JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cosmetic surgery after massive weight loss.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
[No Abstract Available].
Related JoVE Video
Hypertension care in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia: Barriers and solutions.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the current situation of hypertension (HTN) care, to explore the barriers and to suggest the practical solutions to improve the quality of HTN care in primary health care centers (PHCC) in the Aseer region, KSA. This cross-sectional study was conducted in PHCCs in this region in 2010. Data collection sheets used to achieve the aims of this study consisted of three checklists, the first one derived from the quality assurance manual and HTN records used at the PHCCs giving details of the structural base of HTN care. Satisfaction with HTN care was assessed by using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire, while the third part was assessed by a checklist designed for the HTN care processes. Data were coded, entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. The total number of HTN patients registered at PHCCs in Aseer region was 23,156 patients. Of them, 15,942 (69%) had files at PHCCs. Most of the essential infrastructures were acceptable, except training of doctors and nurses on HTN, which were 75% and 89%, respectively. About 40% of patients were on Beta blockers or ACE inhibitors and 30% were being given Aspirin in addition. HTN was uncontrolled among 45% of patients, while the defaulter rate was 22%. The rates of complications ranged from 0.7% for stroke to 7% for ischemic heart diseases. It was found that more than one-third of the patients had obesity and diabetes, while 10% suffered from dyslipidemia. Health teams were unsatisfied with the community participation (43%), patient compliance with appointment (32%) and coordination with hospitals (20%). They were satisfied with the health team (85%), while satisfaction with other items ranged from 60% to 75%. This study revealed that HTN patients received insufficient care, which could be attributed to many different barriers. In order to improve the quality of HTN care for HTN, these barriers should be overcome by implementation of the recommendations.
Related JoVE Video
Mass Gathering Medicine New discipline to Deal with Epidemic and Infectious Diseases in the Hajj Among Muslim Pilgrimage: A Mini Review Article.
J Relig Health
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mass Gathering Medicine is one of the new disciplines in Medicine which deal with all health aspects in overcrowded areas. Mass Gathering Medicine is an important new challenging discipline which needs to be supported by all concern experts such as the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ministries of health from all countries, universities, research centers, and all other experts in this field. Scientist and academic staffs from all countries should be encouraged to participate in narrowing the gap of knowledge for Mass Gathering Medicine. Postgraduate board or fellowship certificate should be encouraged internationally.
Related JoVE Video
Urban-Rural Differentials in Overweight and Obese Individuals with Diarrhea in Bangladesh.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: The study aimed to determine urban and rural differences in overweight and obesity (OO) with diarrhea regarding subjects' sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, etiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods: Relevant information from 2000 to 2011 were extracted from the data archive of the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of urban Dhaka (1248, 4.5%) and rural Matlab (615, 3.4%) hospitals of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Results: The proportion of OO significantly increased in both urban (3-7%; chi-square for trend p < 0.001) and rural (1-6%; p < 0.001) areas over the study period. In multivariate modeling, monthly income more than US$100 (odds ratio [OR] = 54.44, 95% confidence interval [CI], 25.37-116.82, p < 0.001), high wealth quintile (OR = 18.23, 95% CI, 8.63-38.49, p < 0.001), access to sanitary toilet (OR = 3.07. 95% CI. 1.76-5.26. p < 0.001), boiled drinking water (OR = 2.77, 95% CI, 1.09-7.05, p = 0.032), antimicrobial use before hospitalization (OR = 4.99, 95% CI, 2.85-8.74, p < 0.001), fever (OR = 0.14, 95% CI, 0.37, 0.50, p < 0.001), watery stools (OR = 5.59, 95% CI, 2.11-14.80, p < 0.001), dehydrating diarrhea (OR = 5.17, 95% CI, 2.54-10.52, p < 0.001), intravenous saline infusion after hospitalization (OR = 2.65, 95% CI, 1.28-5.49, p = 0.009), and Salmonella infection (OR = 0.20, 95% CI, 0.50-0.83, p = 0.027) remained significantly associated with urban OO individuals. At least 88% of Shigella isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin in both urban and rural areas; for mecillinum it was 90%. Ciprofloxacin had the least detected resistance for Vibrio cholerae (0%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) showed the greatest resistance (Dhaka 86%; Matlab 98%). Susceptibility for Salmonella showed ampicillin (95%), chloramphenecol (100%), ciprofloxacin (95%), ceftraxone (93%), TMP-SMX (95%) at both sites. Conclusion: Urban OO with diarrheal illnesses was significantly different from that in rural areas, including antimicrobial susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
Pomegranate from Oman Alleviates the Brain Oxidative Damage in Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's disease.
J Tradit Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Pomegranates ( Shí Liú) contain very high levels of antioxidant polyphenolic substances, as compared to other fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols have been shown to be neuroprotective in different model systems. Here, the effects of the antioxidant-rich pomegranate fruit grown in Oman on brain oxidative stress status were tested in the AD transgenic mouse. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576) were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA. Four-month-old Tg2576 mice were fed with 4% pomegranate or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress was found in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls. Concomitantly, decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed in Tg2576 mice treated with control diet. Supplementation with 4% pomegranate attenuated oxidative damage, as evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH), and Glutathione S transferase (GST)]. The activities of membrane-bound enzymes [Na(+) K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] were altered in the brain regions of Tg2576 mouse treated with control diet, and 4% pomegranate supplementation was able to restore the activities of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. The results suggest that the therapeutic potential of 4% pomegranate in the treatment of AD might be associated with counteracting the oxidative stress by the presence of active phytochemicals in it.
Related JoVE Video
Suitability assessment of health education brochures in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
J Family Community Med
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Health education is the cornerstone of primary health care. Health education materials distributed to the community should, therefore, be suitable and effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health education brochures, designed and disseminated by Ministry of Health institutions in the Qassim province.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and pattern of lipid disorders in Saudi patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease.
J Family Community Med
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and patterns of dyslipidemia in Saudi patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD).
Related JoVE Video
Adherence to guidelines: experience of a canadian stroke prevention clinic.
Can J Neurol Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have assessed the performance of stroke prevention clinics. In particular, limited information exists on patient compliance, achievement of therapeutic targets, and related occurrence of vascular events.
Related JoVE Video
Number and Size Distribution of Airborne Nanoparticles during Summertime in Kuwait: First Observations from the Middle East.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We made fast response measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations (PNCs) and distributions (PNDs) in the 5-1000 nm range close to a busy roadside, continuously for 31 days, in Kuwait. The aims were to understand their dispersion characteristics during summertime and dust events, and association with trace pollutants (NOx, O3, CO, SO2, and PM10) and meteorological parameters. PNCs were found up to ?19-times higher (5.98 × 10(5) cm(-3)) than those typically found in European roadside environments. Size distributions exhibited over 90% of PNCs in ultrafine size range (<100 nm) and a negligible fraction over 300 nm. Peak PNDs appeared at ?12 nm, showing an unusually large peak in nucleation mode. Diurnal variations of PNCs coincided with the cyclic variations in CO, NOx, and traffic volume during morning and evening rush hours. Despite high traffic volume, PNC peaks were missing during noon hours due to high ambient temperature (?48 °C) that showed an inverse relationship with the PNCs. Principal Component Analysis revealed three probable sources in the area-local road traffic, fugitive dust, and refineries. Dust events, categorized by PM10 with over 1000 ?g m(-3), decreased PNCs by ?25% and increased their geometric mean diameters (GMDs) by ?66% compared with nondust periods.
Related JoVE Video
I??? inhibits apoptosis at the outer mitochondrial membrane independently of NF-?B retention.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
I?B? resides in the cytosol where it retains the inducible transcription factor NF-?B. We show that I?B? also localises to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) to inhibit apoptosis. This effect is especially pronounced in tumour cells with constitutively active NF-?B that accumulate high amounts of mitochondrial I?B? as a NF-?B target gene. 3T3 I?B?(-/-) cells also become protected from apoptosis when I?B? is specifically reconstituted at the OMM. Using various I?B? mutants, we demonstrate that apoptosis inhibition and NF-?B inhibition can be functionally and structurally separated. At mitochondria, I?B? stabilises the complex of VDAC1 and hexokinase II (HKII), thereby preventing Bax recruitment to VDAC1 and the release of cytochrome c for apoptosis induction. When I?B? is reduced in tumour cells with constitutively active NF-?B, they show an enhanced response to anticancer treatment in an in vivo xenograft tumour model. Our results reveal the unexpected activity of I?B? in guarding the integrity of the OMM against apoptosis induction and open possibilities for more specific interference in tumours with deregulated NF-?B.
Related JoVE Video
Characterisation of NORM solid waste produced from the petroleum industry.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The accumulation of scales in the production pipe lines is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and leading to costly remediation and disposal programmes. Thus, an accurate determination of the activity of the radionuclides in scale samples is essential for environmental protection. The present study focuses on the characterisation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in scales generated from the petroleum industry in order to develop a suitable NORM waste management plan. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in 32 representative samples, collected from a number of drums at the NORM Decontamination Facility (NDF) storage, were determined using gamma spectrometry. It was found that the highest concentrations were 2922, 254, 1794 Bq g(-1) for (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb, respectively. Comparison to the reported worldwide values was made. Statistical approaches viz. Box plot, ANOVA and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were applied on the total results. Maximal correlation was demonstrated by (226)Ra activity concentration and count per second (cps) to density ratio. In order to obtain an accurate characterisation of the radionuclides studied in the scale samples, method validation of gamma measurement procedure was carried out, in which minimum detectable activity, repeatability, intermediate precision and assessment of uncertainty were the parameters investigated. The work is a forefront for the proper and safe disposal of such radioactive wastes.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity and associated factors--Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors.
Related JoVE Video
INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE TRENDS AFTER INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS OF ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AGENTS FOR DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study intraocular pressure (IOP) trends and risk factors of IOP elevation after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections in diabetic macular edema.
Related JoVE Video
Comparing Government (School) vs. Private (non-school) Dental Laboratories in Marginal Adaptation of Single Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Crowns.
Oral Health Dent Manag
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare school and non-school dental laboratories in marginal adaptation of single Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal (PFM) crowns.
Related JoVE Video
Burden of disease, injuries, and risk factors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1990-2010.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the burden of disease and risk factors measured by causes of death, years of life lost attributable to premature mortality (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 1990, 2005, and 2010 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
Related JoVE Video
Mesoporous BN and BCN nanocages with high surface area and spherical morphology.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novel mesoporous BN and BCN materials with cage type porous structure and spherical morphology have been synthesized using carbon nanocages with 3D porous structure as a template via an elemental substitution method at a low synthesis temperature. The obtained materials exhibit a large specific pore volume with uniform pore size distribution and the specific surface area ranging from 945 to 1023 m(2) g(-1).
Related JoVE Video
Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: recommendations from two United States centers.
Saudi J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cirrhosis affects millions of people throughout the world. Two of the most serious complications of liver cirrhosis are ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The development of ascites is related to the severity of portal hypertension and is an indicator of increased mortality. Although sodium restriction and diuretic therapy have proven effective, some patients may not respond appropriately or develop adverse reactions to diuretic therapy. In such cases, interventions such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement are warranted. SBP is a complication of ascites that confers a very high mortality rate. Recognition and prompt treatment of this condition is essential to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Initiation of prophylaxis in SBP remains controversial. Given the burden of liver cirrhosis on the health care system, ascites and SBP will continue to provide challenges for the primary care provider, hospitalist, internist, and gastroenterologist alike.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis, X-ray Diffraction, Thermogravimetric and DFT Analyses of Pyrimidine Derivatives.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An eco-benign synthesis of pyrimidine derivatives 2a,b containing different functional groups with different electronic character starting from nitroalkenes 1a and 2b has been described. The structures for 1a and 2a,b have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The thermal data of the molecules pointed towards important structural aspects of their stability. The mechanism of their thermal decomposition is discussed. The thermodynamic parameters of the dissociation steps were evaluated and discussed. DFT calculations reveal that the compound 1a possesses a high calculated dipole moment value (8.28 D) which indicates its high reactivity towards its surrounding molecules.
Related JoVE Video
Basic life support knowledge of healthcare students and professionals in the Qassim University.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim)
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the knowledge of basic life support (BLS) among students and health providers in Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, and Allied Health Science Colleges at Qassim University.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology of abnormal glucose metabolism in a country facing its epidemic: SAUDI-DM study.
J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Saudi Arabia is a community thrilled by sudden social and economical changes, leading to a sharp increase in the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Age specific diabetes and impaired fasting glucose prevalence is the focus of this study with the expected risk factors.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of fenugreek, garden cress, and black seed on theophylline pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Context: Herb-drug interactions are a serious problem especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, taking into consideration that herbal medicines are commonly used in various parts of the world. Objective: The present study investigates the effect of fenugreek, garden cress, and black seed on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in beagle dogs. Materials and methods: Beagle dogs received theophylline (200?mg) orally and blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.33, 0.66, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 30?h). After a suitable washout period, each herb was given orally at doses of 25, 7.5, and 2.5?g, twice daily for 7 d. On the eighth day, theophylline was re-administrated orally and blood samples were collected. Plasma concentrations of theophylline were determined using HPLC and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental analysis. Results: Treatment with fenugreek (25?g, orally) lead to a decrease in Cmax and AUC0-t of theophylline of about 28% (p?
Related JoVE Video
In-vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm, cytotoxic, antifeedant and larvicidal properties of novel quinone isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa.
Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plant metabolites have wide applications and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, cytotoxic, antifeedant and larvicidal properties of novel quinine isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa.
Related JoVE Video
The treatment of cholangiocarcinoma: a hepatologist's perspective.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare but lethal adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation that arises within the biliary tree at variable locations. Curative options are available in the form of surgical resection and/or liver transplantation (LT) in early stage CCA; however, these are offered to a small fraction of patients as they are usually asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a well-known risk factor of CCA, and cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, and metabolic syndrome are recently identified as risk factors of CCA. This emerging evidence places hepatologists in a vital position to diagnose, prognosticate, and manage CCA by planning treatment of each individual patient based on the stage and extent of malignancy. With appropriate selection of patients and the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, surgical resection of localized CCA, LT coupled with neoadjuvant chemoradiation for perihilar CCA, or locoregional or systemic chemotherapy and/or endoscopic interventions for advanced CCA can be offered.
Related JoVE Video
Accumulation of Kaempferitrin and Expression of Phenyl-Propanoid Biosynthetic Genes in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus).
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective, randomised comparison of probing versus bicanalicular silastic intubation for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the success rates of probing versus bicanalicular silastic intubation as the primary treatment for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in children ?1?year old.
Related JoVE Video
Associations of total arsenic in drinking water, hair and nails with serum vascular endothelial growth factor in arsenic-endemic individuals in Bangladesh.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arsenic exposure is associated with cancer and vascular diseases. Angiogenesis is an important step for the pathological development of cancer and vascular diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a specific marker for angiogenesis. However, human study showing the association between arsenic exposure and serum VEGF levels has not yet been documented. This study was aimed to investigate the association between arsenic exposure and serum VEGF levels in the arsenic-endemic individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 260 individuals were recruited for this study. Arsenic exposure levels were measured by ICP-MS and VEGF levels were quantified using VEGF immunoassay kit. The study subjects were stratified into tertile (low, medium and high) groups based on the arsenic in water, hair and nails. Serum VEGF levels were correlated with water (rs=0.363, p<0.001), hair (rs=0.205, p<0.01) and nail (rs=0.190, p<0.01) arsenic. Further, VEGF levels showed dose-response relationships with water, hair and nail arsenic. Mean VEGF levels in?10?gL(-1), 10.1-50 ?gL(-1) and >50?gL(-1) groups were 91.84, 129.54, and 169.86pgmL(-1), respectively, however, significant (p<0.01) difference in VEGF levels was only found in >50?gL(-1) versus ?10?gL(-1) groups. Significant associations of arsenic exposure with VEGF levels were found even after adjusting with relevant covariates. Therefore, these results provide evidence that arsenic exposure has a pro-angiogenic effect on humans, which may be implicated in arsenic-induced tumorigenesis and vascular diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Changing characteristics of rotavirus diarrhea in children younger than five years in urban Bangladesh.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Childhood rotavirus diarrhea is still one of the major public health challenges. The present study aimed to determine changing characteristics of rotavirus diarrhea in under-5 children at two periods of time.
Related JoVE Video
2015 Oman Heart Association Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension : Practical recommendations from the Oman Heart Association (OHA).
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypertension (HTN) is a major independent risk factor for the development of stroke, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). HTN is a growing public health problem in Oman, almost certainly the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of CVD in patients with HTN can be greatly reduced with lifestyle modifications and effective antihypertensive therapy. Randomized trials have shown that blood pressure (BP) lowering produces rapid reductions in CV risk. Several studies have shown that the majority of the hypertensive patients remain uncontrolled. It is well established that the observed poor control of the disease is not only related to poor adherence to medications, but also to limited awareness and adherence to evidence-based management of hypertension among physicians. Several guidelines for the management of patients with hypertension have been published. However, the aim of this document is to provide the busy physicians in Oman with more concise and direct approach towards implementing these guidelines into clinical practice.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of chlorogenic acid production in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum by over-expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor AtPAP1.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To improve the production of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, we induced over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor production of anthocyanin pigment (AtPAP1) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Twelve hairy root lines showing over-expression of AtPAP1 were generated. In order to investigate the regulation of AtPAP1 on the activities of CGA biosynthetic genes, the expression levels of seven P. grandiflorum CGA biosynthetic genes were analyzed in the hairy root line that had the greatest accumulation of AtPAP1 transcript, OxPAP1-1. The introduction of AtPAP1 increased the mRNA levels of all examined CGA biosynthetic genes and resulted in a 900% up-regulation of CGA accumulation in OxPAP1-1 hairy roots relative to controls. This suggests that P. grandiflorum hairy roots that over-express the AtPAP1 gene are a potential alternative source of roots for the production of CGA.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution and baseline values of trace elements in the sediment of Var River catchment, southeast France.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study reports on the determination of trace element (TE)-Li, As, Co, Cs, Cu, Pb, U, and Zn-and major element (ME)-Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, Na, and K-concentrations in 18 riverbed sediments and a sediment core from the Var River catchment using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with those of a reference sediment core, and the contribution of clay and organic carbon contents in the distribution of TE and ME in the sediment samples was investigated. The mean concentrations of the ME were comparable in both core and riverbed samples and were within the natural averages. In the case of TE, the concentrations were lower in riverbed sediment samples than those found in the sediment core. High mean concentration of As was observed (7.6 ?g g(-1)) in both core and riverbed sediments, relatively higher than the worldwide reported values. The obtained data indicated that the natural high level of arsenic might be originated from the parent rocks, especially metamorphic rocks surrounding granites and from Permian sediments. Statistical approach, viz., Pearson correlation matrix, was applied to better understand the correlation among TE in both riverbed and sediment core samples. No significant metallic contamination was detected in the low Var valley despite of the localization of several industrial facilities. Therefore, results confirm that the concentrations of the TE obtained in the riverbed sediments could be considered as a baseline guide for future pollution monitoring program.
Related JoVE Video
How does hybrid bridging core modification robust the nonlinear optical properties in donor-?-acceptor configuration? A case study of dinitrophenol derivatives.
J Comput Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study spotlights the fundamental insights about the structure and static first hyperpolarizability (?) of a series of 2,4-dinitrophenol derivatives (1-5), which are designed by novel bridging core modifications. The central bridging core modifications show noteworthy effects to modulate the optical and nonlinear optical properties in these derivatives. The derivative systems show significantly large amplitudes of first hyperpolarizability as compared to parent system 1, which are 4, 46, 66, and 90% larger for systems 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, at Moller-Plesset (MP2)/6-31G* level of theory. The static first hyperpolarizability and frequency dependent coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham first hyperpolarizability are calculated by means of MP2 and density functional theory methods and compared with respective experimental values wherever possible. Using two-level model with full-set of parameters dependence of transition energy (??), transition dipole moment (?(0) ) as well as change in dipole moment from ground to excited state (??), the origin of increase in ? amplitudes is traced from the change in dipole moment from ground to excited state. The causes of change in dipole moments are further discovered through sum of Mulliken atomic charges and intermolecular charge transfer spotted in frontier molecular orbitals analysis. Additionally, analysis of conformational isomers and UV-Visible spectra has been also performed for all designed derivatives. Thus, our present investigation provides novel and explanatory insights on the chemical nature and origin of intrinsic nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of 2,4-dinitrophenol derivatives. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Antiadhesive activity of poly-hydroxy butyrate biopolymer from a marine Brevibacterium casei MSI04 against shrimp pathogenic vibrios.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vibrio pathogens are causative agents of mid-culture outbreaks, and early mortality syndrome and secondary aetiology of most dreadful viral outbreaks in shrimp aquaculture. Among the pathogenic vibrios group, Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi are considered as the most significant ones in the grow-out ponds of giant black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in India. Use of antibiotics was banned in many countries due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and accumulation of residual antibiotics in harvested shrimp. There is an urgent need to consider the use of alternative antibiotics for the control of vibriosis in shrimp aquaculture. Biofilm formation is a pathogenic and/or establishment mechanism of Vibrio spp. This study aims to develop novel safe antibiofilm and/or antiadhesive process using PHB to contain vibrios outbreaks in shrimp aquaculture.
Related JoVE Video
Dispersion morphology and correlation to moduli using buckling metrology in clay-biopolymer nanocomposite thin films.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Structure-interaction-mechanical property correlation in bionanocomposite thin films is an area of growing interest for research and application areas from barrier to molecular transport to UV blocking layers for polymer solar cells to dielectric properties modification. Here we study flow coated ultrathin to thin films (70-150 nm) of clay bionanocomposites to understand the nanoparticle dispersion and its effect on nanomechanical properties. Binary and ternary thin film systems of polylactide (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and Cloisite 30B (C30B) clay platelets were investigated. While C30B was only partially intercalated by PLA, it was almost completely intercalated by PCL due to strong hydrogen bonding. In addition, the dispersion of C30B improved continuously and linearly with increasing PCL content in homogeneously cast blended PLA:PCL. GIWAXS confirmed that the intercalated clay platelets in PLA and PCL were dominantly oriented parallel to the substrate. The method of strain induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM) showed that pure PLA and PCL had in-plane modulus unchanged from bulk values for this range of ultrathin-thin films. In PLA/C30B nanocomposite thin films, the in-plane elastic modulus rapidly increased by up to 26% with 2 wt % C30B, but saturated thereafter up to 10 wt % C30B forming C30B aggregates. On the other hand, the in-plane elastic modulus of PCL/C30B thin films increased linearly by up to 43% with 10 wt % C30B due to the higher interaction driven dispersion, results that were shown to fit well with the Halpin-Tsai model. We conclude that the different strengthening behavior came from different interaction driven dispersion states of C30B in polymer matrices, governed by their molecular structures.
Related JoVE Video
Hypertension and its associated risk factors in the kingdom of saudi arabia, 2013: a national survey.
Int J Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current data on hypertension in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are lacking. We conducted a national survey to inform decision-makers on the current magnitude of the epidemic. We measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older and interviewed them through a national multistage survey. We used multivariate logistic regressions to describe sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of hypertensive, borderline hypertensive, and undiagnosed hypertensive Saudis. We found that 15.2% and 40.6% of Saudis were hypertensive or borderline hypertensive, respectively. Risk of hypertension increased among men, with age, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. 57.8% of hypertensive Saudis were undiagnosed. These were more likely to be male, older, and diagnosed with diabetes. Among participants diagnosed with hypertension, 78.9% reported taking medication for their condition. About 45% of participants on medication for hypertension had their blood pressure controlled. The prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension is very high in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, control of hypertension is poor. With the majority of hypertensive Saudis being unaware of their condition, a national plan is needed to increase utilization of freely available screening, preventive, and medical services.
Related JoVE Video
Gastroprotective activity of violacein isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum on indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats: investigation of potential mechanisms of action.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chromobacterium violaceum, Gram-negative bacteria species found in tropical regions of the world, produces a distinct deep violet-colored pigment called violacein. In the present study, we investigated whether violacein can promote a gastroprotective effect and verified the possible mechanisms involved in this action. For this study, an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer rat model was used. The roles of biomolecules such as MPO, PGE2, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, caspase-3, NO, K(+)ATP channels, and ? 2-receptors were investigated. Violacein exhibited significant gastroprotective effect against indomethacin-induced lesions, while pretreatment with L-NAME and glibenclamide (but not with NEM or yohimbine) was able to reverse this action. Pretreatment with violacein also restored cNOS level to normal and led to attenuation of enhanced apoptosis and gastric microvascular permeability. Our results suggest that violacein provides a significant gastroprotective effect in an indomethacin-induced ulcer model through the maintenance of some vital protein molecules, and this effect appears to be mediated, at least in part, by endogenous prostaglandins, NOS, K(+)ATP channel opening, and inhibition of apoptosis and gastric microvascular permeability.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of chronic administration of arachidonic acid on lipid profiles and morphology in the skeletal muscles of aged rats.
Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) is a major component of the cell membrane, whereas ARA-derived eicosanoids are formed when cells are damaged. Aging is associated with an accretion of oxidative stress in skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic administration (13 weeks) of ARA (240 mg/kg/day) on fatty acid composition, antioxidative status, and morphology of slow (soleus muscles) and fast (extensor digitorum longus muscles; EDL)-twitch muscles in aged rats (21 months old). The level of reactive oxygen species was higher in the EDL of ARA-administered rats than in that of control rats. ARA administration decreased the muscle cell volumes and increased the number of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive cells in the EDL. The relative content of MHC2X was increased whereas the relative content of MHC2B was decreased in the EDL of ARA-administered rats. These results suggest that ARA deposition in the fast-twitch muscle of aged rats reduced cell volume with an increase in oxidative stress.
Related JoVE Video
Gastroenteritis due to typhoidal Salmonella: a decade of observation at an urban and a rural diarrheal disease hospital in Bangladesh.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study aimed to compare the socio-demographic, host and clinical characteristics, seasonality and antimicrobial susceptibility of Typhoidal Salmonella (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi) (TS) with diarrhea between urban and rural Bangladesh.
Related JoVE Video
Riboflavin Accumulation and Molecular Characterization of cDNAs Encoding Bifunctional GTP Cyclohydrolase II/3,4-Dihydroxy-2-Butanone 4-Phosphate Synthase, Lumazine Synthase, and Riboflavin Synthase in Different Organs of Lycium chinense Plant.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide-essential cofactors for a wide variety of enzymes involving in numerous metabolic processes. In this study, a partial-length cDNA encoding bifunctional GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (LcRIBA), 2 full-length cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (LcLS1 and LcLS2), and a full-length cDNA encoding riboflavin synthase (LcRS) were isolated from Lycium chinense, an important traditional medicinal plant. Sequence analyses showed that these genes exhibited high identities with their orthologous genes as well as having the same common features related to plant riboflavin biosynthetic genes. LcRIBA, like other plant RIBAs, contained a DHBPS region in its N terminus and a GCHII region in its C-terminal part. LcLSs and LcRS carried an N-terminal extension found in plant riboflavin biosynthetic genes unlike the orthologous microbial genes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 4 riboflavin biosynthetic genes were constitutively expressed in all organs examined of L. chinense plants with the highest expression levels found in the leaves or red fruits. LcRIBA, which catalyzes 2 initial reactions in riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, was the highest transcript in the leaves, and hence, the richest content of riboflavin was detected in this organ. Our study might provide the basis for investigating the contribution of riboflavin in diverse biological activities of L. chinense and may facilitate the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crop plants.
Related JoVE Video
Augmented asymmetrical visual field dependence in asymptomatic diabetics: Evidence of subclinical asymmetrical bilateral vestibular dysfunction.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes negatively affects the vestibular system in many ways, with vestibular dysfunction (VD), a co-morbidity with a high prevalence in diabetics.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of dietary supplementation of dates in Alzheimer's disease APPsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.
Nutr Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from Oman. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576) were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls and parallel decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in control diet-treated Tg2576 AD mice. Dates (4 and 2%) treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice exhibited significantly attenuated oxidative damage, evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase). The activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetyl cholinesterase) were altered in control diet-treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice brain regions. Meanwhile, both the percentages of date supplementation were able to restore the activity of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. In summary, we have shown that chronic dietary supplementation of date palm fruits grown in Oman showed possible beneficial effects concomitant with oxidative stress reduction and increased antioxidant enzymes in AD transgenic mice model. These results warrant further exploration of how anti-reactive oxygen species properties of dates offer such beneficial effects on the AD-like brain.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p<0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic areas. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose-response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs.
Related JoVE Video
Consumption of fig fruits grown in Oman can improve memory, anxiety, and learning skills in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.
Nutr Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in the elderly. Several reports have suggested neurotoxic effects of amyloid beta protein (A?) and role of oxidative stress in AD. Figs are rich in fiber, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, vitamin K, and are a good source of proanthocyanidins and quercetin which demonstrate potent antioxidant properties. We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 4% figs grown in Oman on the memory, anxiety, and learning skills in APPsw/Tg2576 (Tg mice) mice model for AD. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4 months and after 15 months using the Morris water maze test, rota-rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open-field test. Tg mice that were fed a control diet without figs showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial, position discrimination learning ability, and motor coordination compared to the wild-type control mice on the same diet, and Tg mice fed on 4% fig diet supplementation for 15 months. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation of figs may be useful for the improvement of cognitive and behavioral deficits in AD.
Related JoVE Video
Keratitis by Fusarium temperatum , a novel opportunist.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background Fusarium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and some species have emerged as major opportunistic fungal infection in human. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. The pathogenesis of this infection relies on three factors: colonization, tissue damage, and immunosuppression. A novel Fusarium species is reported for the first time from keratitis in an agriculture worker who acquired the infection from plant material of maize. Maize plants are the natural host of this fungus where it causes stalk rot and seeding malformation under temperate and humid climatic conditions. The clinical manifestation, microbiological morphology, physiological features and molecular data are described.MethodsDiagnosis was established by using polymerase chain reaction of fungal DNA followed by sequencing portions of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1 ¿) and beta-tubulin (BT2) genes. Susceptibility profiles of this fungus were evaluated using CLSI broth microdilution method.ResultsThe analyses of these two genes sequences support a novel opportunist with the designation Fusarium temperatum. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the reported clinical isolate was nested within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated that the fungus had low MICs of micafungin (0.031 ¿g/ml), posaconazole (0.25 ¿g/ml) and amphotericin B (0.5 ¿g/ml).ConclusionThe present case extends the significance of the genus Fusarium as agents of keratitis and underscores the utility of molecular verification of these emerging fungi in the human host.
Related JoVE Video
Flutamide-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in an in vitro rat hepatocyte system.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flutamide (FLU) is a competitive antagonist of the androgen receptor which has been reported to induce severe liver injury in some patients. Several experimental models suggested that an episode of inflammation during drug treatment predisposes animals to tissue injury. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of FLU in isolated rat hepatocytes using an in vitro oxidative stress inflammation system were investigated in this study. When a nontoxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generating system (glucose/glucose oxidase) with peroxidase or iron(II) [Fe(II)] (to partly simulate in vivo inflammation) was added to the hepatocytes prior to the addition of FLU, increases in FLU-induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were observed that were decreased by 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil or deferoxamine, respectively. N-Acetylcysteine decreased FLU-induced cytotoxicity in this system. Potent antioxidants, for example, Trolox ((±)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), and DPPD (N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) also significantly decreased FLU-induced cytotoxicity and LPO and increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the H2O2 generating system with peroxidase. TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl), a known reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and superoxide dismutase mimetic, also significantly decreased toxicity caused by FLU in this system. These results raise the possibility that the presence or absence of inflammation may be another susceptibility factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Human infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species transmission. Camels may act as a direct source of human MERS-CoV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally.
Related JoVE Video
Blood Pressure Status During Consultation: A Primary Care Study.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blood pressure control needs to be assessed at a primary care level, which is the first contact with patients.
Related JoVE Video
The prevalence of malocclusion and its association with dental caries among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents.
BMC Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the prevalence of malocclusion among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and to determine the association of malocclusion with dental caries.
Related JoVE Video
Melanin-templated rapid synthesis of silver nanostructures.
J Nanobiotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As a potent antimicrobial agent, silver nanostructures have been used in nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food relevant analytes such as organic molecules, aroma, chemical contaminants, gases and food borne pathogens. In addition silver based nanocomposites act as an antimicrobial for food packaging materials. In this prospective, the food grade melanin pigment extracted from sponge associated actinobacterium Nocardiopsis alba MSA10 and melanin mediated synthesis of silver nanostructures were studied. Based on the present findings, antimicrobial nanostructures can be developed against food pathogens for food industrial applications.
Related JoVE Video
Statin associated hepatic adverse effects: a retrospective review from a regional hospital in sultanate of oman.
Oman Med J
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence, pattern and predisposing factors for hepatic adverse effects with statins in a regional hospital in Sultanate of Oman.
Related JoVE Video
Accumulation of astragalosides and related gene expression in different organs of Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var mongholicus (Bge.).
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Astragalus membranaceus is one of the most important traditional Korean and Chinese medicinal herbs because it contains triterpenoid saponins (astragaloside I, II, III, and IV), which have beneficial and pharmacological effects on health. In this study, we analyzed 10 mevalonate pathway genes that are involved in astragaloside biosynthesis using the Illumina/Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. We determined the expression levels of the 10 genes using quantitative real-time PCR, and analyzed the accumulation of astragalosides in different organs using high-performance liquid chromatography. Genes related to the mevalonate pathway were expressed in different levels in different organs. Almost all genes showed high transcript levels in the stem and leaf, with the lowest transcript levels being recorded in the root. In contrast, most astragalosides accumulated in the root. In particular, the astragaloside IV content was distributed in the following order: root (0.58 mg/g DW) > flower (0.27 mg/g DW) > stem (0.23 mg/g DW) > leaf (0.04 mg/g DW). In the root, astragaloside II exhibited the highest content (2.09 mg/g DW) compared to astragaloside I, III, and IV. Notably, gene expression did not follow the same pattern as astragaloside accumulation. We suggest carefully that astragalosides are synthesized in the leaves and stem and then translocated to the root. This study contributes towards improving our understanding of astragaloside biosynthesis in A. membranaceus.
Related JoVE Video
Delineating the anti-cytotoxic and anti-genotoxic potentials of catechin hydrate against cadmium toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Catechins (flavan-3-ol) are a type of natural phenol and well-studied antioxidants. Catechin hydrate, also known as taxifolin; is non-mutagenic, low in toxicity compared to other immunomodulator antioxidants. We aimed to determine the potential of catechin hydrate to prevent the cyto-genotoxic effects of cadmium in lymphocytes; demonstrate the immuno-protective activity of catechin hydrate. Our previous study indicated that cadmium is apoptogenic. Lymphocytes were treated with catechin hydrate or cadmium and catechine hydrate combinations (range 0.1-100?M) to determine their effects on cell viability. Lymphocytes treated with 100?M catechin hydrate and 100?M cadmium showed cell viability 70.65±6.92% and 5.69±2.27%, respectively. In our previous study cadmium (10 and 20?M) induced apoptosis in 31.8% and 44.4% of lymphocytes, respectively. However, the percentage of apoptotic cells after treatment with the combination of cadmium and catechin hydrate was not significantly different from that of catechin hydrate (P>0.05). Only 7.3% and 10.5% of the lymphocytes were apoptotic after treatment with 10?M cadmium+10?M catechin hydrate and 20?M cadmium+20?M catechin hydrate, respectively. The anti-geno-cytotoxic and immuno-protective potential of catechin hydrate was also demonstrated by the non-significant expression of apoptosis-related genes after treatment with catechin hydrate.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular characterization of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in Lycium chinense.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lycium chinense is a shrub that has health benefits and is used as a source of medicines in Asia. In this study, a full-length cDNA clone encoding ?-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXB) and partial-length cDNA clones encoding phytoene synthase (LcPSY), phytoene desaturase (LcPDS), ?-carotene desaturase (LcZDS), lycopene ?-cyclase (LcLCYB), lycopene ?-cyclase (LcLCYE), ?-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXE), zeaxanthin epoxidase (LcZEP), carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (LcCCD1), and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LcNCED) were identified in L. chinense. The transcripts were constitutively expressed at high levels in leaves, flowers and red fruits, where the carotenoids are mostly distributed. In contrast, most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were weakly expressed in the roots and stems, which contained only small amounts of carotenoids. The level of LcLCYE transcripts was very high in leaves and correlated with the abundance of lutein in this plant tissue. During maturation, the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in L. chinense fruits dramatically increased, concomitant with a rise in the level of ?-cryptoxanthin. LcPSY, LcPDS, LcZDS, LcLCYB, and LcCHXE were highly expressed in red fruits, leading to their substantially higher total carotenoid content compared to that in green fruits. Total carotenoid content was high in both the leaves and red fruits of L. chinense. Our findings on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in L. chinense provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and may facilitate the optimization of carotenoid production in L. chinense.
Related JoVE Video
Understanding and Managing Oral Bioavailability: Physiological Concepts and Patents.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oral delivery of poorly bioavailable therapeuticals is challenging. The challenges are more serious when physiological factors of gut such as cytochrome P450, P-glycoprotein, permeability, pH triggered precipitation and degradation are responsible for poor bioavailability. P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance is on high agenda for anti-cancer drugs. Present article compiled different methodologies used to curb these challenges of bioavailability. The concepts of poor bioavailability are illustrated along with possible management. Numerous relevant patents for bioavailability enhancement are also highlighted. Though there is no universal approach for bioavailability enhancement. The drug related challenges are managed by altering its physicochemical characteristics or employing formulation technology, while the effects of physiological factors are minimized by using efflux transport inhibitor or cytochrome P-450 inhibitor or prodrug or through formulation technologies (enteric coating or microenvironment of pH etc.).
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on sildenafil disposition in beagle dogs.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbs namely Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in beagle dogs. The study design involved four treatments in a non-balanced crossover design. Sildenafil was given one tablet 100 mg orally to each dog and blood samples were obtained. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for 1 week. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals and sildenafil was analyzed by HPLC method. Oral administration of Nigella sativa resulted in reduction of AUC0-?, C max and t 1/2 as compared to the control. Treatment of Lepidium sativum resulted in a significant reduction in the C max and AUC. There were no significant differences between the rests of the pharmacokinetic parameters relative to those of the control. For Trigonella foenum-graecum, the effects were similar to those obtained in case of Lepidium sativum. It was concluded that concurrent use of investigated herbs alters the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Co-administration of investigated herbs should be cautious since their concomitant use might result in decrease in sildenafil bioavailability.
Related JoVE Video
Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.
Related JoVE Video
High-Throughput Ultra-Performance LC-MS-MS Method for Analysis of Diclofenac Sodium in Rabbit Plasma.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new UPLC-MS-MS method was developed and validated for quantification of diclofenac sodium in rabbit plasma. Acetonitrile-based protein precipitation method was used to extract the drug from plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was carried out on Acquity UPLC(®)BEH phenyl C18 1.7 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm column. Drug elution was facilitated by using mobile phase containing acetonitrile (0.1% glacial acetic) and water (pH 3.5), in a ratio of 75 : 25, flowing at 0.2 mL/min. Molecular ions were generated by using the positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI(+)) and analyzed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ionic transitions of diclofenac (m/z 296 > 214 and 249.9) and flufenamic acid (internal standard) (m/z 282.1 > 166.9 and 244) were measured in multiple reaction modes. Developed method is simple, quick, precise and accurate over a linearity range of 80-4,000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for diclofenac was 80 ng/mL. The percentage recoveries of diclofenac at three quality control samples were 54 ± 6.1, 67.1 ± 5.4 and 62.3 ± 1.4%. Precision and accuracy of the assay at LLOQ, middle limit of quantitation and higher limit of quantitation were 100 ± 7.0, 100 ± 1.0 and 100 ± 2.0% and 81.8 ± 4.6, 106.6 ± 3.1 and 103.3 ± 4.0%, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) polymorphisms correlate with the progression of nephropathy in Taiwanese male patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polymorphisms of the ADIPOQ gene were associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in case-control studies predominantly among European populations. Gender may modify the ADIPOQ associated risk for DN. We investigated the association of 18 ADIPOQ polymorphisms with DN in a prospective Taiwanese cohort of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and explored whether gender plays a role in this genetic association.
Related JoVE Video
Priorities for primary health care research in Qassim, central Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the major research priorities in the field of Primary Health Care (PHC) in Qassim, Saudi Arabia.
Related JoVE Video
Fatal breakthrough infection with Fusarium andiyazi: new multi-resistant aetiological agent cross-reacting with Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.
Mycoses
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disseminated infections caused by members of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) occur regularly in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present the first human case caused by FFSC-member Fusarium andiyazi. Fever, respiratory symptoms and abnormal computerised tomography findings developed in a 65-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukaemia who was under posaconazole prophylaxis during his remission-induction chemotherapy. During the course of infection, two consecutive blood galactomannan values were found to be positive, and two blood cultures yielded strains resembling Fusarium species, according to morphological appearance. The aetiological agent proved to be F. andiyazi based on multilocus sequence typing. The sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region did not resolve the closely related members of the FFSC, but additional data on partial sequence of transcription elongation factor 1 alpha subunit did. A detailed morphological study confirmed the identification of F. andiyazi, which had previously only been reported as a plant pathogen affecting various food crops.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of MERS-CoV nasal carriage and compliance with the Saudi health recommendations among pilgrims attending the 2013 Hajj.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Annually, Saudi Arabia is the host of the Hajj mass gathering. We aimed to determine the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) nasal carriage rate among pilgrims performing the 2013 Hajj and to describe the compliance with the Saudi Ministry of Health vaccine recommendations.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancing Nutritional Quality of Silage by Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study was aimed to investigate the nutritive profiles, microbial counts and fermentation metabolites in rye, Italian rye-grass (IRG) and barley supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum under the field condition, and its probiotic properties. After preparation of silage, the content of crude protein (CP), crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), microbes such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and fungi counts, and fermentation metabolites lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid was assessed. Results indicated that the content of ADF and NDF were significantly varied between rye, IRG and barley mediated silages. The content of CP was increased in L. plantarum supplemented with IRG, but slightly decreased in rye and barley mediated silages. The maximum LAB count was recorded at 53.10 × 10(7) cfu/g in rye, 16.18 × 10(7) cfu/g in IRG and 2.63 × 10(7) cfu/g in barley silages respectively. A considerable number of the yeasts were observed in the IRG silages than the rye silages (P < 0.05). The amount of lactic acid production is higher in L. plantarum supplemented silages as compared with control samples (P < 0.05). It was confirmed that higher amount of lactic acid produced only due to more number of LAB found in the silages. L. plantarum was able to survive at low pH and bile salt and the duodenum passage with the highest percentage of hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the strain was sensitive towards the antibiotics commonly used to maintain the microbes in food industrial setups. In conclusion, supplementation of L. plantarum is most beneficial in rye, IRG and barley silage preparations and probiotic characteristics of L. plantarum was an intrinsic feature for the application in the preparation of animal feeds and functional foods.
Related JoVE Video
Omega-3 fatty acids protect renal functions by increasing docosahexaenoic acid-derived metabolite levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum), TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA), or EPA (300 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ?-3 PUFA lipid mediators.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-aminobenzamide derivatives as antimicrobial agents: opening/closing pharmacophore site.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of new 2-aminobenzamide derivatives (1-10) has been synthesized in good to excellent yields by adopting both conventional and/or a time-efficient microwave assisted methodologies starting from isatoic anhydride (ISA) and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and microanalytical data. Selected compounds of this series were then tested against various bacterial (Bacillus subtilis (RCMB 000107) and Staphylococcus aureus (RCMB 000106). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (RCMB 000102) and Escherichia coli (RCMB 000103) and fungal strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae (RCMB 006002), Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 002003) and Candida albicans (RCMB 005002) to explore their potential as antimicrobial agents. Compound 5 was found to be the most active compound among those tested, which showed excellent antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 002003) more potent than standard Clotrimazole, and moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activity against most of the other strains of bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, potential pharmacophore sites were identified and their activity was related with the structures in the solution.
Related JoVE Video
Spread, circulation, and evolution of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first documented in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 2012 and, to date, has been identified in 180 cases with 43% mortality. In this study, we have determined the MERS-CoV evolutionary rate, documented genetic variants of the virus and their distribution throughout the Arabian peninsula, and identified the genome positions under positive selection, important features for monitoring adaptation of MERS-CoV to human transmission and for identifying the source of infections. Respiratory samples from confirmed KSA MERS cases from May to September 2013 were subjected to whole-genome deep sequencing, and 32 complete or partial sequences (20 were ? 99% complete, 7 were 50 to 94% complete, and 5 were 27 to 50% complete) were obtained, bringing the total available MERS-CoV genomic sequences to 65. An evolutionary rate of 1.12 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (95% credible interval [95% CI], 8.76 × 10(-4); 1.37 × 10(-3)) was estimated, bringing the time to most recent common ancestor to March 2012 (95% CI, December 2011; June 2012). Only one MERS-CoV codon, spike 1020, located in a domain required for cell entry, is under strong positive selection. Four KSA MERS-CoV phylogenetic clades were found, with 3 clades apparently no longer contributing to current cases. The size of the population infected with MERS-CoV showed a gradual increase to June 2013, followed by a decline, possibly due to increased surveillance and infection control measures combined with a basic reproduction number (R0) for the virus that is less than 1.
Related JoVE Video
Chronic dietary supplementation of 4% figs on the modification of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse model.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We assessed the changes in the plasma A?, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice (Tg2576) after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) K(+) ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of A? (1-40, 1-42) significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced anti-inflammatory activity of carbopol loaded meloxicam nanoethosomes gel.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the current investigation is to develop nanoethosomes for transdermal meloxicam delivery. The ethosomes were prepared by varying the variables such as concentrations of phospholipids 90G, ethanol, and sonication time while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and transdermal flux were the chosen responses. Results indicate that the nanoethosomes of meloxicam provides lesser vesicles size, better entrapment efficiency and improved flux for transdermal delivery as compared to rigid liposomes. The optimized formulation (MCEF-OPT) obtained was further evaluated for an in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Optimized nanoethosomal formulation with vesicles size of 142.3nm showed 78.25% entrapment efficiency and achieved transdermal flux of 10.42?g/cm(2)/h. Nanoethosomes proved to be significantly superior in terms of, amount of drug permeated into the skin, with an enhancement ratio of 3.77 when compared to rigid liposomes. In vivo pharmacodynamic study of carbopol(®) loaded nanoethosomal gel showed significant higher percent inhibition of rat paw edema compared with oral administration of meloxicam. Our results suggest that nanoethosomes are an efficient carrier for transdermal delivery of meloxicam.
Related JoVE Video
Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory indicators with renal function decline in type 2 diabetes.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the inflammatory indicator, interleukin-6 (IL-6), have been implied in the development of renal dysfunction. This longitudinal study examined the effect of n-3 PUFAs and IL-6 on the risk of renal function decline and explored whether n-3 PUFAs modify the effect of inflammatory indicators on renal dysfunction risk in type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.