck., and Sticta yatabeana Müll. Arg. Detailed descriptions of S. nylanderiana, S. sublimbata, S. weigelii, and S. yatabeana with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key description of all known Sticta species of the Korean Peninsula is also presented.
Related JoVE Video
Exploring Factors Associated With Sexual Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.
Res Gerontol Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sexuality is an important, yet often overlooked, aspect of successful aging. The current article explores potential relationships between sexual activity in older adults and marital status, health, mobility, urinary incontinence, and caffeine and alcohol use, as well as sexual desire and erectile function in women and men, respectively. A survey was mailed to community-dwelling older adults 60 and older. Of 242 respondents (79% ages 60 to 74, 53% male), 159 (65.7%) were sexually active. A higher proportion of sexually active adults were married (p = 0.0005), had better health (p = 0.0003), and drank alcohol (p = 0.007). A lower proportion of sexually active adults had urinary incontinence (p = 0.006). Similar proportions of men and women were sexually active (62.8% and 68.2%, respectively; p = 0.38). Sexually active women had better sexual desire scores (p < 0.0001) and more drank alcohol (p = 0.0013). Sexually active men had better mobility (p = 0.012) and erectile function (p < 0.0001). Fewer sexually active men had incontinence (p < 0.0001). Only alcohol use and no urinary incontinence were predictors unique to women and men, respectively. Health care providers must be aware of factors that may impact sexual health in older adults. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 20xx; x(x):xx-xx.].
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic Significance and Molecular Features of Signet-Ring Cell and Mucinous Components in Colorectal Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) represents a group of histopathologically and molecularly heterogeneous diseases, which may contain signet-ring cell component and/or mucinous component to a varying extent under pathology assessment. However, little is known about the prognostic significance of those components, independent of various tumor molecular features.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic syndrome and its related factors among Asian immigrant women in Korea.
Nurs Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we examined the prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome among Asian immigrant women in Korea based on sociodemographics and health behavior-related characteristics. The sample included 271 women from the Philippines, China, Vietnam, and other Asian countries through marriage. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and health examination. Among 67 immigrants who had complete data for determination of metabolic syndrome, 1.5% reported having metabolic syndrome, and 44.4% of the entire sample had reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is four times higher than their Korean-born counterparts. After controlling for age, there were significant differences in body mass index, depending on the country of origin, and weight change since immigration. Immigrants who had gained weight since immigration also had higher systolic blood pressure and triglycerides. As well as weight change, immigrants who always consumed high-fat diets were at risk of higher triglycerides. Immigrants living in urban areas had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In order to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome, interventions should be directed toward the prevention of weight gain and lower fat intake after immigrating to Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Performance and comparison of self-reported STI symptoms among high-risk populations - MSM, sex workers, persons living with HIV/AIDS - in El Salvador.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Summary Resource-limited countries have limited laboratory capability and rely on syndromic management to diagnose sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of STI syndromic management when used as a screening method within a study setting. Men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participated in a behavioural surveillance study. Data were obtained on demographics, sexual behaviours, STI history and service utilisation. Biological specimens were tested for genital inflammatory infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC], Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Mycoplasma genitalium [MG], Trichomonas vaginalis [TV]) and genital ulcerative infection (syphilis and Herpes simplex virus-2). There was a high prevalence of Herpes simplex virus-2 (MSM 48.1%, FSW 82.0% and PLWHA 84.4%). Most participants reported no ulcerative symptoms and the majority of men reported no inflammatory symptoms. Sensitivity and PPV were poor for inflammatory infections among PLWHA and MSM. Sensitivity in FSWs for inflammatory infections was 75%. For ulcerative infections, sensitivity was poor, but specificity and PPV were high. Reliance on self-reported symptoms may not be an effective screening strategy for these populations. STI prevention studies should focus on symptom recognition and consider routine screening and referral for high-risk populations.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity tests with S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Beauveria bassiana is a fungi that is well-known for demonstrating a resistance to environmental change. To confirm whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester (DHFAME) produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831 causes phototoxicity when used for cosmetic purposes due to its anti-tyrosinase activity, we conducted in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity tests. There were no significant changes or damage observed in the compound-treated group with regards to skin phototoxicity, while 8-methoxypsoralen, which served as a positive control, induced toxic effects. The in vitro 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, an alternative assessment, was used for further confirmation of the phototoxicity. The results showed that DHFAME did not exhibit phototoxicity at the designated concentrations, with or without UV irradiation in the 3T3 cells. These results indicated that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831 does not induce phototoxicity in the skin. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that DHFAME shows potential for use as a cosmetic ingredient that does not cause skin phototoxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Integrating coalescent and phylogenetic approaches to delimit species in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The accurate assessment of species boundaries in symbiotic systems is a prerequisite for the study of speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Many studies have shown the high genetic diversity of green algae from the genus Trebouxia, the most common photobiont of lichen-forming fungi. However, the phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of cryptic diversity of these algae are still poorly understood, and an adequate species concept for trebouxiophycean algae is still missing. In this study we used a multifaceted approach based on coalescence (GMYC, STEM) and phylogenetic relationships to assess species boundaries in the trebouxioid photobionts of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata. We further investigated whether putative species of Trebouxia found in L. pustulata are shared with other lichen-forming fungi. We found that L. pustulata is associated with at least five species of Trebouxia and most of them are shared with other lichen-forming fungi, showing different patterns of species-to-species and species-to-community interactions. We also show that one of the putative Trebouxia species is found exclusively in association with L. pustulata and is restricted to thalli from localities with Mediterranean microclimate. We suggest that the species delimitation method presented in this study is a promising tool to address species boundaries within the heterogeneous genus Trebouxia.
Related JoVE Video
Draft Genome Sequence of Lichen-Forming Fungus Cladonia metacorallifera Strain KoLRI002260.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera strain KoLRI002260 is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites, including usnic, didymic, and squamatic acids, which have antitumor, antioxidant, and antibiotic activities. The draft genome assembly has a size of 36,682,060 bp, with a G+C content of 44.91%, and consists of 30 scaffolds.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a novel nonsynonymous mutation of EYA1 disrupting splice site in a Korean patient with BOR syndrome.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The EYA1 gene is known as the causative gene of BOR (Branchio-oto-renal) syndrome which is a genetic disorder associated with branchial cleft cysts of fistulae, hearing loss, ear malformation, and renal anomalies. Although approximately 40% of patients with BOR syndrome have mutations in the EYA1 gene and over 130 disease-causing mutations in EYA1 have been reported in various populations, only a few mutations have been reported in Korean families. In this study, genetic analysis of the EYA1 gene was performed in a Korean patient diagnosed with BOR syndrome and his parents. A de novo novel missense mutation, c.418G>A, located at the end of exon 6, changed glycine to serine at amino acid position 140 (p.G140S) and was suspected to affect normal splicing. Our in vitro splicing assay demonstrated that this mutation causes exon 6 skipping leading to frameshift and truncation of the protein to result in the loss of eyaHR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing that a missense mutation in the exon disturbs normal splicing as a result of a substitution of the last nucleotide of an exon in EYA1.
Related JoVE Video
Pleomorphic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas: degenerative change rather than high-grade malignant potential.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) are rare tumors of the pancreas characterized by poorly cohesive uniform cells with solid and pseudopapillary growth patterns. Nuclear pleomorphism is not a well-recognized feature of SPNs and may complicate differentiation from other pancreatic neoplasms. We compared histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical features of 18 pleomorphic SPNs with 121 conventional SPNs. The prevalence of pleomorphic SPN was 12.9% (18/139). Pleomorphic SPNs arose in older patients (median, 45 years versus 32 years; P < .001), but no differences were found in sex, tumor location, recurrence, and metastasis when compared with conventional SPNs. Except for pleomorphic nuclei, other cytologic and histologic features of pleomorphic SPNs, such as growth pattern, tumor size, infiltrative pattern, tumor extension, mitosis, and Ki-67 labeling index, were not different from those of conventional SPNs. Pleomorphic SPNs showed a significantly higher p53 protein expression (64.7% [11/17 cases]) than that of conventional SPNs (1.8% [2/112 cases], P < .001). However, immunoreactivity for ?-catenin and E-cadherin was not different between pleomorphic and conventional SPNs. A TP53 gene mutation was observed in 2 of 3 p53-immunoreactive pleomorphic SPNs. In summary, nuclear pleomorphism occurs in a subset of SPNs. They are more often p53 immunoreactive than SPNs without pleomorphism, and some harbor TP53 gene mutations. However, pleomorphic SPNs do not appear to be more aggressive than conventional SPNs. Low mitotic rate and Ki-67 labeling index may suggest nuclear pleomorphisms as degenerative changes. Recognition of typical poorly cohesive tumor cells and immunohistochemical features could establish the correct diagnosis of SPNs.
Related JoVE Video
Napsin A is a useful marker for metastatic adenocarcinomas of pulmonary origin.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To address whether napsin A is useful for identifying metastatic adenocarcinomas of pulmonary origin.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and incidence of HIV infection, trends, and risk factors among persons aged 15-64 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enhanced HIV surveillance using demographic, behavioral, and biologic data from national surveys can provide information to evaluate and respond to HIV epidemics efficiently.
Related JoVE Video
Human ?-defensin HBD3 binds to immobilized Bla g2 from the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human ?-defensin 3 (HBD3) is a small, well-characterized peptide in mucosal secretions with broad antimicrobial activities and diverse innate immune functions. Among these functions is the ability of HBD3 to bind to antigens. In this study, we hypothesize that HBD3 binds to the allergen Bla g2 from the German cockroach (Blattella germanica). The ability of HBD1 (used as a control ?-defensin) and HBD3 to bind to Bla g2 and human serum albumin (HSA, used as a control ligand) was assessed using the SensíQ Pioneer surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy biosensor system. HBD1 was observed to bind weakly to Bla g2, while HBD3 demonstrated a stronger affinity for the allergen. HBD3 was assessed under two buffer conditions using 0.15 M and 0.3 M NaCl to control the electrostatic attraction of the peptide to the chip surface. The apparent K(D) of HBD3 binding Bla g2 was 5.9±2.1 ?M and for binding HSA was 4.2±0.7 ?M, respectively. Thus, HBD3, found in mucosal secretions has the ability to bind to allergens like Bla g2 possibly by electrostatic interaction, and may alter the ability of Bla g2 to induce localized allergic and/or inflammatory mucosal responses.
Related JoVE Video
Banding of NMR-derived methyl order parameters: implications for protein dynamics.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our understanding of protein folding, stability, and function has begun to more explicitly incorporate dynamical aspects. Nuclear magnetic resonance has emerged as a powerful experimental method for obtaining comprehensive site-resolved insight into protein motion. It has been observed that methyl-group motion tends to cluster into three "classes" when expressed in terms of the popular Lipari-Szabo model-free squared generalized order parameter. Here the origins of the three classes or bands in the distribution of order parameters are examined. As a first step, a Bayesian based approach, which makes no a priori assumption about the existence or number of bands, is developed to detect the banding of Oaxis2 values derived either from NMR experiments or molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis is applied to seven proteins with extensive molecular dynamics simulations of these proteins in explicit water to examine the relationship between O2 and fine details of the motion of methyl bearing side chains. All of the proteins studied display banding, with some subtle differences. We propose a very simple yet plausible physical mechanism for banding. Finally, our Bayesian method is used to analyze the measured distributions of methyl group motions in the catabolite activating protein and several of its mutants in various liganded states and discuss the functional implications of the observed banding to protein dynamics and function.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of pro-inflammatory cytokines and bone metabolism mediators around titanium and zirconia dental implant abutments following a minimum of 6 months of clinical function.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dental implant abutments are fundamental prosthetic components within dentistry that require optimal biocompatibility. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to preliminarily assess differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine and bone metabolism mediator protein expression in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) adjacent to transmucosal abutments.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-melanogenic activity of the novel herbal medicine, MA128, through inhibition of tyrosinase activity mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase signaling pathway in B16F10 cells.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, our research group developed MA128, a novel herbal medicine, and demonstrated that MA128 is effective for the treatment of asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD). In particular, postinflammatory hyper-pigmentation in AD mice was improved with MA128 treatment. Thus, in this study, we determined the effect of MA128 on melanogenesis and its underlying mechanism in murine B16F10 melanoma cells.
Related JoVE Video
Medical injection use among adults and adolescents aged 15 to 64 years in Kenya: results from a national survey.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Unsafe medical injections remain a potential route of HIV transmission in Kenya. We used data from a national survey in Kenya to study the magnitude of medical injection use, medication preference, and disposal of medical waste in the community.
Related JoVE Video
Contraceptive practices and fertility desires among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a critical element in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection, but its potential has not been fully realized. We assessed the utilization of family planning (FP) and fertility desires among women of reproductive age by HIV status.
Related JoVE Video
Histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and alters HagB-induced chemokine responses.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Histatins are human salivary gland peptides with anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we hypothesized that histatin 5 binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB) and attenuates HagB-induced chemokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells. Histatin 5 bound to immobilized HagB in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy-based biosensor system. SPR spectroscopy kinetic and equilibrium analyses, protein microarray studies, and I-TASSER structural modeling studies all demonstrated two histatin 5 binding sites on HagB. One site had a stronger affinity with a KD1 of 1.9 ?M and one site had a weaker affinity with a KD2 of 60.0 ?M. Binding has biological implications and predictive modeling studies and exposure of dendritic cells both demonstrated that 20.0 ?M histatin 5 attenuated (p < 0.05) 0.02 ?M HagB-induced CCL3/MIP-1?, CCL4/MIP-1?, and TNF? responses. Thus histatin 5 is capable of attenuating chemokine responses, which may help control oral inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical utility of cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay and blood cytomegalovirus DNA PCR for cytomegaloviral colitis patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical usefulness of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay and blood CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) needs to be evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Inflammasome-independent IL-1? mediates autoinflammatory disease in Pstpip2-deficient mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a human autoinflammatory disorder that primarily affects bone. Missense mutation (L98P) of proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 2 (Pstpip2) in mice leads to a disease that is phenotypically similar to CRMO called chronic multifocal osteomyelitis (cmo). Here we show that deficiency of IL-1RI in cmo mice resulted in a significant reduction in the time to onset of disease as well as the degree of bone pathology. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?, but not IL-1?, played a critical role in the pathology observed in cmo mice. In contrast, disease in cmo mice was found to be independent of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as well as caspase-1. Neutrophils, but not bone marrow-derived macrophages, from cmo mice secreted increased IL-1? in response to ATP, silica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with neutrophils from WT mice. This aberrant neutrophil response was sensitive to inhibition by serine protease inhibitors. These results demonstrate an inflammasome-independent role for IL-1? in disease progression of cmo and implicate neutrophils and neutrophil serine proteases in disease pathogenesis. These data provide a rationale for directly targeting IL-1RI or IL-1? as a therapeutic strategy in CRMO.
Related JoVE Video
TCR Triggering by pMHC Ligands Tethered on Surfaces via Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Depends on Polymer Length.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antigen recognition by T cells relies on the interaction between T cell receptor (TCR) and peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) at the interface between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell (APC). The pMHC-TCR interaction is two-dimensional (2D), in that both the ligand and receptor are membrane-anchored and their movement is limited to 2D diffusion. The 2D nature of the interaction is critical for the ability of pMHC ligands to trigger TCR. The exact properties of the 2D pMHC-TCR interaction that enable TCR triggering, however, are not fully understood. Here, we altered the 2D pMHC-TCR interaction by tethering pMHC ligands to a rigid plastic surface with flexible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers of different lengths, thereby gradually increasing the ligands' range of motion in the third dimension. We found that pMHC ligands tethered by PEG linkers with long contour length were capable of activating T cells. Shorter PEG linkers, however, triggered TCR more efficiently. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that shorter PEGs exhibit faster TCR binding on-rates and off-rates. Our findings indicate that TCR signaling can be triggered by surface-tethered pMHC ligands within a defined 3D range of motion, and that fast binding rates lead to higher TCR triggering efficiency. These observations are consistent with a model of TCR triggering that incorporates the dynamic interaction between T cell and antigen-presenting cell.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of predictive markers for placental inflammatory response in preterm births.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Placental inflammatory response (PIR) is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes such as sepsis, cerebral palsy, low birth weight, preterm birth, and neonatal mortality. However, there is an urgent need for noninvasive and sensitive biomarkers for prediction of PIR. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of maternal serum inflammatory markers for prediction of PIR in women with impending preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 483 patients who delivered preterm neonates. Serum levels of leukocyte differential counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were compared between women with no placental inflammation and women with PIR. The mean neutrophil counts, CRP levels, and NLR in both the patients with histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) alone and those with HCA with funisitis were significantly higher than those in women with no placental inflammation. Compared to leukocyte subset or CRP, NLR in women with funisitis was significantly higher than in women with HCA alone and showed higher predictive accuracy, along with 71.4% sensitivity, 77.9% specificity, 80.7% positive predictive value, and 67.8% negative predictive value for prediction of PIR. On Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, women with both an elevated level of CRP and a high NLR had a shorter admission-to-delivery interval compared to women with either an elevated level of CRP or a high NLR alone. NLR may be a predictive marker of PIR and could be used as a cost-effective parameter for identifying women at risk of PIR.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of trends in tuberculosis incidence among adults living with HIV and adults without HIV--Kenya, 1998-2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Kenya, the comparative incidences of tuberculosis among persons with and without HIV have not been described, and the differential impact of public health interventions on tuberculosis incidence in the two groups is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
A novel herbal medicine, KIOM-C, induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death mediated by activation of JNK and reactive oxygen species in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
KIOM-C was recently demonstrated to have anti-metastatic activity in highly malignant cancer cells via suppression of NF-?B-mediated MMP-9 activity. In addition, it was reported to be effective for clearance of the influenza virus by increasing production of anti-viral cytokines, such as TNF-? and IFN-?, and efficacious in the treatment of pigs suffering from porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). In this study, we investigated whether KIOM-C induces cancer cell death and elucidated the underlying anti-cancer mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether KIOM-C oral administration suppresses in vivo tumor growth of HT1080 cells in athymic nude mice. We initially found that KIOM-C at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/ml caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells, but not normal hepatocytes, to approximately 50% of control levels. At the early stage of KIOM-C treatment (12 h), cells were arrested in G1 phase, which was accompanied by up-regulation of p21 and p27, down-regulation of cyclin D1, and subsequent increases in apoptotic and autophagic cells. Following KIOM-C treatment, the extent of caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, Beclin-1 expression, and LC3-II conversion was remarkably up-regulated, but p62 expression was down-regulated. Phosphorylation of AMPK, ULK, JNK, c-jun, and p53 was increased significantly in response to KIOM-C treatment. The levels of intracellular ROS and CHOP expression were also increased. In particular, the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked KIOM-C-induced ROS generation and CHOP expression almost completely, which consequently almost completely rescued cell death, indicating that JNK activation plays a critical role in KIOM-C-induced cell death. Furthermore, daily oral administration of 85 and 170 mg/kg KIOM-C efficiently suppressed the tumorigenic growth of HT1080 cells, without systemic toxicity. These results collectively suggest that KIOM-C efficiently induces cancer cell death by both autophagy and apoptosis via activation of JNK signaling pathways, and KIOM-C represents a safe and potent herbal therapy for treating malignancies.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic analysis of genes related to tight junction function in the korean population with non-syndromic hearing loss.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tight junctions (TJs) are essential components of eukaryotic cells, and serve as paracellular barriers and zippers between adjacent tissues. TJs are critical for normal functioning of the organ of Corti, a part of the inner ear that causes loss of sensorineural hearing when damaged. To investigate the relation between genes involved in TJ function and hereditary loss of sensorineural hearing in the Korean population, we selected the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes as candidates for gene screening of 135 Korean individuals. The TJP2 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), lies at the DFNA51 locus on chromosome 9. The CLDN14 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), lies at the DFNB29 locus on chromosome 21. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes in 87 unrelated patients with ADNSHL and 48 unrelated patients with either ARNSHL or potentially sporadic hearing loss. We identified two pathogenic variations, c.334G>A (p.A112T) and c.3562A>G (p.T1188A), and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TJP2 gene. We found eight non-pathogenic variations in the CLDN14 gene. These findings indicate that, whereas mutation of the TJP2 gene might cause ADNSHL, CLDN14 is not a major causative gene for ARNSHL in the Korean population studied. Our findings may improve the understanding of the genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Korean population.
Related JoVE Video
Factors Associated with Uptake of HIV Test Results in a Nationally Representative Population-Based AIDS Indicator Survey.
Open AIDS J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Population-based surveys with HIV testing in settings with low testing coverage provide opportunities for participants to learn their HIV status. Survey participants (15-64 years) in a 2007 nationally representative population-based HIV serologic survey in Kenya received a voucher to collect HIV test results at health facilities 6 weeks after blood draw. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of individual and couple collection of results. Of 15,853 adults consenting to blood draw, 7,222 (46.7%) collected HIV test results (46.5% men, 46.8% women). A third (39.5%) of HIV-infected adults who were unaware of their infection and 48.2% of those who had never been tested learned their HIV status during KAIS. Individual collection of HIV results was associated with older age, with the highest odds among adults aged 60-64 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.1); rural residence (AOR 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.6); and residence outside Nairobi, with the highest odds in the sparsely populated North Eastern province (AOR 8.0, 95%CI 2.9-21.8). Of 2,685 married/cohabiting couples, 18.5% collected results as a couple. Couples in Eastern province and in the second and middle wealth quintiles were more likely to collect results than those in Nairobi (AOR 3.2, 95%CI 1.1-9.4) and the lowest wealth quintile (second AOR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.3; middle AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3, respectively. Many participants including those living with HIV learned their HIV status in KAIS. Future surveys need to address low uptake of results among youth, urban residents, couples and those with undiagnosed HIV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Meteorin regulates mesendoderm development by enhancing nodal expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During gastrulation, distinct lineage specification into three germ layers, the mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm, occurs through an elaborate harmony between signaling molecules along the embryonic proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes, and Nodal signaling plays a key role in the early embryonic development governing embryonic axis formation, mesoderm and endoderm specification, and left-right asymmetry determination. However, the mechanism by which Nodal expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that Meteorin regulates Nodal expression and is required for mesendoderm development. It is highly expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts and further in the epiblast and extra-embryonic ectoderm during gastrulation. Genetic ablation of the Meteorin gene resulted in early embryonic lethality, presumably due to impaired lineage allocation and subsequent cell accumulation. Embryoid body culture using Meteorin-null embryonic stem (ES) cells showed reduced Nodal expression and concomitant impairment of mesendoderm specification. Meteorin-null embryos displayed reduced levels of Nodal transcripts before the gastrulation stage, and impaired expression of Goosecoid, a definitive endoderm marker, during gastrulation, while the proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes and primitive streak formation were preserved. Our results show that Meteorin is a novel regulator of Nodal transcription and is required to maintain sufficient Nodal levels for endoderm formation, thereby providing new insights in the regulation of mesendoderm allocation.
Related JoVE Video
Oral inflammation, a role for antimicrobial peptide modulation of cytokine and chemokine responses.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute and chronic inflammation commonly occurs throughout the oral cavity. The most common causes are physical damage and microbial infections, and less frequently immune reactions and malignant changes. All of these processes result in the induction of antimicrobial peptides, chemokines and cytokines that lead to cellular infiltrates, a vascular response, tissue destruction and cellular proliferation. A fascinating concept developing in the current literature suggests that antimicrobial peptides modulate the production of chemokines, cytokines and other cellular mediators and that this may have a larger ramification as an underlying mechanism mediating inflammation. Here, we propose that the ability of antimicrobial peptides to induce chemokines and anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the early events of oral inflammation and may be a target for the prevention or treatment of oral inflammatory conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Microscopic insights into the NMR relaxation-based protein conformational entropy meter.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Conformational entropy is a potentially important thermodynamic parameter contributing to protein function. Quantitative measures of conformational entropy are necessary for an understanding of its role but have been difficult to obtain. An empirical method that utilizes changes in conformational dynamics as a proxy for changes in conformational entropy has recently been introduced. Here we probe the microscopic origins of the link between conformational dynamics and conformational entropy using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation of seven proteins gave an excellent correlation with measures of side-chain motion derived from NMR relaxation. The simulations show that the motion of methyl-bearing side chains are sufficiently coupled to that of other side chains to serve as excellent reporters of the overall side-chain conformational entropy. These results tend to validate the use of experimentally accessible measures of methyl motion--the NMR-derived generalized order parameters--as a proxy from which to derive changes in protein conformational entropy.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality after lower endoscopy.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy provide protection against colorectal cancer, but the magnitude and duration of protection, particularly against cancer of the proximal colon, remain uncertain.
Related JoVE Video
Correlates of bisexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in El Salvador.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bisexual behaviors may increase transmission pathways of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from a higher prevalence group to lower prevalence groups in El Salvador. In 2008, men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited in San Salvador and San Miguel using respondent driven sampling. Participants were interviewed and tested for HIV and STIs. Sixteen seeds and 797 MSM participated; 34.9% in San Salvador and 58.8% in San Miguel reported bisexual behavior. Bisexual behavior was associated with drug use (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.06) and insertive anal sex (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.01-9.87), and inversely associated with having a stable male partner (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.84) and disclosing MSM behavior to family (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.75). Bisexual behavior was associated with risk behaviors with male and female partners that may be associated with HIV and STI transmission. Bisexual men displayed a distinct identity calling for tailored interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Draft Genome Sequence of Cladonia macilenta KoLRI003786, a Lichen-Forming Fungus Producing Biruloquinone.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia macilenta strain KoLRI003786 is capable of producing an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, biruloquinone, which effectively prevents neurodegeneration in Alzheimers disease. Laying the foundation to unravel the biruloquinone biosynthetic pathway, we present the 37.11-Mb draft genome sequence of strain KoLRI003786.
Related JoVE Video
Draft Genome Sequence of Lichen-Forming Fungus Caloplaca flavorubescens Strain KoLRI002931.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here we report a draft genome sequence of Caloplaca flavorubescens strain KoLRI002931, isolated from the bark of a gingko tree at Mt. Deogyu, Muju, South Korea. The genome sequence is 34,455,815 bp, with a GC content of 41.89%, consisting of 36 scaffolds.
Related JoVE Video
Suppression of the invasive potential of highly malignant tumor cells by KIOM-C, a novel herbal medicine, via inhibition of NF-?B activation and MMP-9 expression.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
KIOM-C, a novel herbal formula, was recently reported to be effective for treating pigs suffering from porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). In addition, administration of KIOM-C promoted clearance of influenza virus via production of antiviral cytokines, such as TNF-? and IFN-?. Since metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death and the greatest challenge in cancer treatment, we investigated the effect of KIOM-C on the metastatic potential of HT1080 and B16F10 cells. We observed inhibitory properties of KIOM-C in colony-forming activity, migration and invasion. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the resting and PMA-stimulated state in HT1080 cells was dose-dependently decreased by KIOM-C treatment via suppression of NF-?B activation. In addition, daily oral administration of KIOM-C at doses of 170 and 510 mg/kg, the corresponding human adult daily doses, efficiently blocked lung metastasis in C57BL/6J mice following injection of B16F10 cells in the tail veins. In particular, none of the mice administered KIOM-C during the experimental period exhibited systemic toxicity, such as body weight loss or liver and kidney dysfunction. Collectively, our results suggest that KIOM-C is a potential therapeutic formula useful as a safe herbal medicine for controlling metastatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of the large-scale periplasmic proteomes of the Escherichia coli K-12 and B strains.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Escherichia coli typically secretes many proteins into the periplasmic space, and the periplasmic proteins have been used for the secretory production of various proteins by the biotechnology industry. However, the identity of all of the E. coli periplasmic proteins remains unknown. Here, high-resolution periplasmic proteome reference maps of the E. coli K-12 and B strains were constructed and compared. Of the 145 proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry, 61 proteins were conserved in the two strains, whereas 11 and 12 strain-specific proteins were identified for the E. coli K-12 and B strains, respectively. In addition, 27 proteins exhibited differences in intensities greater than 2-fold between the K-12 and B strains. The periplasmic proteins MalE and OppA were the most abundant proteins in the two E. coli strains. Distinctive differences between the two strains included several proteins that were caused by genetic variations, such as CybC, FliC, FliY, KpsD, MglB, ModA, and Ybl119, hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phosphatases, glycosylases, and proteases, and many uncharacterized proteins. Compared to previous studies, the localization of many proteins, including 30 proteins for the K-12 strain and 53 proteins for the B strain, was newly identified as periplasmic. This study identifies the largest number of proteins in the E. coli periplasm as well as the dynamics of these proteins. Additionally, these findings are summarized as reference proteome maps that will be useful for studying protein secretion and may provide new strategies for the enhanced secretory production of recombinant proteins.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.