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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Active smoking status in chronic rhinosinusitis is associated with higher serum markers of inflammation and lower serum eosinophilia.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Smoking negatively affects postoperative evolution in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS); however, the mechanism remains incompletely described. In the lung, smoking increases expression of proinflammatory genes and is associated with an elevation of inflammatory serum markers. Our objective is to determine the impact of smoking on these biomarkers in CRS.
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A pooling-based genomewide association study identifies genetic variants associated with Staphylococcus aureus colonization in chronic rhinosinusitis patients.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, host factors contributing to susceptibility to S. aureus colonization in CRS remain unknown. We wish to investigate, using a pooled genomewide association study (pGWAS), single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with S. aureus carriage in CRS patients.
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Genetic variations in taste receptors are associated with chronic rhinosinusitis: a replication study.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Recent evidence implicates polymorphisms of the bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 as defining characteristics in respiratory innate defense that may contribute to the complex genetic and environmental interactions predisposing to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this study was to (1) verify whether identified polymorphisms associated with respiratory infection in taste receptors replicate within our existing population of patients with CRS and (2) identify other taste receptors potentially associated with CRS.
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Programmed death-1 is a marker for abnormal distribution of naive/memory T cell subsets in HIV-1 infection.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Chronic activation of T cells is a hallmark of HIV-1 infection and plays an important role in disease progression. We previously showed that the engagement of the inhibitory receptor programmed death (PD)-1 on HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells leads to their functional exhaustion in vitro. However, little is known about the impact of PD-1 expression on the turnover and maturation status of T cells during the course of the disease. In this study, we show that PD-1 is upregulated on all T cell subsets, including naive, central memory, and transitional memory T cells in HIV-1-infected subjects. PD-1 is expressed at similar levels on most CD4(+) T cells during the acute and the chronic phase of disease and identifies cells that have recently entered the cell cycle. In contrast, PD-1 expression is dramatically increased in CD8(+) T cells during the transition from acute to chronic infection, and this is associated with reduced levels of cell proliferation. The failure to downregulate expression of PD-1 in most T cells during chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent alterations in the distribution of T cell subsets and is associated with impaired responses to IL-7. Our findings identify PD-1 as a marker for aberrant distribution of T cell subsets in HIV-1 infection.
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CD8A gene polymorphisms predict severity factors in chronic rhinosinusitis.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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A genetic basis to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is postulated, but remains elusive. We have recently identified low levels of circulating CD8 lymphocytes as a frequent finding in difficult-to-treat or refractory CRS. In major histocompatibility complex 1 class 1 (MHC1) deficiency, low circulating levels of CD8 lymphocytes secondary to mutations in the cluster of differentiation 8a (CD8A), tapasin 1 (TAP1), tapasin 2 (TAP2), or tapasin binding-protein (TAPBP) genes lead to a clinical syndrome, which is associated with severe CRS. The objective of this work was to identify whether genetic factors associated with MHC1 deficiency are present in CRS.
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Clonotype and repertoire changes drive the functional improvement of HIV-specific CD8 T cell populations under conditions of limited antigenic stimulation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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Persistent exposure to cognate Ag leads to the functional impairment and exhaustion of HIV-specific CD8 T cells. Ag withdrawal, attributable either to antiretroviral treatment or the emergence of epitope escape mutations, causes HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses to wane over time. However, this process does not continue to extinction, and residual CD8 T cells likely play an important role in the control of HIV replication. In this study, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of clonality, phenotype, and function to define the characteristics of HIV-specific CD8 T cell populations that persist under conditions of limited antigenic stimulation. Ag decay was associated with dynamic changes in the TCR repertoire, increased expression of CD45RA and CD127, decreased expression of programmed death-1, and the emergence of polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8 T cells. High-definition analysis of individual clonotypes revealed that the Ag loss-induced gain of function within HIV-specific CD8 T cell populations could be attributed to two nonexclusive mechanisms: 1) functional improvement of persisting clonotypes; and 2) recruitment of particular clonotypes endowed with superior functional capabilities.
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Synthetic double-stranded RNA induces innate immune responses similar to a live viral vaccine in humans.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Adjuvants are critical for the success of vaccines. Agonists of microbial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are promising new adjuvant candidates. A mechanism through which adjuvants enhance immune responses is to stimulate innate immunity. We studied the innate immune response in humans to synthetic double-stranded RNA (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly IC] stabilized with poly-L-lysine [poly ICLC]), an agonist for toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, and the cytosolic RNA helicase MDA-5. Transcriptional analysis of blood samples from eight volunteers, after subcutaneous administration of poly ICLC, showed up-regulation of genes involved in multiple innate immune pathways in all subjects, including interferon (IFN) and inflammasome signaling. Blocking type I IFN receptor ex vivo significantly dampened the response to poly IC. Comparative transcriptional analysis showed that several innate immune pathways were similarly induced in volunteers immunized with the highly efficacious yellow fever vaccine. Therefore, a chemically defined PRR agonist like poly ICLC can be a reliable and authentic microbial mimic for inducing innate immune responses in humans.
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Polymorphisms in the nitric oxide synthase 1 gene are associated with severe chronic rhinosinusitis.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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Nitric oxide (NO), is a biological messenger molecule and a component of innate immunity, with important roles in the regulation of inflammation and in defense against bacterial biofilms. Polymorphisms in genes regulating NO production have the potential for a role in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in genes regulating NO synthesis are associated with CRS.
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Loss of memory B cells during chronic HIV infection is driven by Foxo3a- and TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Loss of memory B cells occurs from the onset of HIV-1 infection and persists into the chronic stages of infection. Lack of survival of these cells, even in subjects being treated, could primarily be the consequence of an altered local microenvironment induced by HIV infection. In this study we showed that memory B cell survival was significantly decreased in aviremic successfully treated (ST) subjects compared with subjects who control viral load as a result of natural immunity (elite controller [EC]) or with uninfected control (HIV-) subjects. The lower survival levels observed in memory B cells from ST subjects were the result of disrupted IL-2 signaling that led to increased transcriptional activity of Foxo3a and increased expression of its proapoptotic target TRAIL. Notably, memory B cell survival in ST subjects was significantly enhanced by the addition of exogenous IL-2 in a Foxo3a-dependent manner. We further showed that Foxo3a silencing by siRNA resulted in decreased expression of TRAIL and apoptosis levels in memory B cells from ST subjects. Our results thus establish a direct role for Foxo3a/TRAIL signaling in the persistence of memory B cells and provide a mechanism for the reduced survival of memory B cells during HIV infection. This knowledge could be exploited for the development of therapeutic and preventative HIV vaccines.
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Single-cell gene-expression profiling reveals qualitatively distinct CD8 T cells elicited by different gene-based vaccines.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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CD8 T cells play a key role in mediating protective immunity against selected pathogens after vaccination. Understanding the mechanism of this protection is dependent upon definition of the heterogeneity and complexity of cellular immune responses generated by different vaccines. Here, we identify previously unrecognized subsets of CD8 T cells based upon analysis of gene-expression patterns within single cells and show that they are differentially induced by different vaccines. Three prime-boost vector combinations encoding HIV Env stimulated antigen-specific CD8 T-cell populations of similar magnitude, phenotype, and functionality. Remarkably, however, analysis of single-cell gene-expression profiles enabled discrimination of a majority of central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) CD8 T cells elicited by the three vaccines. Subsets of T cells could be defined based on their expression of Eomes, Cxcr3, and Ccr7, or Klrk1, Klrg1, and Ccr5 in CM and EM cells, respectively. Of CM cells elicited by DNA prime-recombinant adenoviral (rAd) boost vectors, 67% were Eomes(-) Ccr7(+) Cxcr3(-), in contrast to only 7% and 2% stimulated by rAd5-rAd5 or rAd-LCMV, respectively. Of EM cells elicited by DNA-rAd, 74% were Klrk1(-) Klrg1(-)Ccr5(-) compared with only 26% and 20% for rAd5-rAd5 or rAd5-LCMV. Definition by single-cell gene profiling of specific CM and EM CD8 T-cell subsets that are differentially induced by different gene-based vaccines will facilitate the design and evaluation of vaccines, as well as enable our understanding of mechanisms of protective immunity.
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Improved innate and adaptive immunostimulation by genetically modified HIV-1 protein expressing NYVAC vectors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Attenuated poxviruses are safe and capable of expressing foreign antigens. Poxviruses are applied in veterinary vaccination and explored as candidate vaccines for humans. However, poxviruses express multiple genes encoding proteins that interfere with components of the innate and adaptive immune response. This manuscript describes two strategies aimed to improve the immunogenicity of the highly attenuated, host-range restricted poxvirus NYVAC: deletion of the viral gene encoding type-I interferon-binding protein and development of attenuated replication-competent NYVAC. We evaluated these newly generated NYVAC mutants, encoding HIV-1 env, gag, pol and nef, for their ability to stimulate HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses in vitro from blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected subjects. The new vectors were evaluated and compared to the parental NYVAC vector in dendritic cells (DCs), RNA expression arrays, HIV gag expression and cross-presentation assays in vitro. Deletion of type-I interferon-binding protein enhanced expression of interferon and interferon-induced genes in DCs, and increased maturation of infected DCs. Restoration of replication competence induced activation of pathways involving antigen processing and presentation. Also, replication-competent NYVAC showed increased Gag expression in infected cells, permitting enhanced cross-presentation to HIV-specific CD8 T cells and proliferation of HIV-specific memory CD8 T-cells in vitro. The recombinant NYVAC combining both modifications induced interferon-induced genes and genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, as well as increased Gag expression. This combined replication-competent NYVAC is a promising candidate for the next generation of HIV vaccines.
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Association of IL1A, IL1B, and TNF gene polymorphisms with chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyposis: A replication study.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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To replicate and extend recent findings in a Turkish population of associations between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyposis and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL1A (rs17561 and Ser114Ala), IL1B (rs16944), and TNF (rs361525 and rs1800629) genes.
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c-MET pathway involvement in chronic rhinosinusitis: a genetic association analysis.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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The c-MET receptor and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to be overexpressed in tissue from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients with nasal polyps compared with that from controls. We assessed the genetic association of polymorphisms in the met proto-oncogene (MET) gene with CRS.
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Effect of ovarian cancer ascites on cell migration and gene expression in an epithelial ovarian cancer in vitro model.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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A third of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) present ascites. The cellular fraction of ascites often consists of EOC cells, lymphocytes, and mesothelial cells, whereas the acellular fraction contains cytokines and angiogenic factors. Clinically, the presence of ascites correlates with intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal tumor spread. We have used OV-90, a tumorigenic EOC cell line derived from the malignant ascites of a chemonaive ovarian cancer patient, as a model to assess the effect of ascites on migration potential using an in vitro wound-healing assay. A recent report of an invasion assay described the effect of ascites on the invasion potential of the OV-90 cell line. Ascites sampled from 31 ovarian cancer patients were tested and compared with either 5% fetal bovine serum or no serum for their nonstimulatory or stimulatory effect on the migration potential of the OV-90 cell line. A supervised analysis of data generated by the Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChip identified differentially expressed genes from OV-90 cells exposed to ascites that had either a nonstimulatory or a stimulatory effect on migration. Ten genes (IRS2, CTSD, NRAS, MLXIP, HMGCR, LAMP1, ETS2, NID1, SMARCD1, and CD44) were upregulated in OV-90 cells exposed to ascites, allowing a nonstimulatory effect on cell migration. These findings were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the gene expression of IRS2 and MLXIP each correlated with prognosis when their expression was assessed in an independent set of primary cultures established from ovarian ascites. This study revealed novel candidates that may play a role in ovarian cancer cell migration.
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Polymorphisms in the interleukin-22 receptor alpha-1 gene are associated with severe chronic rhinosinusitis.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Stimulation of interleukin-22 receptor alpha-1 (IL22RA1) was reported to increase the innate immune responses in inflammatory diseases. Moreover, a reduced level of IL22RA1 was found in patients with recalcitrant CRS with nasal polyps.
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Reprogramming of the transcriptome in a novel chromosome 3 transfer tumor suppressor ovarian cancer cell line model affected molecular networks that are characteristic of ovarian cancer.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Tumor suppression as a consequence of the transfer of chromosome 3p fragments was previously observed in a novel epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) OV-90 cell line model harboring loss of 3p. Microarray analysis revealed that tumor suppression was associated with a modified transcriptome. To investigate the relevance of the altered transcriptome, the differentially expressed genes identified by Affymetrix analysis in the 3p transfer studies, were integrated with a comparative microarray analysis of normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells and malignant ovarian (TOV) cancers. Data from 219 significantly differentially expressed genes exhibited patterns in the direction predicted by the analysis of 3p transfer study. The 30 genes with the highest statistically significant differences (P < 1 x 10(-8)) in expression were found consistently differentially expressed between NOSE and TOV samples. The investigation of these genes in benign serous ovarian tumors and EOC cell lines also exhibited predictable expression patterns. Within the group of differentially expressed genes were SPARC, DAB2, CP, EVI1, ELF3, and EHD2, known to play a role in ovarian cancer, genes implicated in other cancers, such as GREM1 and GLIPR1, as well as genes not previously reported in a cancer context such as AKAP2 and ATAD4. A number of the differentially expressed genes are implicated in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. These findings suggest that the reprogramming of the transcriptome that occurred as a consequence of the chromosome 3 transfer and tumor suppression affected molecular networks that are characteristic of ovarian carcinogenesis thus validating our novel ovarian cancer cell line model.
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Polymorphisms in RYBP and AOAH genes are associated with chronic rhinosinusitis in a Chinese population: a replication study.
PLoS ONE
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The development of CRS is believed to be the result of combined interactions between the genetic background of the affected subject and environmental factors.
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Expression of the extracellular matrix gene periostin is increased in chronic rhinosinusitis and decreases following successful endoscopic sinus surgery.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
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The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a potentially important component of mucosal immunity. ECM dysregulation in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is suggested by genomewide association studies identifying ECM genes as top candidates. Further support is afforded by the demonstration of increased expression of periostin (POSTN) in CRS biopsy samples compared to controls, and by reported roles in eosinophilic inflammation and steroid responsiveness. We wished to evaluate the potential utility of POSTN as a biomarker for disease activity by determining whether POSTN levels were modified in disease and whether they were modulated by endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS).
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Systems analysis of MVA-C induced immune response reveals its significance as a vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS of clade C.
PLoS ONE
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Based on the partial efficacy of the HIV/AIDS Thai trial (RV144) with a canarypox vector prime and protein boost, attenuated poxvirus recombinants expressing HIV-1 antigens are increasingly sought as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Here we describe using systems analysis the biological and immunological characteristics of the attenuated vaccinia virus Ankara strain expressing the HIV-1 antigens Env/Gag-Pol-Nef of HIV-1 of clade C (referred as MVA-C). MVA-C infection of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) induced the expression of HIV-1 antigens at high levels from 2 to 8 hpi and triggered moDCs maturation as revealed by enhanced expression of HLA-DR, CD86, CD40, HLA-A2, and CD80 molecules. Infection ex vivo of purified mDC and pDC with MVA-C induced the expression of immunoregulatory pathways associated with antiviral responses, antigen presentation, T cell and B cell responses. Similarly, human whole blood or primary macrophages infected with MVA-C express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines involved with T cell activation. The vector MVA-C has the ability to cross-present antigens to HIV-specific CD8 T cells in vitro and to increase CD8 T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The immunogenic profiling in mice after DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost combination revealed activation of HIV-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell memory responses that are polyfunctional and with effector memory phenotype. Env-specific IgG binding antibodies were also produced in animals receiving DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost. Our systems analysis of profiling immune response to MVA-C infection highlights the potential benefit of MVA-C as vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS for clade C, the prevalent subtype virus in the most affected areas of the world.
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Allelic transcripts dosage effect in morphologically normal ovarian cells from heterozygous carriers of a BRCA1/2 French Canadian founder mutation.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
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We hypothesized that the transcriptome of primary cultures of morphologically normal ovarian surface epithelial cells could be altered by the presence of a heterozygous BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We aimed to discover early events associated with ovarian carcinogenesis, which could represent putative targets for preventive strategies of this silent killer tumor. We identified the first molecular signature associated with French Canadian BRCA1 or BRCA2 founder mutations in morphologically normal ovarian epithelial cells. We discovered that wild-type and mutated BRCA2 allelic transcripts were expressed not only in morphologically normal but also in tumor cells from BRCA2-8765delAG carriers. Further analysis of morphologically normal ovarian and tumor cells from BRCA1-4446C>T carriers lead to the same observation. Our data support the idea that one single hit in BRCA1 or BRCA2 is sufficient to alter the transcriptome of phenotypically normal ovarian epithelial cells. The highest level of BRCA2-mutated allele transcript expression was measured in cells originating from the most aggressive ovarian tumor. The penetrance of the mutation and the aggressiveness of the related tumor could depend on a dosage effect of the mutated allele transcript.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.