We examined current outcomes of unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to determine the clinical implications of donor-recipient HLA matching. Adult and pediatric patients who had first undergone myeloablative-unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2011 were included. All had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Of the total (n = 8003), cases were 8/8 (n = 5449), 7/8 (n = 2071), or 6/8 (n = 483) matched. HLA mismatch (6-7/8) conferred significantly increased risk for grades II to IV and III to IV acute graft vs host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall mortality compared with HLA-matched cases (8/8). Type (allele/antigen) and locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) of mismatch were not associated with overall mortality. Among 8/8 matched cases, HLA-DPB1 and -DQB1 mismatch resulted in increased acute GVHD, and HLA-DPB1 mismatch had decreased relapse. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 allele mismatch was associated with higher TRM compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch or HLA-DPB1 match and increased overall mortality compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch in 8/8 (and 10/10) matched cases. Full matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 is required for optimal unrelated donor HCT survival, and avoidance of nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in otherwise HLA-matched pairs is indicated.
Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6 month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from 3 centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6 month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 vs. 3-4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P <0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6 month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P <0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6 month freedom from treatment failure, 1-y, 2-y and 3-y survival were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid refractory or dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6 month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint.
The majority of children with sickle cell disease (SCD), approximately 75%, are born in sub-Saharan Africa. For children with elevated transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity, regular blood transfusion therapy for primary stroke prevention is standard care in high income countries, but is not feasible in sub-Saharan Africa.
Nocturnal enuresis is a prevalent and challenging problem in children and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Limited progress has been made in elucidating etiology and pathophysiology of nocturnal enuresis in individuals with SCD. Among adults with SCD ages 18-20 years, approximately 9% report nocturnal enuresis. Nocturnal enuresis contributes to decreased health related quality of life in people with SCD, resulting in low self-esteem and sometimes social isolation. Postulated non-mutually exclusive causes of nocturnal enuresis in individuals with SCD include hyposthenuria leading to nocturnal polyuria, decreased bladder capacity or nocturnal bladder overactivity, increased arousal thresholds, and sleep disordered breathing. No evidence-based therapy for nocturnal enuresis in SCD exists. This review is focused on describing the natural history, postulated causes and a rational approach to the evaluation and management of nocturnal enuresis in children and adults with SCD.
The perception of an asymptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD) state is a misnomer. Children without overt symptoms, likely have subclinical disease beginning in infancy with progression into adulthood. Predictive models of SCD severity are unable to predict a subgroup of asymptomatic children likely to develop severe SCD. The introduction of penicillin prophylaxis, conjugated pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines have dramatically decreased the rate of life-threatening infections, while use of hydroxyurea in children has decreased pain and acute chest syndrome events. Use of transcranial Doppler coupled with regular blood transfusion therapy has decreased the rate of overt strokes and premature death associated with strokes. Currently, therapy for asymptomatic children includes hydroxyurea, regular blood transfusion or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT).
The optimal healthcare model for follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients after day 100 is not clear. We previously demonstrated that longitudinal follow-up at the transplant center using a multidisciplinary approach is associated with superior survival. Recent data suggest that increased distance from the transplant center is associated with inferior survival. A dedicated long-term transplant clinic (LTTC) was established in 2006 at our center. We hypothesized that geographic distance would not be associated with inferior outcome if patients are followed in the LTTC. We studied 299 consecutive patients who underwent HSCT and established care in an LTTC. The median distance from the transplant center was 118 miles (range, 1 to 1591). The 75th percentile (170 miles) was used as the cut-off to analyze the impact of distance from the center on outcome (219 patients ?75th percentile; 80 patients >75th percentile). The 2 groups were balanced for pretransplant characteristics. In multivariate analyses adjusted for donor type, Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research risk, and transplant regimen intensity, distance from transplant center did not impact outcome. Our study suggests that geographic distance from the transplant center is not associated with inferior outcome when follow-up care is delivered via a dedicated LTTC incorporating well-coordinated multidisciplinary care.
Umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) is an effective treatment for benign and malignant diseases. Late effects of CBT are not well described in the literature. In the present study, we present our experience of new-onset allergies in long-term survivors after CBT.
The optimal therapy for steroid-refractory (SR) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is undefined. We studied patients with SR aGVHD, comparing extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP; n = 57) and anticytokine therapy (n = 41). In multivariate analyses, ECP, adjusted for steroid dose (odds ratio, 3.42; P = .007), and grade >II aGVHD (odds ratio, 68; P < .001) were independent predictors of response. ECP therapy, adjusted for conditioning regimen intensity and steroid dose, was associated with superior survival (hazard ratio [HR], 4.6; P = .016) in patients with SR grade II aGVHD. Grade >II aGVHD at onset of salvage therapy (HR, 9.4; P < .001) and lack of response to therapy (HR, 3.09; P = .011) were associated with inferior survival. These findings require validation in a prospective randomized study.
These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of relapsed or progressive disease in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Multiple Myeloma. These changes include the addition of new regimens as options for salvage therapy and strategies to mitigate the adverse effects and risks associated with newer regimens for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) as initial therapy of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) improves survival. However, data to support this approach for relapsed/progressive disease after initial AHCT (AHCT1) are limited. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we report the outcomes of 187 patients who underwent a second AHCT (AHCT2) for the treatment of relapsed/progressive MM. Planned tandem AHCT was excluded. Median age at AHCT2 was 59 years (range, 28 to 72), and median patient follow-up was 47 months (range, 3 to 97). Nonrelapse mortality after AHCT2 was 2% at 1 year and 4% at 3 years. Median interval from AHCT1 to relapse/progression was 18 months, and median interval between transplantations was 32 months. After AHCT2, the incidence of relapse/progression at 1 and 3 years was 51% and 82%, respectively. At 3 years after AHCT2, progression-free survival was 13%, and overall survival was 46%. In multivariate analyses, those relapsing ?36 months after AHCT1 had superior progression-free (P = .045) and overall survival (P = .019). Patients who underwent AHCT2 after 2004 had superior survival (P = .026). AHCT2 is safe and feasible for disease progression after AHCT1. In this retrospective study, individuals relapsing ?36 months from AHCT1 derived greater benefit from AHCT2 compared with those with a shorter disease-free interval. Storage of an adequate graft before AHCT1 will ensure that the option of a second autologous transplantation is retained for patients with relapsed/progressive MM.
Relapse remains a major cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Graft-versus-tumor effect is primarily mediated by donor T cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a critical inhibitor of T cell proliferation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTLA-4 may affect immune responses. We hypothesized that CTLA-4 SNPs will be associated with disease control after allo-HCT. One hundred sixty-four adult patients with the availability of pretransplantation recipient and donor DNA samples were included in this analysis. Ten tagSNPs of the CTLA-4 gene were identified. Donor CTLA-4 SNP rs4553808 was associated with decreased relapse-free survival (RFS) (P = .019) and overall survival (OS) (P = .033). In multivariable analysis of an additive genetic model, genotype of CTLA-4 SNP rs4553808 was an independent risk factor for inferior RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.71, P = .017) and OS (HR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.0, P = .015). CTLA-4 SNPs can be used to identify high-risk patient subsets that may benefit from preemptive immunomodulation to decrease relapse rates and improve survival.
B-cell activating factor (BAFF) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with autoimmune diseases. Because patients with classic and overlap chronic GVHD (cGVHD) have features of autoimmune diseases, we studied the association of recipient and/or donor BAFF SNPs with the phenotype of GVHD after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Twenty tagSNPs of the BAFF gene were genotyped in 164 recipient/donor pairs. GVHD after day 100 occurred in 124 (76%) patients: acute GVHD (aGVHD) subtypes (n = 23), overlap GVHD (n = 29), and classic cGVHD (n = 72). In SNP analyses, 9 of the 20 tag SNPs were significant comparing classic/overlap cGVHD versus aGVHD subtypes/no GVHD. In multivariate analyses, 4 recipient BAFF SNPs (rs16972217 [odds ratio = 2.72, P = .004], rs7993590 [odds ratio = 2.35, P = .011], rs12428930 [odds ratio2.53, P = .008], and rs2893321 [odds ratio = 2.48, P = .009]) were independent predictors of GVHD subtypes, adjusted for conventional predictors of cGVHD. This study shows that genetic variation of BAFF modulates GVHD phenotype after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Lenalidomide is an antiangiogenic drug associated with hypothyroidism. We describe a case-series of lenalidomide use in hematological cancers and the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities. We reviewed medical records of patients treated with lenalidomide at a single center form 2005 to 2010 and extracted demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Of 170 patients with confirmed lenalidomide use (age 64.9 ± 15 years), 148 were treated for multiple myeloma and 6% had thyroid abnormalities attributable only to lenalidomide. In patients with a previous diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction, the addition of lenalidomide therapy was associated with a higher incidence of subsequent TFTF abnormality (17%) as compared to patients with no previous diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction (6%) (P=0.0001). Many patients (44%) with pre-existing disease and a change in thyroid function before or while on lenalidomide had no further follow-up of their thyroid abnormalities, Of 20 patients who did not undergo any thyroid function testing either before starting or while on lenalidomide for a median of 9.4 months (± 6.5), 35% developed new symptoms compatible with hypothyroidism, including worsened fating, constipation or cold intolerance. Symptoms of thyroid dysfunction overlap with side effects of lenalidomide. Thyroid hormone levels are not regularly evaluated in patients on lenalidomide. While on this treatment, thyroid abnormalities can occur in patients with no previous diagnoses and in patients with pre-existing abnormalities. Because symptoms of thyroid dysfunction could be alleviated by appropriate treatment, thyroid function should be evaluated during the course of lenalidomide to improve patients quality of life.
Previous studies have shown that rapid recovery of the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is associated with improved transplant outcomes after related and unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). No consistent association has been reported between lymphocyte recovery and transplant outcome after cord blood transplantation (CBT).
Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), important for its negative impact on cardiovascular health. Risk factors for PTDM are not well defined. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the risk factors and incidence for PTDM in the first 100 days after allo-SCT. A total of 84 patients completed the study, 60% of whom developed PTDM. In a multivariate logistic regression model, pretransplantation c-peptide level (>3.6 ng/mL; odds ratio [OR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-20.22; P = .004), unrelated donor allo-SCT (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.34-14.2; P = .014), and peak steroid dose >1 mg/kg/day (OR, 5.09; 95% CI, 1.19-23.2; P = .035) were identified as independent predictors of PTDM. In addition, overall survival (OS) was inferior in patients with PTDM compared with those without PTDM (mean survival, 2.26 years vs 2.7 years; P = .021). Pretransplantation c-peptide level greater than the cohort median (>3.6 ng/mL) also was associated with inferior OS (mean, 1.7 years vs 2.9 years; P = .012). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, high-risk disease (hazard ratio [HR], 2.34; 95% CI, 1.09-5.28; P = .029) and pretransplantation c-peptide level >3.6 ng/mL (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P = .013) were independent predictors of OS when adjusted for systemic steroids and regimen intensity. We suspect that diabetes mellitus in the immediate posttransplantation period may be mediated via an inflammatory pathway that contributes to insulin resistance in the host adipose tissue. Our study is the first to report the risk factors of early PTDM in patients undergoing allo-SCT and identifies pretransplantation c-peptide as an independent predictor of diabetes and survival.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) classification of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a significant improvement over prior classifications, and has prognostic implications. We hypothesized that the NIH classification of GVHD would predict the survival of patients with GVHD treated with extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP). Sixty-four patients with steroid refractory/dependent GVHD treated with ECP were studied. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13-59). Progressive GVHD was seen in 39% of patients with any acute GVHD (aGVHD) (classic acute, recurrent acute, overlap) compared to 3% of patients with classic chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (P=.002). OS was superior for patients with classic cGVHD (median survival, not reached) compared to overlap GVHD (median survival, 395 days, 95% CI 101 to not reached) and aGVHD (delayed, recurrent or persistent) (median survival, 72 days, 95% CI 39-152). In univariate analyses, significant predictors of survival after ECP included GVHD subtype, bilirubin, platelet count, and steroid dose. In multivariate analyses overlap plus classic cGVHD was an independent prognostic feature predictive of superior survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.8, p=.014). This study suggests that NIH classification can predict outcome after ECP for steroid refractory/dependent GVHD.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a mutation in both beta globin genes, resulting in chronic hemolysis and multiorgan disease that ultimately leads to premature death. Although hemoglobin S (HbS) polymerization and vaso-occlusion are central to the pathogenesis of SCD, overlapping pathways implicated in SCD-related endothelial dysfunction include hemolysis, defects in nitric oxide metabolism, ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, increased cell-to-cell adhesion, and proinflammatory and coagulation mediators. Progression of organ-specific vasculopathy often precedes organ dysfunction and may provide targets for therapeutic intervention. SCD-related vasculopathies include, but are not limited to, moyamoya that often precedes cerebral infarcts or hemorrhage, proliferative retinopathy prior to loss of eyesight, pulmonary vasculopathy associated with pulmonary hypertension, and renal vasculopathy prior to the onset of chronic renal disease. This review evaluates evidence that SCD vasculopathy is a harbinger for organ dysfunction and reviews the potential for targeted antivasculopathy therapies.
These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of Waldenströms Macroglobulinemia/Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma. These include the addition of regimens containing novel agents as primary and salvage therapy options, inclusion of the updated summary of response categories and criteria from the sixth international workshop on Waldenströms Macroglobulinemia, and a section on management of peripheral neuropathy in the accompanying discussion.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4(+) T cells that are characterized by the expression of CD25 and Foxp3 and are capable of suppressing alloimmune responses. We assessed whether high frequencies of circulating skin or gut tissue-specific Tregs at engraftment could predict acute graft-vs-host disease (aGVHD) incidence and survival in a cohort of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Tregs were analyzed at engraftment in 74 patients receiving HCT. Treg skin-homing (CLA(+)) or gut-homing (?(4)?(7)(+)) subsets were identified by flow cytometry, and patients were divided into high CLA(+) Tregs or high ?(4)?(7)(+) Tregs groups, using the 75(th) percentile of tissue-specific Treg percentages as a threshold. At day +100 post-HCT, the cumulative incidence of any stage skin or gut aGVHD was significantly lower in those patients with high CLA(+) Tregs or high ?(4)?(7)(+) Tregs at engraftment, respectively (high CLA(+) Tregs, 24.0% vs low CLA(+) Tregs, 55.1%; p = 0.011 for skin aGVHD or high ?(4)?(7)(+) Tregs, 47.3% vs low ?(4)?(7)(+) Tregs, 74.5%; p = 0.029 for gut aGVHD). The 2-year probabilities of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality were 73.4% and 7.5% among patients with high frequencies of tissue-specific Tregs vs 49.4% and 36.1% for those with both low CLA(+) Tregs and low ?(4)?(7)(+) Tregs (p = 0.039, p = 0.010). These results suggest that a threshold value for CLA(+) or ?(4)?(7)(+) Tregs could be used to predict important HCT outcomes, and to direct the rationale use of tissue-specific pre-emptive therapies to decrease clinical aGVHD and improve HCT survival.
Newer systemic therapies have significantly advanced the treatment of multiple myeloma, but additional agents are needed. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor with efficacy in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma that inhibits tumor angiogenesis, a process that has been implicated in multiple myeloma pathogenesis.
Measurement of minimal residual disease is routine in diseases such as chronic myelogenous leukemia, precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and acute promyelocytic leukemia because it provides important prognostic information. However, the role of minimal residual disease testing has not been widely adopted in multiple myeloma (MM), with other parameters such as the International Staging System (ISS) and cytogenetic analysis primarily guiding therapy and determination of prognosis. Until recently, achieving a complete response (CR), as defined by the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria, was rare in patients with MM. The use of novel agents with or without autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) has significantly increased CR rates, thus increasing overall survival (OS) rates. The majority of patients with MM have persistent levels of residual disease that are below the sensitivity of bone marrow (BM) morphology, protein electrophoresis with immunofixation, and light chain quantitation even after attaining CR and will eventually relapse. Measurement of minimal residual disease by more sensitive methods, and the use of these methods as a tool for predicting patient outcomes and guiding therapeutic decisions, has thus become more relevant. Methods available for monitoring minimal residual disease in MM include PCR and multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), both of which have been shown to be valuable in other hematologic malignancies; however, neither has become a standard of care in MM. Here, we review current evidence for using minimal residual disease measurement for risk assessment in MM as well as incorporating pretreatment factors and posttreatment minimal residual disease monitoring as a prognostic tool for therapeutic decisions, and we outline challenges to developing uniform criteria for minimal residual disease monitoring.
Intensive induction regimen followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is frequently used to improve outcomes in patients with mantle-cell lymphoma. The comparative impact of conventional vs intensive induction regimen before transplantation is unknown. Forty-eight patients with mantle-cell lymphoma receiving SCT at our institution between January 2000 and December 2010 were included in this study. At the time of initial presentation, 43 (89.5%) had stage IV disease and 18 (37.5%) received more than one chemotherapy regimen before transplantation. Forty patients underwent auto-SCT and 7 had allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT); 1 patient had an allo-SCT for relapsed disease after auto-SCT. At the time of this analysis (median follow-up of 6 years from diagnosis and 4 years from transplantation), 40 patients (88%) were alive with a 5-year disease-free survival of 74.8%. Age, disease stage, number of regimens pre-SCT, pre-SCT disease status, and type of SCT had no impact on long-term outcomes. Importantly, there were no differences among the types of induction regimen on outcomes in this cohort receiving SCT. Based on our data, we believe that future studies should focus on strategies to prevent disease relapse rather than comparing induction regimens before stem cell transplantation.
Twenty-six patients with recurrent CD20(+) B-cell lymphoid malignancies received fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab-based nonablative conditioning followed by either matched related (n = 18) or unrelated (n = 8) donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) between March 2008 and May 2011. Median age of patients at transplantation was 59 years (range, 41-64 years). At diagnosis, 20 (77%) had stage IV disease; 23 (88%) received ?3 regimens, 14 (54%) received ?4 regimens, and 4 (15%) had earlier autologous-SCT. All patients had either chemosensitive or stable disease and nine (35%) were in complete remission before transplantation. At the time of analysis, 17 patients were alive with an estimated 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival rate of 63% and nonrelapse mortality of 25%. Grade II to IV acute graft-vs-host-disease occurred in 8 (31%) and chronic graft-vs-host-disease in 6 (23%) patients (extensive, n = 3). Causes of death include progressive disease in four, acute graft-vs-host-disease in two (both after receiving donor lymphocyte infusion for mixed chimerism with residual disease), infection in one, and other (e.g., substance abuse, leukoencephalopathy) in two. Six patients required rehospitalization within 100 days of SCT (mean = 10 days; range, 3-18 days). Our data support fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab-based nonablative conditioning allo-SCT in CD20(+) B-cell lymphoid malignancies and it is time to compare this regimen with an alternative reduced-intensity conditioning regimen in B-cell malignancies.
Chronic inflammation and decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in visceral adipose tissue contribute to the propagation of insulin resistance to diabetes mellitus. We tested the hypothesis that new-onset posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is associated with measurable changes in Treg subsets after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). PTDM before day 100 and Treg phenotype at engraftment were determined in 36 HSCT recipients without preceding history of diabetes mellitus. Among patients with new-onset PTDM (N = 24), the frequency of circulating CLA(+) (skin-homing) Tregs was decreased (1.53% vs 3.99%; P = .002) and the percentage of ?(4)?(7)(+) (gut-homing) Tregs was increased (17.9% vs 10.7%; P = .048). In multivariate analysis, patients with PTDM continued to demonstrate elevated ratios of ?(4)?(7)(+) Tregs to CLA(+) Tregs (odds ratio, 18.1; P = .020). PTDM is associated with altered immune regulation after HSCT and could represent a target to modulate alloreactivity.
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