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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intratunnel Versus Extratunnel Autologous Hamstring Double-Bundle Graft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Comparison of 2 Femoral Fixation Procedures.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction provides excellent results for restoring normal kinematics to the knee. Nevertheless, strong evidence supporting an ideal method for fixation of the ACL graft is lacking.
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Gastric heterotopia of rectum in a child: a mimicker of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.
Ann Saudi Med
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Bleeding per rectum is an uncommon presentation in pediatric patients. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Here, we report a 3-year-old child with a bleeding rectal ulcer that was initially diagnosed and managed as a solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. After 1 month, the patient persisted to have intermittent rectal bleed and severe anal pain. Repeat colonoscopy showed the worsening of the rectal ulcer in size. Pediatric surgeon excised the ulcer, and histopathological examination revealed a gastric fundic-type mucosa consistent with the diagnosis of gastric heterotopia of the rectum. Over the following 18 months, our patient had experienced no rectal bleeding and remained entirely asymptomatic. In conclusion, heterotopic gastric mucosa of the rectum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a bleeding rectal ulcer.
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Reference genes for expression studies in hypoxia and hyperglycemia models in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-based gene expression studies performed under hypoxia and/or hyperglycemia show huge potential for modeling endothelial cell response in cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, such studies require reference genes that are stable across the whole range of experimental conditions. These reference genes have not been comprehensively defined to date. We applied human genome-wide microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) on RNA obtained from primary HUVEC cultures that were incubated for 24 hr either in euglycemic or in hyperglycemic conditions and then subjected to short-term CoCl2-induced hypoxia for 1, 3, or 12 hr. Using whole-transcript arrays, we selected 10 commonly used reference genes with no significant expression variation across eight different conditions. These genes were ranked using NormFinder software according to their stability values. Consequently, five genes were selected for validation by qRT-PCR. These were ribosomal protein large P0 (RPLP0), transferrin receptor (TFRC), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ?-glucuronidase (GUSB), and ?-actin (ACTB). All five genes displayed stable expression under hyperglycemia. However, only RPLP0 and TFRC genes were stable under hypoxia up to 12 hr. Under hyperglycemia combined with hypoxia up to 12 hr, the expression of RPLP0, TFRC, GUSB, and ACTB genes remained unchanged. Our findings strongly confirm that RPLP0 and TFRC are the most suitable reference genes for HUVEC gene expression experiments subjected to hypoxia and/or hyperglycemia for the given experimental conditions. We provide further evidence that even commonly known references genes require experimental validation for all conditions involved.
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A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Stiripentol: Development, Validation, Kinetics, Structure Elucidation and Application to Commercial Dosage Form.
J Anal Methods Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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A rapid, simple, sensitive, and accurate isocratic reversed-phase stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the determination of stiripentol and its degradation product in its bulk form and pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Symmetry C18 column and quantification was achieved using photodiode array detector (DAD). The method was validated in accordance with the ICH requirements showing specificity, linearity (r (2) = 0.9996, range of 1-25??g/mL), precision (relative standard deviation lower than 2%), accuracy (mean recovery 100.08 ± 1.73), limits of detection and quantitation (LOD = 0.024 and LOQ = 0.081??g/mL), and robustness. Stiripentol was subjected to various stress conditions and it has shown marked stability under alkaline hydrolytic stress conditions, thermal, oxidative, and photolytic conditions. Stiripentol degraded only under acidic conditions, forming a single degradation product which was well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different retention time values. This degradation product was characterized by (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy as well as ion trap mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the method would have a great value when applied in quality control and stability studies for stiripentol.
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A novel pathogenic mutation of the CYP27B1 gene in a patient with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1: a case report.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Rickets can occur due to Vitamin D deficiency or defects in its metabolism. Three rare genetic types of rickets with different alterations of genes have been reported, including: Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1, Vitamin D dependent rickets type 2 or also known as Vitamin D resistant rickets and 25 hydroxylase deficiency rickets. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1 is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and is caused by mutations in the CYP27B1 gene encoding the 1?-hydroxylase enzyme. We report here a new mutation in CYP27B1, which lead to Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1.
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Urinary bladder radiotherapy-related chondroblastic osteosarcoma: Rare case report and review of literature.
Urol Ann
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Radiation-related osteosarcomas are well described malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, yet their pathogenesis is not fully understood. They are generally classified into either skeletal osteosarcomas, or their and rare soft tissue counterpart. The occurrence of osteosarcoma in the urinary bladder (UB) following radiotherapy is exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of radiation-related urinary bladder osteosarcoma have been published; we herein describe another case of an 85-year-old man who developed post radiotherapy chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the urinary bladder four years following initial surgical resection and radiotherapy for bladder urothelial carcinoma. We believe that this is the first case of radiation-related chondroblastic osteosarcoma arising in the urinary bladder. In addition, we review the literature and explore the possible histogenesis of this rare neoplasm.
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Annual and weekly patterns of ozone and particulate matter in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Air pollution has been an increasing concern within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries. In this work the authors present an analysis of daily ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NO(x)), and particulate matter (< 10 miccrom aerodynamic diameter; PM10) concentrations for two years (2010 and 2011) at sites in and around the coastal city of Jeddah, as well as a remote background site for comparison. Monthly and weekly variations, along with their implications and consequences, were also examined. O3 within Jeddah was remarkably low, and exhibited the so-called weekend effect--elevated O3 levels on the weekends, despite reduced emissions of O3 precursors on those days. Weekend O3 increases averaged between 12% and 14% in the city, suggesting that NO(x)/volatile organic compound (VOC) ratios within cities such as Jeddah may be exceptionally high. Sites upwind or far removed from Jeddah did not display this weekend effect. Based on these results, emission control strategies in and around Jeddah must carefully address NO(x)/VOC ratios so as to reduce O3 at downwind locations without increasing it within urban locations themselves. PM10 concentrations within Jeddah were elevated compared with North American cites of similar climatology though comparable to other large cities within the Middle East. Implications: Daily concentrations of O3, PM10, and NO(x) in and around the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are analyzed and compared with those of other reference cities. Extremely low O3 levels, along with a significant urban weekend effect (higher weekend O3, despite reduced NO(x) concentrations), is apparent, along with high levels of PM10 within the city. Urban O3 in Jeddah was found to be lower than that of other comparable cities, but the strong weekend effect suggests that care must be taken to reduce downwind O3 levels without increasing them within the city itself. Further research into the emissions and chemistry contributing to the reduced O3 levels within the city is warranted.
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Saudi practical guidelines on biologic treatment of psoriasis.
J Dermatolog Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Abstract The current treatment of psoriasis patients with biologic agents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is mainly based on clinical experience. Although there are published international guidelines for treatment with biologics, such as the European S3 guidelines (a joint project of the European Dermatology Forum, the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, and the International Psoriasis Council), many nations have found it beneficial to develop country-based guidelines that incorporate specific regional aspects of therapy (legal and practical). With the expanded role of biologic agents in the treatment of psoriasis in Saudi Arabia, a need for local Saudi guidelines has become evident. Here we present a practical approach to the evidence-based clinical administration of biologics for professionals who treat patients with psoriasis.
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Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreductant.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can be significantly enhanced by increasing the wettability or solubility of NPs in aqueous medium. In this study, we investigated the effects of the stabilizing agent on the solubility of silver NPs and its subsequent effect on their antimicrobial activities. Silver NPs were prepared using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as bioreductant. The solution also acts as a capping ligand. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of silver NPs, as well as the plant extract alone, were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. Silver NPs were prepared with various concentrations of the plant extract to study its effect on antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, various concentrations of P. glutinosa extract did not show any effect on the growth of tested bacteria; however, a significant effect on the antimicrobial property of plant extract capped silver NPs (Ag-NPs-PE) was observed. For instance, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were found to decrease (from 4% to 21%) with the increasing concentrations of plant extract used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs-PE. These results clearly indicate that the addition of P. glutinosa extracts enhances the solubility of Ag-NPs-PE and, hence, increases their toxicity against the tested microorganisms.
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Hepatic fibrinogen storage disease due to the fibrinogen ?375 Arg ? Trp mutation "fibrinogen Aguadilla" is present in Arabs.
Saudi J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The mutation ?375Arg ? Trp (fibrinogen Aguadilla) is one of four mutations (Brescia, Aguadilla, Angers, and AI duPont) capable of causing hepatic storage of fibrinogen. It has been observed in four children from the Caribbean, Europe, and Japan, suffering from cryptogenic liver disease. We report the first case of hepatic fibrinogen storage disease in Arabs due to a mutation in the fibrinogen ?-chain gene in a 3-year-old Syrian girl presenting with elevated liver enzymes. The finding of an impressive accumulation of fibrinogen in liver cells raised the suspicion of endoplasmic reticulum storage disease. Sequencing of the fibrinogen genes revealed a ?375Arg ? Trp mutation (fibrinogen Aguadilla) in the child and in her father. In conclusion, when confronted with chronic hepatitis of unknown origin, one should check the plasma fibrinogen level and look carefully for the presence of hepatocellular intracytoplasmic globular inclusions to exclude hepatic fibrinogen storage disease.
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Novel hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene mutations in Saudi Arabian hyperuricemia patients.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Over the past decade, a steady increase in the incidence of HPRT-related hyperuricemia (HRH) has been observed in Saudi Arabia. We examined all the nine exons of HPRT gene for mutations in ten biochemically confirmed hyperuricemia patients, including one female and three normal controls. In all, we identified 13 novel mutations in Saudi Arabian HPRT-related hyperuricemia patients manifesting different levels of uric acid. The Lys103Met alteration was highly recurrent and was observed in 50% of the cases, while Ala160Thr and Lys158Asn substitutions were found in two patients. Moreover, in 70% of the patients ?2 mutations were detected concurrently in the HPRT gene. Interestingly, one of the patients that harbored Lys103Met substitution along with two frameshift mutations at codons 85 and 160 resulting in shortened protein demonstrated unusually high serum uric acid level of 738??mol/L. Two of the seven point mutations that resulted in amino acid change (Lys103Met and Val160Gly) were predicted to be damaging by SIFT and Polyphen and were further analyzed for their protein stability and function by molecular dynamics simulation. The identified novel mutations in the HPRT gene may prove useful in the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.
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Genetics of keratoconus: where do we stand?
J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Keratoconus is a progressive thinning and anterior protrusion of the cornea that results in steepening and distortion of the cornea, altered refractive powers, and reduced vision. Keratoconus has a complex multifactorial etiology, with environmental, behavioral, and multiple genetic components contributing to the disease pathophysiology. Using genome-wide and candidate gene approaches several genomic loci and genes have been identified that highlight the complex molecular etiology of this disease. The review focuses on current knowledge of these genetic risk factors associated with keratoconus.
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Advances in chiral separations of small peptides by capillary electrophoresis and chromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Many chemical and biological processes are controlled by the stereochemistry of small polypeptides (di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexapeptides, etc). The biological importance of peptide stereoisomers is of great value. Therefore, the chiral resolution of peptides is an important issue in biological and medicinal sciences and drug industries. The chiral resolutions of peptide racemates have been discussed with the use of capillary electrophoresis and chromatographic techniques. The various chiral selectors used were polysaccharides, cyclodextrins, Pirkle types, macrocyclic antibiotics, crown ethers, imprinted polymers, etc. The stereochemistry of dipeptides is also discussed. Besides, efforts are made to explain the chiral recognition mechanisms, which will be helpful in understanding existing and developing new stereoselective analyses. Future perspectives of enantiomeric resolution are also predicted. Finally, the review concludes with the demand of enantiomeric resolution of all naturally occurring and synthetic peptides.
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'Scarless' laparoscopic urologic surgery by the combination of mini-laparoscopic and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery equipment.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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We evaluated reconstructive and oncological laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) combined with mini-laparoscopic instruments as standard equipment.
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Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the testis.
Urol Ann
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Testicular neuroendocrine tumor is rare. It accounts for less than 1% of all testicular neoplasms. More than 60 cases have been published in the literature. A 27-year-old man presented with left testicular mass and underwent radical orchidectomy. Histological examination showed neuroendocrine tumor, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The patient showed no evidence of metastasis over 1-year follow-up post-orchidectomy in spite of extensive tumor necrosis.
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Thymoquinone attenuates cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity via nuclear factor kappa-?.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Cisplatin (CP) is known as a potent anti-cancer drug. The most therapeutic adverse effect of CP is induced hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) on CP-induced hepatotoxicity was studied.
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Association of mitochondrial haplogroups H and R with keratoconus in Saudi Arabian patients.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Keratoconic corneas exhibit more mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage than do normal corneas and thus mtDNA may represent a potential candidate for genetic susceptibility studies in keratoconus. To test this hypothesis we determined mitochondrial haplogroups in Saudi patients with keratoconus and healthy controls of same ethnicity.
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Identification and phylogeny of Arabian snakes: Comparison of venom chromatographic profiles versus 16S rRNA gene sequences.
Saudi J Biol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Identification of snake species is important for various reasons including the emergency treatment of snake bite victims. We present a simple method for identification of six snake species using the gel filtration chromatographic profiles of their venoms. The venoms of Echis coloratus, Echis pyramidum, Cerastes gasperettii, Bitis arietans, Naja arabica, and Walterinnesia aegyptia were milked, lyophilized, diluted and centrifuged to separate the mucus from the venom. The clear supernatants were filtered and chromatographed on fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). We obtained the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the above species and performed phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method. The chromatograms of venoms from different snake species showed peculiar patterns based on the number and location of peaks. The dendrograms generated from similarity matrix based on the presence/absence of particular chromatographic peaks clearly differentiated Elapids from Viperids. Molecular cladistics using 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in jumping clades while separating the members of these two families. These findings suggest that chromatographic profiles of snake venoms may provide a simple and reproducible chemical fingerprinting method for quick identification of snake species. However, the validation of this methodology requires further studies on large number of specimens from within and across species.
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Biogenic synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using Pulicaria glutinosa extract and their catalytic activity towards the Suzuki coupling reaction.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Green synthesis of nanomaterials finds the edge over chemical methods due to its environmental compatibility. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (NPs) using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa, a plant widely found in a large region of Saudi Arabia, as a bioreductant. The as-prepared Pd NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The hydroxyl groups of the plant extract (PE) molecules were found mainly responsible for the reduction and growth of Pd NPs. FT-IR analysis confirmed the dual role of the PE, both as a bioreductant as well as a capping ligand, which stabilizes the surface of Pd NPs. The crystalline nature of the Pd NPs was identified using XRD analysis which confirmed the formation of a face-centered cubic structure (JCPDS: 87-0641, space group: Fm3m (225)). Furthermore, the as-synthesized Pd NPs demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards the Suzuki coupling reaction under aqueous and aerobic conditions. Kinetic studies of the catalytic reaction monitored using GC confirmed that the reaction completes in less than 5 minutes.
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Students' perceptions about the family medicine course in Qassim, Saudi Arabia.
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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This study explores students' perceptions and attitudes regarding educational methodology, content and assessment methods in the Family Medicine (FM) Course at Qassim University College of Medicine (QUCOM) with a view to build innovations and improvements on its findings.
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An unusual case of atrophic mandible fracture in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta and on oral bisphosphonate therapy: Case report.
Saudi Dent J
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Fractures of severely atrophic (height < 10 mm) edentulous mandibles are infrequent and challenging to manage. Factors such as sclerotic bone and decreased vascularity combined with systemic diseases complicate the management of such fractures. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of type I collagen metabolism. Patients with OI characteristically present with histories of long bone fractures, deformities, blue sclerae, and opalescent dentin. However, fractures of the facial skeleton are rare. Bisphosphonate therapy has been proven to effectively reduce the fracture risk in patients with OI. The purpose of this clinical report is to present an unusual case of spontaneous fracture of the atrophic mandible in a patient with OI. Despite open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with miniplate osteosynthesis, the patient developed a second fracture at a screw placement site distal to the first fracture. The patient was successfully treated with ORIF using locking reconstruction plates fixed in the symphyseal and angle regions. Bone healing following ORIF was normal, and no clinical sign of osteonecrosis as a result of bisphosphonate therapy was observed. Patients with OI can present with spontaneous fractures of already weakened mandibles. Although such fractures can be managed with care using established protocols, further research is required to examine the effects of concomitant medication, such as bisphosphonates.
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HPLC-fluorescence method for the enantioselective analysis of propranolol in rat serum using immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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A stereoselective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine S-(-)- and R-(+)-propranolol in rat serum. Enantiomeric resolution was achieved on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) immobilized onto spherical porous silica chiral stationary phase (CSP) known as Chiralpak IB. A simple analytical method was validated using a mobile phase consisted of n-hexane-ethanol-triethylamine (95:5:0.4%, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6?mL?min(-1) and fluorescence detection set at excitation/emission wavelengths 290/375?nm. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 10-400?ng?mL(-1) (R?=?0.999) for each enantiomer with a detection limit of 3?ng?mL(-1). The proposed method was validated in compliance with ICH guidelines in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation. Actual quantification could be made for propranolol isomers in serum obtained from rats that had been intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered a single dose of the drug. The proposed method established in this study is simple and sensitive enough to be adopted in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology. Molecular modeling studies including energy minimization and docking studies were first performed to illustrate the mechanism by which the active enantiomer binds to the ?-adrenergic receptor and second to find a suitable interpretation of how both enantiomers are interacting with cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) CSP during the process of resolution. The latter interaction was demonstrated by calculating the binding affinities and interaction distances between propranolol enantiomers and chiral selector.
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Mitochondrial sequence changes in keratoconus patients.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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We investigated whether a group of patients with keratoconus (KTCN) harbor mutations in the mitochondrial genome.
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Analysis of the SOD1 Gene in Keratoconus Patients from Saudi Arabia.
Ophthalmic Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Abstract We investigated Saudi patients with familial and sporadic Keratoconus for mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1, soluble (SOD1) gene. We sequenced the entire coding region, exon-intron boundaries and intron 2 encompassing a 7-bp deletion in clinically confirmed Keratoconus patients (n?=?55) and 100 ethnically matched healthy controls. All cases and controls were unrelated. Sequencing the SOD1 gene revealed the presence of four nucleotide changes and all were non-coding. Those were g.12035 C?>?A; g.13978 T?>?A; g.12037 G?>?A and g.11931 A?>?C with similar frequencies in patients and controls. All four sequence changes were benign polymorphisms with no apparent clinical significance. Additionally, the 7-bp deletion in intro2 reported previously, were not detected in any of our Keratocnus cohort. In our Keratoconus cohort, no pathogenic SOD1 mutation(s) was identified.
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Enantio-separation of drugs with multiple chiral centers by chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Some drugs with more than one chiral center are of high medicinal values. However, the chiral resolution of such types of racemate is a challenging task for scientists. The evolution of efficient chiral selectors is a hope for the future. Some papers have described such types of chiral resolution. The different techniques used for the purpose are HPLC, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, capillary electrochromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Owing to these facts, it was necessary to review the enantiomeric resolution of racemic drugs having more than one chiral center. The present article describes the chiral resolution of labetalol, formoterol, nadolol, indenolol, nebivolol and diltiazem using above cited techniques. In addition, attempts have been made to discuss the chiral recognition mechanism and future perspectives. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Laparoscopic radical and partial nephrectomy: The clinical efficacy and acceptance of the techniques.
Urol Ann
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The laparoscopic approach has been established as the surgical procedure of choice for radical nephrectomy during the recent years. The advantages of the laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in comparison to the open approach are well-documented. The oncological results of the laparoscopic approach are similar to the open procedure while the post-operative morbidity is lower. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy seems to gain ground to its open counterpart, as the accumulation of experience in the technique grows. In this review, a PubMed search in the latest literature on radical and partial laparoscopic nephrectomy took place and the outcome of the search is presented. Several issues about the surgical techniques and clinical efficacy are discussed. In addition, the preliminary experience in laparoscopic nephrectomy of one of the authoring institutions is also presented.
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Assessment of urinary osteopontin in association with podocyte for early predication of nephropathy in diabetic patients.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Microalbuminuria has been clinically used for noninvasive evaluation of renal dysfunctions. However, it is a nonspecific marker of diabetic nephropathy (DN).
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Enantiomeric separation and simulation studies of pheniramine, oxybutynin, cetirizine, and brinzolamide chiral drugs on amylose-based columns.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Solid phase extraction (SPE)-chiral separation of the important drugs pheniramine, oxybutynin, cetirizine, and brinzolamide was achieved on the C18 cartridge and AmyCoat (150 x 46?mm) and Chiralpak AD (25?cm x 0.46?cm id) chiral columns in human plasma. Pheniramine, oxybutynin, cetirizine, and brinzolamide were resolved using n-hexane-2-PrOH-DEA (85:15:0.1, v/v), n-hexane-2-PrOH-DEA (80:20:0.1, v/v), n-hexane-2-PrOH-DEA (70:30:0.2, v/v), and n-hexane-2-propanol (90:10, v/v) as mobile phases. The separation was carried out at 25?±?1?ºC temperature with detection at 225?nm for cetirizine and oxybutynin and 220?nm for pheniramine and brinzolamide. The flow rates of the mobile phases were 0.5 mL min(-1). The retention factors of pheniramine, oxybutynin, cetirizine and brinzolamide were 3.25 and 4.34, 4.76 and 5.64, 6.10 and 6.60, and 1.64 and 2.01, respectively. The separation factors of these drugs were 1.33, 1.18, 1.09 and 1.20 while their resolutions factors were 1.09, 1.45, 1.63 and 1.25, and 1.15, respectively. The absolute configurations of the eluted enantiomers of the reported drugs were determined by simulation studies. It was observed that the order of enantiomers elution of the reported drugs was S-pheniramine?>?R-pheniramine; R-oxybutynin?>?S-oxybutynin; S-cetirizine?>?R-cetirizine; and S-brinzolamide?>?R-brinzolamide. The mechanism of separation was also determined at the supramolecular level by considering interactions and modeling results. The reported SPE-chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods are suitable for the enantiomeric analyses of these drugs in any biological sample. In addition, simulation studies may be used to determine the absolute configuration of the first and second eluted enantiomers.
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Long-term follow-up of tacrolimus ointment for treatment of atopic keratoconjunctivitis.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes of 0.1% tacrolimus dermatologic ointment (Protopic) in cases of refractory atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC).
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Advances in enantiomeric resolution on monolithic chiral stationary phases in liquid chromatography and electrochromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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During the last decade, chiral monolithic stationary phases have been prepared and used for rapid enantioseparations in CEC and HPLC. Various chiral selectors are used to prepare these CSPs. The preparation, properties, and applications of these CSPs are discussed in this paper. Attempts have been made to describe optimization strategies and the chiral recognition mechanisms. A comparison of chiral separations in CEC and HPLC is described. Efforts have also been made to predict the future perspectives and challenges of chiral monolithic stationary phases. The most effective chiral selectors include polysaccharides, cyclodextrins, and macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotics. These chiral phases produced acceptable analytical enantiomeric separation of a variety of racemates. However, the development of these CSPs for preparative-scale separations is needed.
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In vitro Evaluation of Ureteral Contractility: A Comparative Assessment of Human, Porcine and Sheep Ureteral Response to Vardenafil.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Objectives: Basic science studies of ureteral physiology and pathophysiology are commonly performed on animal ureters due to several limitations associated with human ureteral sampling. In this work we question whether animal ureters are good replicas of human ureteral behavior for pharmacological studies. Materials and Methods: Ureteral rings from human, porcine and ovine ureters underwent the same organ bath protocol. After stimulation with KCl, ureters were subjected to different doses of vardenafil. Basic contractility and ureteral response to vardenafil were analyzed. Results: A different pattern of basic contractility was evidenced between species. Vardenafil administration induced a dose-dependent reduction in KCl-induced amplitude increase in human ureters and a dose-dependent reduction in autonomic contractile rhythm of porcine and ovine ureters. Although animal ureters could predict the relaxant response of human samples to vardenafil, its effect would have been overestimated using only animal models. Conclusions: Human ureteral investigations cannot entirely be replaced by existing animal models since results of the latter will vary significantly according to the tested pharmaceutical agent. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with gastric outlet obstruction in a child.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5?cm × 2?cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.
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Long-term Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Deep Sclerectomy in Uveitic Glaucoma.
Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To assess long-term efficacy and safety of deep sclerectomy (DS) in uveitic glaucoma. Patients and methods: Thirty-three consecutive eyes (21 patients) with uveitic glaucoma underwent DS with mitomycin C and implant. Goniopuncture (GP) was done for uncontrolled postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP). Results: Mean (±SD) follow-up was 33.2 (±19.8) months. IOP was reduced from a mean preoperative value of 37.2 to postoperative value of 14.7?mmHg (p?
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Blepharo-cheilo-dontic (BCD) syndrome: expanding the phenotype, case report and review of literature.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The combination of lagophthalmia, euryblepharon, ectropion of lower eyelids, distichiasis, bilateral cleft lip and palate, and oligodontia comprises the blepharo-cheilo-dontic (BCD) syndrome. This combination has been found sporadically or with positive family history and inherited as an autosomal dominant condition with variable expression. We described a Saudi boy with the cardinal signs consistent with the BCD syndrome. In addition to the common components of BCD syndrome that involve eyelids, lip, and teeth abnormalities, this patient is the third reported BCD case with imperforate anus, the second with thyroid agenesis, and the first with lumbosacral meningomyelocele.
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Aripiprazole an atypical antipsychotic protects against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The present investigation was undertaken, to study the gastro-protective potential of aripiprazole (ARI) an atypical antipsychotic drug in ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. ARI (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) was tested for gastric secretion and antiulcer activity in different groups of male Sprague Dawley rats. Gastric secretion and acidity studies were performed in pylorus ligated rats while indices of gastric ulcers were measured in ethanol (1 ml-100%) induced gastric ulcers. Histological changes and the levels of gastric wall mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and serotonin were used to assess ethanol induced gastric mucosal injuries. Exposure of rats to ethanol resulted in gastric mucosal injury and a high index of ulcer. Pretreatment with ARI significantly (P < 0.001), reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol and also resulted in a significant decrease in the gastric secretion, and total acidity in pylorus ligated rats. ARI also significantly attenuated the ethanol induced reduction in the levels of gastric wall mucus, and NP-SH (P < 0.001). The histological changes and the increased MDA and MPO activity were also significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited by ARI. Ethanol induced depletion in the levels of serotonin in the gastric tissue were also significantly restored by pretreatment with ARI (p < 0.001). ARI showed significant antiulcer and gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers. The gastroprotective effects of ARI may be due to its anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and also due to the restoration of the depleted gastric serotonin levels.
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Keratoconus is associated with increased copy number of mitochondrial DNA.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the possible association of oxidative stress with keratoconus (KC), we estimated the changes in relative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content.
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Gastroprotective effect of minocycline in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Minocycline (MCN), a semi-synthetic tetracycline derivative possesses pleiotropic effects and provides protection against a number of disease models. However its effect on gastric ulcers has not been studied. The present investigation was undertaken, to study the gastro-protective potential of MCN in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats. MCN (10, 30, 100 mg/Kg) was tested for gastric secretion and antiulcer activity in different groups of Wistar rats. Gastric secretion and acidity studies were performed in pylorus ligated rats while indices of gastric ulcers were measured in ethanol (1 ml-100%) and indomethacin (30 mg/kg), induced gastric ulcers. Histological changes and the levels of gastric wall mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), were used to assess ethanol induced gastric mucosal injuries. Exposure of rats to ulcerogens resulted in gastric mucosal injury and a significant increase in the indices of ulcer. MCN conferred a protective effect against ethanol, and indomethacin induced gastric mucosal injuries. Treatment with MCN, resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of gastric secretion, and total acidity and significantly (P<0.001), reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin. MCN also significantly attenuated the ethanol induced reduction in the levels of gastric wall mucus, and NP-SH (P<0.001). The histological changes and the increased MDA and MPO activity were also significantly (P<0.001) inhibited by MCN. Minocycline showed significant antiulcer and gastroprotective activity against experimentally induced gastric ulcers. The gastroprotective effects of minocycline may be due to its anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti inflammatory action.
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Characteristics of multiple sclerosis in the Middle East with special reference to the applicability of international guidelines to the region.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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We have reviewed the clinical literature with reference to the local applicability of guidelines for the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Middle East. There is a substantial burden of MS in the region: the prevalence of the disease appears to have increased markedly in recent decades, with a faster rate of increase in female vs. male patients. The aetiology and presentation of MS appears to be broadly similar in the Middle East to that in other regions. Interferon-? is the most commonly used treatment for MS in the Middle East, as elsewhere, although it is unclear to what extent economic constraints act as a barrier to accessing this treatment. Similarly, limited available data suggest that the availability of MRI scanners appears to be lower in the Middle East than in more developed nations. Little is known concerning other potential barriers to treatment. There is a need for further research on aspects of management of MS beyond the pharmacological aspects of treatment to assess fully the potential barriers to the adoption of international guidelines for the diagnosis and management of the disease in the Middle East.
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Facile synthesis of novel Ni(II)-based metal-organic coordination polymer nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their application for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose sensing.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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The present paper reports on the facile preparation of novel Ni(II)-based metal-organic coordination polymer nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide (NiCPNP/rGO) nanocomposites for the first time. The formation of the nanocomposites occurs in a single step, carried out by hydrothermal treatment of the mixture of tannic acid functioned graphene oxide and NiCl(2) aqueous solution in N,N-dimethylformamide. It is found that the NiCPNP/rGO nanocomposite-modified electrode shows high electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation in alkaline medium. This nonenzymatic glucose sensor exhibits high selectivity toward glucose and the linear range and limit of detection are estimated to be from 0.01 to 8.75 mM (r: 0.997) and 0.14 ?M with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively. The application of this glucose sensor in human blood serum has also been demonstrated successfully.
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Ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets: a novel peroxidase mimetic, Fe doping-mediated catalytic performance enhancement and application to rapid, highly sensitive optical detection of glucose.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4) possess peroxidase activity. Fe doping of the nanosheets leads to peroxidase mimetics with greatly enhanced catalytic performance and the mechanism involved is proposed. We further demonstrate the novel use of such Fe-g-C3N4 as a cheap nanosensor for simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive optical detection of glucose with a pretty low detection limit of 0.5 ?M.
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Spinel CuCo2O4 nanoparticles supported on N-doped reduced graphene oxide: a highly active and stable hybrid electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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In this Letter, for the first time, we demonstrated the preparation of a highly efficient electrocatalyst, spinel CuCo2O4 nanoparticles supported on N-doped reduced graphene oxide (CuCo2O4/N-rGO), for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline media. The hybrid exhibits higher ORR catalytic activity than CuCo2O4 or N-rGO alone, the physical mixture of CuCo2O4 nanoparticles and N-rGO, and Co3O4/N-rGO. Moreover, such a hybrid affords superior durability to the commercial Pt/C catalyst.
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Ni foam: a novel three-dimensional porous sensing platform for sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose detection.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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The present communication reports on the first use of commercially available three-dimensional porous Ni foam (NF) as a novel electrochemical sensing platform for nonenzymatic glucose detection. NF not only acts as a working electrode, but also functions as an effective electrocatalyst for electrooxidation of glucose. The sensor exhibits high selectivity toward glucose. The linear range and limit of detection were 0.05-7.35 mM (R = 0.995) and 2.2 ?M with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively. The application of this glucose sensor in human blood serum has also been demonstrated successfully.
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Management of retained intervention guide-wire: a literature review.
Curr Cardiol Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Percutaneous coronary angioplasty is increasingly employed in the treatment of patients with complex coronary artery disease. Different steerable guide wires used to open occluded vessel and facilitate balloon and stent deployment. However, the guide-wire itself is not without hazard: it may perforate or dissect the vessel, but fracture or entrapment is uncommon. Its management depends on the clinical situation of the patient, as well as the position and length of the remnant. In this review we discuss the angioplasty guide-wire fracture and entrapment risk factors, potential risks and management.
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Conformationally assisted lactamizations for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical bis-2,5-diketopiperazines.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Open-chain N-Cbz-protected-peptidoyl benzotriazolides are converted by a novel lactamization strategy using proline as a turn introducer into both symmetrical (5a-c and 11a-c) and unsymmetrical (19a-e) bis-2,5-diketopiperazines (bis-2,5-DKPs), previously recognized as difficult targets.
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Ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets: a low-cost, green, and highly efficient electrocatalyst toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and its glucose biosensing application.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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In this communication, we demonstrate for the first time that ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C?N?) nanosheets can serve as a low-cost, green, and highly efficient electrocatalyst toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. We further demonstrate its application for electrochemical glucose biosensing in both buffer solution and human serum medium with a detection limit of 11 ?M and 45 ?M, respectively.
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Direct effects of vardenafil on the ureter: in vitro investigation and potential clinical applications of intralumenal administration.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Local intralumenal administration of substances with beneficial effects over the ureter appears to be a very attractive route for the administration of drugs to the urinary system, avoiding systemic adverse reactions associated with per os administration. This work investigates whether vardenafil is a good candidate for local intralumenal ureteral administration. More precisely, we examined the effect of vardenafil on human ureter contractility and on the viability of cultured human urothelial cells (hUC) and bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC). Our study revealed that vardenafil induced a dose-depended relaxation of isolated human ureteral tissue. In addition, growth and cell viability of cultured hBSMC and hUC remained unaltered after vardenafil application. Based on the above, this selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor can be considered as a promising pharmacologic agent for local intralumenal administration in clinical conditions in which ureteral dilation might be beneficial.
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Two-dimensional hybrid mesoporous Fe2O3-graphene nanostructures: a highly active and reusable peroxidase mimetic toward rapid, highly sensitive optical detection of glucose.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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In this article, for the first time, two-dimensional hybrid mesoporous Fe2O3-graphene (mFe2O3-G) nanostructures were developed as a peroxidase mimetic with catalytic activities superior to those of mFe2O3, G, and previously reported Fe-based peroxidase mimetics. The high-surface-area mFe2O3 not only offers a large number of catalytically active sites, but also facilitates the diffusion of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H2O2 toward G surface. On the other hand, G is ?-rich and thus favors the adsorption and enrichment of TMB within these pores. These synergistic effects lead to highly improved catalytic performances. Based on these findings, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive and selective optical detector of glucose has been developed and demonstrated in buffer solution with a pretty low detection limit of 0.5 ?M. In addition, this nanosensor is reusable and can also be used for glucose detection in diluted serum.
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Au-nanoparticle-loaded graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets: green photocatalytic synthesis and application toward the degradation of organic pollutants.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were loaded on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets prepared by ultrasonication-assisted liquid exfoliation of bulk g-C3N4 via green photoreduction of Au(III) under visible light irradiation using g-C3N4 as an effective photocatalyst. The nanohybrids show superior photocatalytic activities for the decomposition of methyl orange under visible-light irradiation to bulk g-C3N4, g-C3N4 nanosheets, and AuNP/bulk g-C3N4 hybrids.
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Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome Is Associated with Neonatal Cholestasis and Liver Failure.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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To determine the frequency of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS) in infants with cholestasis and liver failure and to further clarify the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, histopathologic, and molecular features associated with MDS due to deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) and MPV17 gene mutations.
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Eosinophilic esophagitis in a developing country: is it different from developed countries?
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Background and Objective. Despite the extensive reporting of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) from industrialized developed countries, reports from developing countries are rare. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic features of EoE and response to therapy in children and adults from a developing country, Saudi Arabia. Methods. We identified patients diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2011. EoE was defined as esophageal mucosal infiltration with a peak eosinophil count ?15 eosinophils/high-powered field. Results. Forty-five patients were diagnosed with EoE (37 children and 8 adults; 36 males; median age 10.5 years, range from 1-37 years). Feeding difficulty, vomiting/regurgitation, and failure to thrive predominated in young children, whereas dysphagia and food impactions predominated in older children and adults. Allergy testing revealed food sensitization in 12 of 15 patients (80%); 3 responded to elemental formula, while 8 failed to respond to dietary manipulation after the allergy testing. Thirty-nine patients achieved remission by swallowed inhaled fluticasone. The majority of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms upon the discontinuation of fluticasone. Conclusion. Our data indicate that EoE is increasingly recognized in Saudi Arabia and show many similarities to data from North America and Europe.
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Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in kidney surgery: clinical experience and future perspectives.
Curr Urol Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Laparoscopic surgery of the upper urinary tract has reduced the morbidity related to large abdominal incisions and has resulted in significant advantages over open surgery. Nevertheless, the pursuit for even more minimally invasive alternatives to laparoscopy has led to the concept of scarless surgery and the approach of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). LESS is currently a feasible approach for the majority of kidney surgical procedures, and there is intense debate regarding its efficiency and advantages. In the present review of the literature, the current status of upper urinary LESS and its advantages and disadvantages, as well the technological and technical evolution, are presented.
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Ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet: a highly efficient fluorosensor for rapid, ultrasensitive detection of Cu(2+).
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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A highly efficient fluorosensor based on ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C?N?) nanosheets for Cu(2+) was developed. In the absence of metal ions, the nanosheets exhibit high fluorescence; the strong coordination of the Lewis basic sites on them to metal ions, however, causes fluorescence quenching via photoinduced electron transfer leading to the qualitative and semiquantitative detection of metal ions. This fluorosensor exhibits high selectivity toward Cu(2+). The whole detection process can be completed within 10 min with a detection limit as low as 0.5 nM. The use of test paper enables the naked-eye detection of Cu(2+) with a detection limit of 0.1 nmol. The practical use of this sensor for Cu(2+) determination in real water samples was also demonstrated.
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Horseradish peroxidase and chitosan: activation, immobilization and comparative results.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Recently, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized on activated wool and we envisioned that the use of chitosan would be interesting instead of wool owing to its simple chemical structure, abundant nature and biodegradability. In this work, HRP was immobilized on chitosan crosslinked with cyanuric chloride. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize immobilized HRP. The number of ten reuses of immobilized HRP has been detected. The pH was shifted from 5.5 for soluble HRP to 5.0 for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP had an optimum temperature of 30 °C, which was shifted to 35 °C for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP and immobilized HRP were thermal stable up to 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The apparent kinetic constant values (K(m)) of soluble HRP and chitosan-HRP were 35 mM and 40 mM for guaiacol and 2.73 mM and 5.7 mM for H2O2, respectively. Immobilization of HRP partially protected them from metal ions compared to soluble enzyme. The chitosan-HRP was remarkably more stable against urea, Triton X-100 and organic solvents. Chitosan-HRP exhibited large number of reuses and more resistance to harmful compounds compared with wool-HRP. On the basis of results obtained in the present study, chitosan-HRP could be employed in bioremediation application.
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Ribosylation of bovine serum albumin induces ROS accumulation and cell death in cancer line (MCF-7).
Eur. Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) is crucially involved in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, for example arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimers disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cataracts. Because of devastating effects of AGE and the significance of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a transport protein, this study was designed to investigate glycation-induced structural modifications in BSA and their functional consequences in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). We incubated D-ribose with BSA and monitored formation of D-ribose-glycated BSA by observing changes in the intensity of fluorescence at 410 nm. NBT (nitro blue tetrazolium) assay was performed to confirm formation of keto-amine during glycation. Absorbance at 540 nm (fructosamine) increased markedly with time. Furthermore, intrinsic protein and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) fluorescence revealed marked conformational changes in BSA upon ribosylation. In addition, a fluorescence assay with thioflavin T (ThT) revealed a remarkable increase in fluorescence at 485 nm in the presence of glycated BSA. This suggests that glycation with D-ribose induced aggregation of BSA into amyloid-like deposits. Circular dichroism (CD) study of native and ribosylated BSA revealed molten globule formation in the glycation pathway of BSA. Functional consequences of ribosylated BSA on cancer cell line, MCF-7 was studied by MTT assay and ROS estimation. The results revealed cytotoxicity of ribosylated BSA on MCF-7 cells.
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Liver failure unmasks celiac disease in a child.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Liver involvement in celiac disease (CD) varies from asymptomatic mild non-specific hepatitis to liver failure. Here we report the first child with liver failure due to a sclerosing cholangitis associated with CD.
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Clinical, biochemical, cellular and molecular characterization of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome due to novel mutations in the MPV17 gene.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDS) are severe autosomal recessive disorders associated with decreased mtDNA copy number in clinically affected tissues. The hepatocerebral form (mtDNA depletion in liver and brain) has been associated with mutations in the POLG, PEO1 (Twinkle), DGUOK and MPV17 genes, the latter encoding a mitochondrial inner membrane protein of unknown function. The aims of this study were to clarify further the clinical, biochemical, cellular and molecular genetic features associated with MDS due to MPV17 gene mutations. We identified 12 pathogenic mutations in the MPV17 gene, of which 11 are novel, in 17 patients from 12 families. All patients manifested liver disease. Poor feeding, hypoglycaemia, raised serum lactate, hypotonia and faltering growth were common presenting features. mtDNA depletion in liver was demonstrated in all seven cases where liver tissue was available. Mosaic mtDNA depletion was found in primary fibroblasts by PicoGreen staining. These results confirm that MPV17 mutations are an important cause of hepatocerebral mtDNA depletion syndrome, and provide the first demonstration of mosaic mtDNA depletion in human MPV17 mutant fibroblast cultures. We found that a severe clinical phenotype was associated with profound tissue-specific mtDNA depletion in liver, and, in some cases, mosaic mtDNA depletion in fibroblasts.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.112.
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Congenital proprotein convertase 1/3 deficiency causes malabsorptive diarrhea and other endocrinopathies in a pediatric cohort.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) deficiency, an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by rare mutations in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1) gene, has been associated with obesity, severe malabsorptive diarrhea, and certain endocrine abnormalities. Common variants in PCSK1 also have been associated with obesity in heterozygotes in several population-based studies. PC1/3 is an endoprotease that processes many prohormones expressed in endocrine and neuronal cells. We investigated clinical and molecular features of PC1/3 deficiency.
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Bees honey attenuation of metanil-yellow-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of bees honey against metanil-yellow-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 7 groups: control group; three groups treated with 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg metanil yellow, and three groups treated with metanil yellow plus 2.5?mg · kg(-1) · day(-1) bees honey for 8 weeks. The obtained data showed that the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of bees honey reduced the oxidative stress in the liver tissue and downregulated the inflammatory markers. In addition, the elevated levels of AGE and the activated NF- ? B in the metanil-yellow-treated animals were significantly attenuated. Moreover, the levels of TNF- ? and IL-1 ? were significantly attenuated as a result of bees honey administration. Furthermore, the histopathological examination of the liver showed that bees honey reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and necrosis in metanil-yellow-treated rats. In conclusion, the obtained data suggest that bees honey has hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injuries induced by metanil-yellow in vivo, and the results suggested that the effect of bees honey against metanil yellow-induced liver damage is related to its antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties which attenuate the activation of NF- ? B and its controlled genes like TNF- ? and IL-1 ? .
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Oat Protects against Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats via Attenuating Advanced Glycation End Products and Nuclear Factor Kappa B.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Oat, a rich source of soluble fiber, was considered to have a possible preventive effect on the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The present study aimed to assess this preventive activity in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Adult Wister rats were injected by streptozotocin (65?mg/kg). Animals were fed with normal diet or with a diet containing 20% oat (W/W) for 21 weeks. At the end of 21 weeks, all the kidney tissues were collected for various examinations. Our results suggested that oat could decrease the Scr and glucose level in blood of diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05), and increase the creatinine clearance (P < 0.01). In histopathological examination, oat-fed rats showed a significant decrease in glomerulus segmented sclerosis and incidence of tubule vacuolar degeneration. By ELISA, we reported that oat feeding resulted in decreasing the levels of IL-6 and AGE in serum and kidney homogenate. In addition, the levels of oxidative stress markers were markedly improved as a result of oat feeding. Furthermore, using EMSA, we showed that oat attenuated the activation of NF-?B. Using RT-PCR, we found that oat could downregulate the TGF-?1 and RAGE expression at mRNA levels. This study suggests that oat can suppress diabetic nephropathy in rats effectively and may slow down the renal fibrosis by the disruption of the detrimental AGE-RAGE-NF?B axis.
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Surgical management of traumatic knee dislocation with posterolateral corner injury.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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To evaluate the results of our method of surgical treatment of traumatic knee dislocation with injury to the posterolateral corner by use of a standardized protocol.
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Phytochemical analysis of Convolvulus hystrix Vahl and its biological effects in rats.
Toxicol Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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"Convolvulus hystrix Vahl" is a plant that has been known to Ancient Egyptians and to Arabs and its root was used traditionally as a purgative. Our attention was directed to the root bark as we observed that the largest part of the plant is deeply impeded underground. The work plan involved testing experimental animals for the influence of aqueous root bark extract on carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolisms as reflected on the growth and relevant laboratory metabolic assessment parameters. Proximate analysis showed high percentages of moisture (85%) and total lipids (7.2%) and surprising amounts of elements such as barium, strontium, rhodium and tellurium (1.7 mg, 3.1 mg, 8 mg and 9.1 mg/g ash, respectively). Random serum glucose value showed a significant decrease in the treated female group (p < 0.05). Serum total proteins of treated female group were found to be increased significantly (p < 0.001), while it was found to be decreased in the relevant treated male group (p < 0.01), together with a significant decrease in blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.05), with a significant increase in the serum creatinine (p < 0.05). Concerning serum fat metabolic parameters, a significant decrease in the serum triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively) were found. We concluded that the presence of huge amount of polyphenolics such as tannins is responsible for the overall results documented as growth retarding and antinutritional factors. The results were motivating and pointed out to the possible opening of vast areas of research in the field of natural products. We recommend a series of biochemical and pharmacological studies concerning different parts of the plant as well.
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Proanthocyanidin Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and NF- ? B Protects Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice against Diabetic Nephropathy.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia result in oxidative stress and play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We explored the effects of proanthocyanidin (PA) on the induction and progression of DN in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Diabetes Mellitus was induced in ten-week-old male apoE(-/-)mice using streptozotocin (STZ). Mice were fed with a high-fat diet in presence or absence of PA. PA treatment significantly reduced the high cholesterol levels, restored renal functions, and reduced albuminuria in the PA-treated diabetic mice compared with the diabetic untreated mice. In addition, the glomerular mesangial expansion in the diabetic mice was attenuated as a result of PA supplementation. Moreover, PA treatment restored the elevated levels of MDA and CML and the reduced activity of SOD and GSH in the diabetic mice. Furthermore, PA feeding reduced the activation and translocation of NF- ? B to the nucleus compared with the diabetic untreated animals. Reduction of NF- ? B activation resulted in the attenuation of the expression of IL-6, TGF ? , and RAGE which protected PA-treated mice against DN. The renoprotective effects of PA were found to be time independent regardless of whether the dietary feeding with PA was started pre-, co-, or post-STZ injection. In conclusion, part of the beneficial effects of PA includes the disruption of the detrimental AGE-RAGE-NF ? B pathways.
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The role of allergy evaluation in children with eosinophilic esophagitis.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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To our knowledge, in Asia, data on utility of allergy tests in management of eosinophilic esophagitis are lacking. The objective of our study was to determine the role of allergy evaluation in management of Saudi children with eosinophilic esophagitis.
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Oat Attenuation of Hyperglycemia-Induced Retinal Oxidative Stress and NF-?B Activation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of endothelial damage in diabetes. To assess the effect of oat on experimental diabetic retinopathy, five groups of Albino rats were studied: nondiabetic control, untreated diabetic, and diabetic rats treated with 5%, 10%, and 20% (W/W) oat of the diet for 12 weeks. Novel data were obtained in this study indicating a protective role of oat against oxidative stress and diabetic retinopathy. The effects of oat on parameters of oxidative stress, AGE, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) were assessed by ELISA and NF-?B activation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also determined. After 12 weeks of diabetes, oat treatment reduced blood glucose levels, HbA1c, all oxidative stress markers, CML, normalized NF-?B activation and TNF? expression. Furthermore it reduced VEGF in the diabetic retina by 43% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, oat modulates microvascular damage through normalized pathways downstream of ROS overproduction and reduction of NF-?B and its controlled genes activation, which may provide additional endothelial protection.
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Phylogeny of ten species of the genus Hordeum L. as revealed by AFLP markers and seed storage protein electrophoresis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The phylogenetic relationships of 60 accessions representing ten species of the genus Hordeum were investigated based on AFLP markers and seed storage protein SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. A total of 339 AFLP polymorphic markers were scored as a result of fingerprinting the studied taxa using seven AFLP primer combinations, whereas 46 polymorphic protein bands resulted from the water soluble and water non-soluble seed storage protein electrophoresis. The phylogenetic tree deduced from AFLP analysis is concordant in a large extent with that deduced from seed storage protein electrophoresis. The studied taxa were clustered according to their genome type into two main groups representing the Old and New Worlds species. Inside each group the species were clustered according to their genome type. Highly significant cophenetic correlation coefficient was obtained between both AFLP (0.96) and seed storage protein (0.89) indicating the reliability of the results.
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Solid state production of polygalacturonase and xylanase by Trichoderma species using cantaloupe and watermelon rinds.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Different solid state fermentation (SSF) sources were tested such as cantaloupe and watermelon rinds, orange and banana peels, for the production of polygalacturonase (PG) and xylanase (Xyl) by Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens. The maximum production of both PG and Xyl were obtained by T. harzianum and T. virnes grown on cantaloupe and watermelon rinds, respectively. Time course, moisture content, temperature, pH, supplementation with carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized to achieve the maximum production of both PG and Xyl of T. harzianum and T. virens using cantaloupe and watermelon rinds, respectively. The maximum production of PG and Xyl of T. harzianum and T. virens was recorded at 4-5 days of incubation, 50-66% moisture, temperature 28-35°C and pH 6-7. The influence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources was studied. For T. harzianum, lactose enhanced PG activity from 87 to 120 units/g solid, where starch and maltose enhanced Xyl activity from 40 to 55-60 units/g solid for T. virnes. Among the nitrogen sources, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, yeast extract and urea increased PG activity from 90 to 110-113 units/g solid for T. harzianum. Similarly, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate and yeast extract increased Xyl activity from 45 to 55-70 units/g solid for T. virens.
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Amplatzer septal occluder and atrioventricular block: A case report and literature review.
J Saudi Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Transcatheter closure of secondum atrial septal defect (ASD) is an alternative option to open heart surgery with good short and long-term outcomes. For this purpose, the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) device is widely used. Arrhythmias are known complications of ASD device closure including atrial ectopy and heart block. We report a seven-year-old female patient who developed second degree atrioventricular block (AVB) within few hours after ASD device closure using ASO device. At the seventh post-procedure day; while under close observation; patient regained sinus rhythm which was maintained thereafter. A 3-day course of prednisolone was given.
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Synergistic antiosteoporotic effect of lepidium sativum and alendronate in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in wistar rats.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Alendronate belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates (BP) therapy is a vital option to reduce the risk of bone fracture in people who suffer from osteoporosis. Yet, bisphosphonate have displayed several side effects. Lepidium sativum (LS) seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine to heal fractured bones. However, there is a dearth of information on the impact of LS on bone metabolism especially in cases of glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare the biochemical bone markers and histological responses of LS alone (6 g of LS seeds in diet daily, n=8), ALD (alendronate, 70 mg/kg s.c.; n=8) alone, or LS and ALD combined in a rat model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) by injecting rats with methylprednisolone 3.5 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks. Serum calcium (Ca), albumin, phosphorus (P), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were measured 4 weeks after induction of GIO. GIO-group showed significantly increased serum TRAP and decreased b-ALP. GIO-group also showed significantly decreased serum P and unaltered Ca concentrations. Histological examination of GIO-group tibia bones indicated an osteoporotic change and a concomitant decrease in percentage of trabecular area or bone marrow area (PTB) in the proximal femoral epiphysis. Treatment with either LS and/or ALD ameliorated the above mentioned changes with variable degrees, with a net results of enhanced serum calcium, bone architecture, PTB, b-ALP and decreased TRAP in LS and LS+ALD groups compared to that of animals treated with alendronate alone. In conclusion, our findings present evidence supporting the potential benefits of LS in reducing the burden of GCs on bone health.
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Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Pulicaria glutinosa extract.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted tremendous attention in recent years because these protocols are low cost and more environmentally friendly than standard methods of synthesis. In this article, we report a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver NPs using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared silver NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the effects of the concentration of the reductant (plant extract) and precursor solution (silver nitrate), the temperature on the morphology, and the kinetics of reaction were investigated. The results indicate that the size of the silver NPs varied as the plant extract concentration increased. The as-synthesized silver NPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. Further, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the plant extract not only acted as a bioreductant but also functionalized the NPs surfaces to act as a capping ligand to stabilize them in the solvent. The developed eco-friendly method for the synthesis of NPs could prove a better substitute for the physical and chemical methods currently used to prepare metallic NPs commonly used in cosmetics, foods, and medicines.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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