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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phenobarbital Induction and Chemical Synergism Demonstrate the Role of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases in Detoxification of Naphthalophos by Haemonchus contortus Larvae.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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We used an enzyme induction approach to study the role of detoxification enzymes in the interaction of the anthelmintic compound naphthalophos with Haemonchus contortus larvae. Larvae were treated with the barbiturate phenobarbital, which is known to induce the activity of a number of detoxification enzymes in mammals and insects, including cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UDPGTs), and glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (GSTs). Cotreatment of larvae with phenobarbital and naphthalophos resulted in a significant increase in the naphthalophos 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to treatment of larvae with the anthelmintic alone (up to a 28-fold increase). The phenobarbital-induced drug tolerance was reversed by cotreatment with the UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, probenecid, and sulfinpyrazone. Isobologram analysis of the interaction of 5-nitrouracil with naphthalophos in phenobarbital-treated larvae clearly showed the presence of strong synergism. The UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, and probenecid also showed synergistic effects with non-phenobarbital-treated worms (synergism ratio up to 3.2-fold). This study indicates that H. contortus larvae possess one or more UDPGT enzymes able to detoxify naphthalophos. In highlighting the protective role of this enzyme group, this study reveals the potential for UDPGT enzymes to act as a resistance mechanism that may develop under drug selection pressure in field isolates of this species. In addition, the data indicate the potential for a chemotherapeutic approach utilizing inhibitors of UDPGT enzymes as synergists to increase the activity of naphthalophos against parasitic worms and to combat detoxification-mediated drug resistance if it arises in the field.
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Sensory Rewiring in an Echolocator: Genome-Wide Modification of Retinogenic and Auditory Genes in the Bat Myotis davidii.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Bats comprise 20% of all mammalian species and display a number of characteristics, including true flight, echolocation, and a heightened ability to resist viral load that uniquely position this group for comparative genomic studies. Here we searched for evidence of genomic variation consistent with sensory rewiring through bat evolution. We focused on two species with divergent sensory preferences. Myotis davidii is a bat species that echolocates and possesses dim- but not daylight-adapted vision whereas the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) has highly developed day vision but does not echolocate. Using the naked mole rat as a reference, we found five functional genes (CYP1A2, RBP3, GUCY2F, CRYBB1, and GRK7) encoding visual proteins that have degenerated into pseudogenes in M. davidii but not P. alecto. In a second approach genome-wide codon usage bias (CUB) was compared between the two bat species. This CUB ranking systematically enriched for vision-related (CLN8, RD3, IKZF1, LAMC3, CRX, SOX8, VAX2, HPS1, RHO, PRPH2, and SOX9) and hearing-related (TPRN, TMIE, SLC52A3, OTOF, WFS1, SOD1, TBX18, MAP1A, OTOS, GPX1, and USH1G) machinery in M. davidii but not P. alecto. All vision and hearing genes selectively enriched in M. davidii for which orthologs could be identified also were more biased in the echolocating M. lucifugus than the nonecholocating P. vampyrus. We suggest that the existence of codon bias in vision- and hearing-related genes in a species that has evolved echolocation implies CUB is part of evolution's toolkit to rewire sensory systems. We propose that the two genetic changes (pseudogene formation and CUB) collectively paint a picture of that incorporates a combination of destruction and gain-of-function. Together, they help explain how natural selection has reduced physiological costs associated with the development of a smaller eye poorly adapted to day vision but that also contribute to enhanced dim light vision and the hearing adaptations consonant with echolocation.
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The sheep genome illuminates biology of the rumen and lipid metabolism.
Science
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Sheep (Ovis aries) are a major source of meat, milk, and fiber in the form of wool and represent a distinct class of animals that have a specialized digestive organ, the rumen, that carries out the initial digestion of plant material. We have developed and analyzed a high-quality reference sheep genome and transcriptomes from 40 different tissues. We identified highly expressed genes encoding keratin cross-linking proteins associated with rumen evolution. We also identified genes involved in lipid metabolism that had been amplified and/or had altered tissue expression patterns. This may be in response to changes in the barrier lipids of the skin, an interaction between lipid metabolism and wool synthesis, and an increased role of volatile fatty acids in ruminants compared with nonruminant animals.
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A one shot blood phenotype can identify sheep that resist Haemonchus contortus challenge.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Gastrointestinal nematodes remain a major limitation to the productivity of livestock systems. Selective breeding to produce populations that have an enhanced ability to resist infection is a viable and ongoing option to reduce this impact. The development of new phenotypes that facilitate this process is therefore of great interest. For this reason we explored relationships between haematological parameters and the ability of sheep to resist nematode infection. A multivariate analytical approach was used to define algorithms based on the blood parameters that can be used to rank the ability of sheep to resist nematode infection in a single blood sample and can be applied independent of infection status. The algorithms were shown to classify susceptible sheep with a 100% accuracy and resistant sheep with 80% accuracy. Further development of this platform approach may be an important advance for small ruminant production systems worldwide and might also be applied to other diseases of livestock or even environmental stressors such as heat.
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Cloning and tissue distribution of novel splice variants of the ovine ghrelin gene.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The ghrelin axis is involved in the regulation of metabolism, energy balance, and the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems. The manipulation of this axis has potential for improving economically valuable traits in production animals, and polymorphisms in the ghrelin (GHRL) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) genes have been associated with growth and carcass traits. Here we investigate the structure and expression of the ghrelin gene (GHRL) in sheep, Ovis aries.
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RNF14 is a regulator of mitochondrial and immune function in muscle.
BMC Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Muscle development and remodelling, mitochondrial physiology and inflammation are thought to be inter-related and to have implications for metabolism in both health and disease. However, our understanding of their molecular control is incomplete.
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Understanding parasitic infection in sheep to design more efficient animal selection strategies.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Modern livestock breeding practices provide new opportunities for producing animals that are adapted to their production environment and are free of disease. Using current knowledge of biology and by seeking the desired outcome animal selection strategies can be designed that deliver more precisely defined results so maximising genetic gain and minimising risk. This review briefly describes the evolution of genetic selection in livestock and considers some of the positive and negative aspects of selection practices over time. The selection of sheep to withstand gastro-intestinal nematode parasitism is used as an example to explain how developments in selection strategy have improved genetic progress for complex traits. Re-evaluation of the understanding of the outcomes of selection for parasite resistance is used here to examine whether a more sophisticated approach is desirable, and to propose a number of additional phenotype measurement strategies that could complement and improve the quality of information used for animal selection. Finally some ideas are presented for creating a situation where a designed, highly defined breeding objective might be used to increase precision and reduce risk. This may become possible via research to adapt or develop tools for more sophisticated phenotypic evaluation, to discover biological processes integral to desired breed changes, and to define desired animal types which match economic and societal expectations.
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Divergent ghrelin expression patterns in sheep genetically resistant or susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Gastrointestinal nematodes are a major problem for pastoral ruminant production systems. This problem could be reduced by the application of breeding strategies that select for nematode resistant sheep, but no suitable molecular markers are available. Research selection flocks containing lines that are resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to gastrointestinal nematodes provide an excellent resource for discovering selectable markers, and for studying the underlying mechanisms of an effective anti-nematode response. In this study we have used a combination of quantitative real time PCR assays and ELISA to determine if nematode challenge impacts on the expression of the satiety-regulating hormone ghrelin. The expression responses were then compared between the selection flock R and S lines. The results show that the basal levels of ghrelin in plasma were greater than 2-fold higher in nematode naïve S line sheep. Three days after a primary nematode challenge divergent ghrelin expression patterns were observed between the selection lines, with levels increasing in R sheep while decreasing in S sheep. After a secondary challenge this trend was repeated, but following a third challenge ghrelin expression levels rose in both R and S sheep, by which time the S animals had acquired an effective immune response to the nematodes, as measured by a significant reduction in faecal egg output. Importantly, this phenomenon was observed in gene expression studies in gut tissues and also in ELISA measurements of ghrelin peptide levels in plasma. A regression analysis showed that ghrelin transcript expression in the gut accounted for >40% of the variation in faecal egg count measured following Haemonchus or Trichostrongylus infection. We therefore hypothesise that the direction of ghrelin expression (up or down) immediately following nematode exposure may play an important role in regulating the differing anti-nematode responses that occur in the R and S lines. Such differences identify ghrelin as a previously unrecognized factor influencing the acquisition of immunity to nematodes.
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The interplay between evolution, regulation and tissue specificity in the Human Hereditary Diseasome.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Human disease genes can be distinguished from essential (embryonically lethal) and non-disease genes using gene attributes. Such attributes include gene age, tissue specificity of expression, regulatory capacity, sequence length, rate of sequence variation and capacity for interaction. The resulting information has been used to inform data mining approaches seeking to identify novel disease genes. Given the dynamic nature of this field and the rapid rise in relevant information, we have chosen to perform a single integrated mining approach to explore relationships among gene attributes and thereby characterise evolutionary trends associated with disease genes.
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A genomics-informed, SNP association study reveals FBLN1 and FABP4 as contributing to resistance to fleece rot in Australian Merino sheep.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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Fleece rot (FR) and body-strike of Merino sheep by the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina are major problems for the Australian wool industry, causing significant losses as a result of increased management costs coupled with reduced wool productivity and quality. In addition to direct effects on fleece quality, fleece rot is a major predisposing factor to blowfly strike on the body of sheep. In order to investigate the genetic drivers of resistance to fleece rot, we constructed a combined ovine-bovine cDNA microarray of almost 12,000 probes including 6,125 skin expressed sequence tags and 5,760 anonymous clones obtained from skin subtracted libraries derived from fleece rot resistant and susceptible animals. This microarray platform was used to profile the gene expression changes between skin samples of six resistant and six susceptible animals taken immediately before, during and after FR induction. Mixed-model equations were employed to normalize the data and 155 genes were found to be differentially expressed (DE). Ten DE genes were selected for validation using real-time PCR on independent skin samples. The genomic regions of a further 5 DE genes were surveyed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that were genotyped across three populations for their associations with fleece rot resistance.
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Selective induction of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 in macrophages by soluble egg antigen from Schistosoma mansoni involves ERK signalling.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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Soluble egg antigen (SEA) from the helminth Schistosoma mansoni promotes T helper type 2 (Th2) responses by modulating antigen-presenting cell function. The Jagged/Notch pathway has recently been implicated in driving Th2 development. We show here that SEA rapidly up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 in both murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs). Another potential Th2-promoting factor, interleukin (IL)-33, was not transcriptionally induced by SEA in BMMs. Up-regulation of Jagged-1 mRNA by SEA was also apparent in conventional dendritic cells (DCs), although the effect was less striking than in BMMs. Conversely, SEA-pulsed DCs, but not BMMs, promoted IL-4 production upon T-cell activation, suggesting that Jagged-1 induction alone is insufficient for instructing Th2 development. A comparison of the responses initiated in BMMs by SEA and the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) revealed common activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) and p38 phosphorylation, as well as induction of Jagged-1 mRNA. However, only LPS triggered IkappaB degradation, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) Tyr701, and IL-33 and IL-12p40 mRNA up-regulation. Inducible gene expression was modified by the presence of the macrophage growth factor colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1, which inhibited Jagged-1 induction by SEA and LPS, but enhanced LPS-induced IL-12p40 expression. Unlike LPS, SEA robustly activated signalling in HEK293 cells expressing either Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4/MD2. Pharmacological inhibition of the ERK-1/2 pathway impaired SEA- and LPS-inducible Jagged-1 expression in BMMs. Taken together, our data suggest that Jagged-1 is an ERK-dependent target of TLR signalling that has a macrophage-specific function in the response to SEA.
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The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.
, Christine G Elsik, Ross L Tellam, Kim C Worley, Richard A Gibbs, Donna M Muzny, George M Weinstock, David L Adelson, Evan E Eichler, Laura Elnitski, Roderic Guigo, Debora L Hamernik, Steve M Kappes, Harris A Lewin, David J Lynn, Frank W Nicholas, Alexandre Reymond, Monique Rijnkels, Loren C Skow, Evgeny M Zdobnov, Lawrence Schook, James Womack, Tyler Alioto, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Alex Astashyn, Charles E Chapple, Hsiu-Chuan Chen, Jacqueline Chrast, Francisco Camara, Olga Ermolaeva, Charlotte N Henrichsen, Wratko Hlavina, Yuri Kapustin, Boris Kiryutin, Paul Kitts, Felix Kokocinski, Melissa Landrum, Donna Maglott, Kim Pruitt, Victor Sapojnikov, Stephen M Searle, Victor Solovyev, Alexandre Souvorov, Catherine Ucla, Carine Wyss, Juan M Anzola, Daniel Gerlach, Eran Elhaik, Dan Graur, Justin T Reese, Robert C Edgar, John C McEwan, Gemma M Payne, Joy M Raison, Thomas Junier, Evgenia V Kriventseva, Eduardo Eyras, Mireya Plass, Ravikiran Donthu, Denis M Larkin, James Reecy, Mary Q Yang, Lin Chen, Ze Cheng, Carol G Chitko-McKown, George E Liu, Lakshmi K Matukumalli, Jiuzhou Song, Bin Zhu, Daniel G Bradley, Fiona S L Brinkman, Lilian P L Lau, Matthew D Whiteside, Angela Walker, Thomas T Wheeler, Theresa Casey, J Bruce German, Danielle G Lemay, Nauman J Maqbool, Adrian J Molenaar, Seongwon Seo, Paul Stothard, Cynthia L Baldwin, Rebecca Baxter, Candice L Brinkmeyer-Langford, Wendy C Brown, Christopher P Childers, Timothy Connelley, Shirley A Ellis, Krista Fritz, Elizabeth J Glass, Carolyn T A Herzig, Antti Iivanainen, Kevin K Lahmers, Anna K Bennett, C Michael Dickens, James G R Gilbert, Darren E Hagen, Hanni Salih, Jan Aerts, Alexandre R Caetano, Brian Dalrymple, José Fernando García, Clare A Gill, Stefan G Hiendleder, Erdogan Memili, Diane Spurlock, John L Williams, Lee Alexander, Michael J Brownstein, Leluo Guan, Robert A Holt, Steven J M Jones, Marco A Marra, Richard Moore, Stephen S Moore, Andy Roberts, Masaaki Taniguchi, Richard C Waterman, Joseph Chacko, Mimi M Chandrabose, Andy Cree, Marvin Diep Dao, Huyen H Dinh, Ramatu Ayiesha Gabisi, Sandra Hines, Jennifer Hume, Shalini N Jhangiani, Vandita Joshi, Christie L Kovar, Lora R Lewis, Yih-Shin Liu, John López, Margaret B Morgan, Ngoc Bich Nguyen, Geoffrey O Okwuonu, San Juana Ruiz, Jireh Santibanez, Rita A Wright, Christian Buhay, Yan Ding, Shannon Dugan-Rocha, Judith Herdandez, Michael Holder, Aniko Sabo, Amy Egan, Jason Goodell, Katarzyna Wilczek-Boney, Gerald R Fowler, Matthew Edward Hitchens, Ryan J Lozado, Charles Moen, David Steffen, James T Warren, Jingkun Zhang, Readman Chiu, Jacqueline E Schein, K James Durbin, Paul Havlak, Huaiyang Jiang, Yue Liu, Xiang Qin, Yanru Ren, Yufeng Shen, Henry Song, Stephanie Nicole Bell, Clay Davis, Angela Jolivet Johnson, Sandra Lee, Lynne V Nazareth, Bella Mayurkumar Patel, Ling-Ling Pu, Selina Vattathil, Rex Lee Williams, Stacey Curry, Cerissa Hamilton, Erica Sodergren, David A Wheeler, Wes Barris, Gary L Bennett, André Eggen, Ronnie D Green, Gregory P Harhay, Matthew Hobbs, Oliver Jann, John W Keele, Matthew P Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Stephanie D McKay, Sean McWilliam, Abhirami Ratnakumar, Robert D Schnabel, Timothy Smith, Warren M Snelling, Tad S Sonstegard, Roger T Stone, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Akiko Takasuga, Jeremy F Taylor, Curtis P Van Tassell, Michael D MacNeil, Antonio R R Abatepaulo, Colette A Abbey, Virpi Ahola, Iassudara G Almeida, Ariel F Amadio, Elen Anatriello, Suria M Bahadue, Fernando H Biase, Clayton R Boldt, Jeffery A Carroll, Wanessa A Carvalho, Eliane P Cervelatti, Elsa Chacko, Jennifer E Chapin, Ye Cheng, Jungwoo Choi, Adam J Colley, Tatiana A de Campos, Marcos De Donato, Isabel K F de Miranda Santos, Carlo J F de Oliveira, Heather Deobald, Eve Devinoy, Kaitlin E Donohue, Peter Dovc, Annett Eberlein, Carolyn J Fitzsimmons, Alessandra M Franzin, Gustavo R Garcia, Sem Genini, Cody J Gladney, Jason R Grant, Marion L Greaser, Jonathan A Green, Darryl L Hadsell, Hatam A Hakimov, Rob Halgren, Jennifer L Harrow, Elizabeth A Hart, Nicola Hastings, Marta Hernàndez, Zhi-Liang Hu, Aaron Ingham, Terhi Iso-Touru, Catherine Jamis, Kirsty Jensen, Dimos Kapetis, Tovah Kerr, Sari S Khalil, Hasan Khatib, Davood Kolbehdari, Charu G Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Richard Leach, Justin C-M Lee, Changxi Li, Krystin M Logan, Roberto Malinverni, Elisa Marques, William F Martin, Natalia F Martins, Sandra R Maruyama, Raffaele Mazza, Kim L McLean, Juan F Medrano, Barbara T Moreno, Daniela D Moré, Carl T Muntean, Hari P Nandakumar, Marcelo F G Nogueira, Ingrid Olsaker, Sameer D Pant, Francesca Panzitta, Rosemeire C P Pastor, Mario A Poli, Nathan Poslusny, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Shoba Ranganathan, Andrej Razpet, Penny K Riggs, Gonzalo Rincon, Nelida Rodriguez-Osorio, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas, Natasha E Romero, Anne Rosenwald, Lillian Sando, Sheila M Schmutz, Libing Shen, Laura Sherman, Bruce R Southey, Ylva Strandberg Lutzow, Jonathan V Sweedler, Imke Tammen, Bhanu Prakash V L Telugu, Jennifer M Urbanski, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Chris P Verschoor, Ashley J Waardenberg, Zhiquan Wang, Robert Ward, Rosemarie Weikard, Thomas H Welsh, Stephen N White, Laurens G Wilming, Kris R Wunderlich, Jianqi Yang, Feng-Qi Zhao.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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Gene expression profiles of BMP4, FGF10 and cognate inhibitors, in the skin of foetal Merino sheep, at the time of secondary follicle branching.
Exp. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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The high concentration of secondary branched follicles is a distinctive feature of the Merino sheep. These follicles initiate from 100 days of gestation. Here, we report a transition in abundance of the BMP4 and FGF10 morphogens occurring at this time. At 103 days of gestation, FGF10 gene expression dropped steadily from maximal levels, in a trend that continued until day 143. Conversely, from day 105, BMP4 transcript levels rapidly increased to maximal levels that were maintained until 131 days, before declining. This profile closely matches reported changes in branched follicle numbers, which peak in density at day 134. SPRY4, a known regulator of FGF10, increased to maximal levels concomitant with the fall in FGF10, suggesting a relationship. Levels of the BMP4 inhibitor NOG matched the initial rise of BMP4, with a fivefold spike at 108 days; but consistent with the rise in BMP4, this high level was not sustained.
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Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae induce necrosis and release of IL33 from intestinal epithelial cells in vitro: implications for gastrointestinal nematode vaccine design.
Int. J. Parasitol.
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Gastrointestinal nematodes represent a major production problem for ruminant livestock. Enhancing immunity to gastrointestinal nematodes through vaccination is desirable but mechanistic understanding of initial host responses that facilitate gastrointestinal nematode protective immunity is limited. We hypothesise that gastrointestinal nematode invasion induces mucosal epithelium damage and alarmin (e.g. IL33) release, thereby contributing to initiation of protective gastrointestinal nematode immunity. To test this, an in vitro air-liquid interface human HT-29 epithelial cell-Trichostrongylus colubriformis co-culture system was developed. Exsheathed L3 T. colubriformis exhibited both sinusoidal and burrowing motions in the co-culture system. Burrowing parasites, but not ivermectin-paralysed larvae, induced necrotic death of epithelial cells (annexin V(+)/propidium iodide(+)/caspase 3/7(-)). Microscopy confirmed that larvae consumed labelled necrotic epithelial cell contents. Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and their post-exsheathment antigens (excretory/secretory products) significantly induced IL33 mRNA expression in the epithelial cells. Immunoblot confirmed that IL33 was released from epithelial cells due to the damage caused by motile larvae. Exposure of HT-29 cells to alum or Sigma proprietary adjuvants induced significant epithelial cell IL33 mRNA expression without inducing cellular necrosis. Hence, the intracellular contents were not released externally where they might exert alarmin activity and this may limit their ability to trigger a protective anti-gastrointestinal nematode response. We conclude that T. colubriformis motion at the infection site induces intestinal epithelial cell necrosis which facilitates the release of intracellular contents, including IL33, and may be fundamental to the initiation of an appropriate host response to gastrointestinal nematodes. Our co-culture model is useful for studying initial epithelial cell-parasite interactions without conducting expensive animal trials.
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The RIPK2 gene: a positional candidate for tick burden supported by genetic associations in cattle and immunological response of knockout mouse.
Immunogenetics
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Ticks and tick-borne diseases have a detrimental impact on livestock production causing estimated losses of around $200 million per year in Australia alone. Host resistance to ticks is heritable, within-breed heritability estimates being around 0.35, and with large differences between breeds. Previously a QTL for tick burden was detected on BTA14 at ~72 Mb distal to the centromere, near the gene receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2). To identify polymorphisms in this region, we sequenced all exons of the RIPK2 gene, identifying 46 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Using SNP from RIPK2 as well as SNP from the bovine genome sequence, we genotyped two samples, one of 1,122 taurine dairy cattle and one of 761 zebu and zebu composite beef cattle. We confirmed that SNP and haplotypes from this region, including from RIPK2, were associated with tick burden in both dairy and beef cattle. To determine whether RIPK2 influences response to tick salivary gland extract (SGE), an immunisation experiment with tick SGE in a RIPK2 knockout (RIPK2 ?/?) mouse strain was conducted. There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in IgG production in the RIPK2 ?/? mouse in response to the SGE compared to its background strain C57BL/ 6 as well as the outbred CD1 mouse strain. In addition, antibodies generated by RIPK2 ?/? mice recognised a different set of antigens within SGE when compared to parental-derived antibodies. In summary, the SNP association with tick burden at BTA14 was confirmed and quantitative and qualitative differences in antibody production were observed between RIPK2 ?/? and wild-type mice.
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Proteomic analysis of the abomasal mucosal response following infection by the nematode, Haemonchus contortus, in genetically resistant and susceptible sheep.
J Proteomics
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Sheep have a variable ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection, but the key factors mediating this response are poorly defined. Here we report the first large-scale application of quantitative proteomic technologies to define proteins that are differentially abundant between sheep selectively bred to have an enhanced (resistant) or reduced (susceptible) ability to eliminate nematodes. Samples were collected from the abomasal mucosa three days after experimental challenge with the nematode, Haemonchus contortus. This timing reflects the initial interaction of host and parasite, and the tissue represents the immediate interface. We identified and quantified more than 4400 unique proteins, of which 158 proteins showed >1.5 fold difference between the resistant and susceptible sheep. Trefoil factor 2, a member of RAS oncogene family (RAP1A) and ring finger protein 126 were amongst the proteins found to be highly abundant in the abomasal surface of resistant sheep, whereas adenosine deaminase and the gastrokine-3 like precursor were found at higher levels in susceptible sheep. Construction of gut proteome interaction networks identified mitochondrial function and energetic partitioning as important components of an effective nematode eliminating response. The differentially abundant proteins may be useful targets for phenotypic tests that aim to identify sheep with an enhanced ability to resist nematode infection.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.