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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Drug utilization in patients with OA: a population-based study.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Patients with OA use different drugs in their search for relief. We aimed to study the prevalence of use and combinations of different medications for OA in a population-based cohort of OA patients in Catalonia, Spain, while characterizing users of each of the drugs available, with a particular focus on cardiovascular risk factors.
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Astrocytes in endocannabinoid signalling.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Astrocytes are emerging as integral functional components of synapses, responding to synaptically released neurotransmitters and regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. Thus, they functionally interact with neurons establishing tripartite synapses: a functional concept that refers to the existence of communication between astrocytes and neurons and its crucial role in synaptic function. Here, we discuss recent evidence showing that astrocytes are involved in the endocannabinoid (ECB) system, responding to exogenous cannabinoids as well as ECBs through activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors, which increase intracellular calcium and stimulate the release of glutamate that modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also discuss the consequences of ECB signalling in tripartite synapses on the astrocyte-mediated regulation of synaptic function, which reveal novel properties of synaptic regulation by ECBs, such as the spatially controlled dual effect on synaptic strength and the lateral potentiation of synaptic efficacy. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of ECB signalling for astrocytes in brain pathology and animal behaviour.
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Risk factors for treatment failure with antiosteoporosis medication: the global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in women (GLOW).
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) does not abolish fracture risk, and some individuals experience multiple fractures while on treatment. Therefore, criteria for treatment failure have recently been defined. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed risk factors for treatment failure, defined as sustaining two or more fractures while on AOM. GLOW is a prospective, observational cohort study of women aged ?55 years sampled from primary care practices in 10 countries. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on patient characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, AOM use, and health status. Data were analyzed from women who used the same class of AOM continuously over 3 survey years and had data available on fracture occurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of treatment failure. Data from 26,918 women were available, of whom 5550 were on AOM. During follow-up, 73 of 5550 women in the AOM group (1.3%) and 123 of 21,368 in the non-AOM group (0.6%) reported occurrence of two or more fractures. The following variables were associated with treatment failure: lower Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) score (physical function and vitality) at baseline, higher Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score, falls in the past 12 months, selected comorbid conditions, prior fracture, current use of glucocorticoids, need of arms to assist to standing, and unexplained weight loss ?10 lb (?4.5?kg). Three variables remained predictive of treatment failure after multivariable analysis: worse SF-36 vitality score (odds ratio [OR] per 10-point increase, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.95; p?=?0.004); two or more falls in the past year (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.34-4.29; p?=?0.011), and prior fracture (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.81-4.75; p?
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A meta-analysis of the association of fracture risk and body mass index in women.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Several recent studies suggest that obesity may be a risk factor for fracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and future fracture risk at different skeletal sites. In prospective cohorts from more than 25 countries, baseline data on BMI were available in 398,610 women with an average age of 63 (range, 20-105) years and follow up of 2.2 million person-years during which 30,280 osteoporotic fractures (6457 hip fractures) occurred. Femoral neck BMD was measured in 108,267 of these women. Obesity (BMI ? 30?kg/m(2) ) was present in 22%. A majority of osteoporotic fractures (81%) and hip fractures (87%) arose in non-obese women. Compared to a BMI of 25?kg/m(2) , the hazard ratio (HR) for osteoporotic fracture at a BMI of 35?kg/m(2) was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.90). When adjusted for bone mineral density (BMD), however, the same comparison showed that the HR for osteoporotic fracture was increased (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23). Low BMI is a risk factor for hip and all osteoporotic fracture, but is a protective factor for lower leg fracture, whereas high BMI is a risk factor for upper arm (humerus and elbow) fracture. When adjusted for BMD, low BMI remained a risk factor for hip fracture but was protective for osteoporotic fracture, tibia and fibula fracture, distal forearm fracture, and upper arm fracture. When adjusted for BMD, high BMI remained a risk factor for upper arm fracture but was also a risk factor for all osteoporotic fractures. The association between BMI and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites, and is modified by the interaction between BMI and BMD. At a population level, high BMI remains a protective factor for most sites of fragility fracture. The contribution of increasing population rates of obesity to apparent decreases in fracture rates should be explored.
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Predictors of fracture while on treatment with oral bisphosphonates: a population-based cohort study.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Although oral bisphosphonates (BPs) are highly effective in preventing fractures, some patients will fracture while on treatment. We identified predictors of such fractures in a population-based cohort of incident users of oral BPs. We screened the Sistema d'Informació per al Desenvolupament de l'Investigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP) database to identify new users of oral BPs in 2006-2007. SIDIAP includes pharmacy invoice data and primary care electronic medical records for a representative 5 million people in Catalonia (Spain). Exclusion criteria were the following: Paget disease; <40 years of age; and any antiosteoporosis treatment in the previous year. A priori defined risk factors included age, gender, body mass index, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, preexisting comorbidities, and medications. Fractures were considered if they appeared at least 6 months after treatment initiation. "Fractures while on treatment" were defined as those occurring among participants persisting for at least 6 months and with an overall high compliance (medication possession ratio ?80%). Fine and Gray survival models accounting for competing risk with therapy discontinuation were fitted to identify key predictors. Only 7449 of 21,385 (34.8%) participants completed >6 months of therapy. Incidence of fracture while on treatment was 3.4/100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-3.7). Predictors of these among patients persisting and adhering to treatment included: older age (subhazard ratio [SHR] for 60 to <80 years, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.70-2.80]; for ?80 years, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.82-3.43]); previous fracture (1.75 [95% CI, 1.39-2.20] and 2.49 [95% CI, 1.98-3.13], in the last 6 months and longer, respectively); underweight, 2.11 (95% CI, 1.14-3.92); inflammatory arthritis, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.02-2.10); use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.46); and vitamin D deficiency, 2.69 (95% CI, 1.27-5.72). Even among high compliers, 3.4% of oral BP users will fracture every year. Older age, underweight, vitamin D deficiency, PPI use, previous fracture, and inflammatory arthritides increase risk. Monitoring strategies and/or alternative therapies should be considered for these patients.
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The role of dietary protein and vitamin D in maintaining musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women: a consensus statement from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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From 50 years of age, postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of developing sarcopenia and osteoporosis as a result of deterioration of musculoskeletal health. Both disorders increase the risk of falls and fractures. The risk of developing sarcopenia and osteoporosis may be attenuated through healthy lifestyle changes, which include adequate dietary protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes, and regular physical activity/exercise, besides hormone replacement therapy when appropriate. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. Exercise training leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and the combination of optimal protein intake and exercise produces a greater degree of muscle protein accretion than either intervention alone. Similarly, adequate dietary protein intake and resistance exercise are important contributors to the maintenance of bone strength. Vitamin D helps to maintain muscle mass and strength as well as bone health. These findings suggest that healthy lifestyle measures in women aged >50 years are essential to allow healthy ageing. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) recommends optimal dietary protein intake of 1.0-1.2g/kgbodyweight/d with at least 20-25g of high-quality protein at each main meal, with adequate vitamin D intake at 800IU/d to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels >50nmol/L as well as calcium intake of 1000mg/d, alongside regular physical activity/exercise 3-5 times/week combined with protein intake in close proximity to exercise, in postmenopausal women for prevention of age-related deterioration of musculoskeletal health.
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HIV infection, bone metabolism, and fractures.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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With the advent of high active antiretroviral therapy there was a significant improvement on HIV subjects survival. Thus, bone changes related to HIV became an important aspect of these individuals. HIV affects bone remodeling causing bone fragility. In addition, antiretroviral therapy may also negatively affect bone metabolism. Several studies describe an increased incidence of fractures in these patients when compared with controls without the disease. The European Society of AIDS (EACS), and other societies, have included guidance on management of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients emphasizing the identification of patients with low bone mass. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D and the use of alendronate in these individuals should be recommended on a case base.
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Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with an increased risk of vertebral and nonvertebral clinical fractures: a population-based cohort study.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The objective of this work was to study the associations between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and clinical vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. Data from a large population-based public health database in Spain, Sistema d'Informació per al Desenvolupament de l'Investigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP), were used in this parallel cohort study. All participants registered in SIDIAP on January 1, 2006, were screened to identify those with a diagnosis of AS. Five age-matched, gender-matched, and general practice surgery-matched controls were selected for each patient with AS. All participants were followed until December 31, 2011, transfer out date, or death date. Fractures during this time were classified as vertebral or nonvertebral. Adjustment was made for potential confounders (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and use of oral steroids). Of 4,920,353 eligible patients in SIDIAP, 6474 AS patients with matched controls (n?=?32,346) were available. A higher proportion of patients with AS versus controls had clinical vertebral (0.86% versus 0.41%) and nonvertebral (3.4% versus 2.7%) fractures. Adjusted Cox regression models showed an increased risk of clinical vertebral (hazard ratio [HR] 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 2.68; p?
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HIV infection and its association with an excess risk of clinical fractures: a nationwide case-control study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Different studies have reported an association between HIV infection, antiretroviral therapies, and impaired bone metabolism, but data on their impact on fracture risk are scarce. We studied the association between a clinical diagnosis of HIV infection and fracture risk.
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Relationship between mortality and BMI after fracture: a population-based study of men and women aged ?40 years.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Fractures in obese older individuals contribute significantly to the overall burden on primary health care, but data on their impact on mortality are lacking. We studied the association between obesity and mortality following hip and nonhip clinical fractures in a retrospective, population-based cohort study. The Sistema d'Informació pel Desenvolupament de la Investigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP(Q) ) database contains primary care computerized medical records of a representative sample of >2.1 million people (35% of the population) in Catalonia (Spain), linked to hospital admissions data. We included in this analysis anyone aged 40 years and older suffering a hip or nonhip clinical fracture in 2007 to 2009 in the SIDIAP(Q) database. The main exposure was the most recent body mass index (BMI) measured before fracture, categorized as underweight (<18.5?kg/m2), normal (18.5 to <25?kg/m2 ), overweight (25 to <30?kg/m2), and obese (?30?kg/m2). Furthermore, the study outcome was all-cause mortality in 2007 to 2009 as provided to SIDIAP(Q) by the National Office of Statistics. Time to death after fracture was modeled using Cox regression. Multivariate models were adjusted for age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, oral glucocorticoid use, and Charlson comorbidity index. Within the study period, 6988 and 29,372 subjects with a hip or nonhip clinical fracture were identified and followed for a median (interquartile range) of 1.17 (0.53-2.02) and 1.36 (0.65-2.15) years, respectively. Compared to subjects of normal weight, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality in overweight and obese subjects were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.62-0.88; p?=?0.001) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.60-0.91; p?=?0.004) after hip and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.32-0.77; p?=?0.002), 0.56 (95% CI, 0.36-0.87; p?=?0.010) after nonhip fracture. In conclusion, the highest mortality was observed in individuals with low BMI, but compared to subjects of normal weight, obese and overweight individuals survived longer following fracture. The latter observation is consistent with data reported in other chronic conditions, but the reasons for reduced mortality in obese and overweight subjects when compared to those of normal weight require further research.
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Genetic analysis of high bone mass cases from the BARCOS cohort of spanish postmenopausal women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM.
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Empirically based composite fracture prediction model from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women (GLOW).
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several fracture prediction models that combine fractures at different sites into a composite outcome are in current use. However, to the extent individual fracture sites have differing risk factor profiles, model discrimination is impaired.
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Romosozumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sclerostin is an osteocyte-derived inhibitor of osteoblast activity. The monoclonal antibody romosozumab binds to sclerostin and increases bone formation.
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Measuring bone quality.
Curr Rheumatol Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction in bone mass and impairment of bone quality that lead to bone fragility and fracture risk. Bone quality includes a hierarchy of properties from macroscopic to nanoscale level. Several techniques have been developed in an attempt to measure these non-density properties. Densitometry, high-resolution images (radiography, CT scan), and MRI can measure the geometry and microarchitecture of bone. Tissue mineralization and composition can be assessed by use of microradiography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, or Raman microspectroscopy. Finite-element analysis is an image-based method that enables calculation of bone strength. More recently, microindentation has enabled direct estimation of bone material strength, measured in the cortical bone of the tibia. Most of these techniques are of limited use to clinics, although finite-element analysis and microindentation have high potential for clinical use and can enable more comprehensive and accurate evaluation of bone fragility and fracture susceptibility.
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[Tuberculosis: Plasma levels of vitamin D and its relation with infection and disease.]
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Vitamin D (vitD) is involved in the phosphor-calcium metabolism and bone pathology, but also in inflammatory and infectious processes such as tuberculosis. The present study evaluates the clinical and epidemiological aspects of active tuberculosis cases and latently infected contacts in whom plasma concentrations of vitD were obtained to determine whether the deficiency of vitD is a risk factor to develop active tuberculosis, especially the more severe forms.
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Incidence and risk factors for clinically diagnosed knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: influences of age, gender and osteoarthritis affecting other joints.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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OBJECTIVES: Data on the incidence of symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) are scarce. We estimated incidence of clinical hip, knee and hand OA, and studied the effect of prevalent OA on joint-specific incident OA. METHODS: SIDIAP contains primary care records for>5 million people from Catalonia (Spain). Participants aged ?40 years with an incident diagnosis of knee, hip or hand OA between 2006 and 2010 were identified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. Incidence rates and female-to-male rate ratios (RRs) for each joint site were calculated. Age, gender and body mass index-adjusted HR for future joint-specific OA according to prevalent OA at other sites were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: 3 266 826 participants were studied for a median of 4.45 years. Knee and hip OA rates increased continuously with age, and female-to-male RRs were highest at age 70-75 years. In contrast, female hand OA risk peaked at age 60-64 years, and corresponding female-to-male RR was highest at age 50-55 years.Adjusted HR for prevalent knee OA on risk of hip OA was 1.35 (99% CI 1.28 to 1.43); prevalent hip OA on incident knee OA: HR 1.15 (1.08 to 1.23). Prevalent hand OA predicted incident knee and hip OA: HR 1.20 (1.14 to 1.26) and 1.23 (1.13 to 1.34), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of age is greatest in the elderly for knee and hip OA, but around the menopause for hand OA. OA clusters within individuals, with higher risk of incident knee and hip disease from prevalent lower limb and hand OA.
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Applications of a New Handheld Reference Point Indentation Instrument Measuring Bone Material Strength.
J Med Device
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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A novel, hand-held Reference Point Indentation (RPI) instrument, measures how well the bone of living patients and large animals resists indentation. The results presented here are reported in terms of Bone Material Strength, which is a normalized measure of how well the bone resists indentation, and is inversely related to the indentation distance into the bone. We present examples of the instruments use in: (1) laboratory experiments on bone, including experiments through a layer of soft tissue, (2) three human clinical trials, two ongoing in Barcelona and at the Mayo Clinic, and one completed in Portland, OR, and (3) two ongoing horse clinical trials, one at Purdue University and another at Alamo Pintado Stables in California. The instrument is capable of measuring consistent values when testing through soft tissue such as skin and periosteum, and does so handheld, an improvement over previous Reference Point Indentation instruments. Measurements conducted on horses showed reproducible results when testing the horse through tissue or on bare bone. In the human clinical trials, reasonable and consistent values were obtained, suggesting the Osteoprobe(®) is capable of measuring Bone Material Strength in vivo, but larger studies are needed to determine the efficacy of the instruments use in medical diagnosis.
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Microindentation for in vivo measurement of bone tissue material properties in atypical femoral fracture patients and controls.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Atypical femoral fractures (AFF) associated with long-term bisphosphonates (LTB) are a growing concern. Their etiology is unknown, but bone material properties might be deteriorated. In an AFF series, we analyzed the bone material properties by microindentation. Four groups of patients were included: 6 AFF, 38 typical osteoporotic fractures, 6 LTB, and 20 controls without fracture. Neither typical osteoporotic fractures nor controls have received any antiosteoporotic medication. A general laboratory workup, bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and microindentation testing at the tibia were done in all patients. Total indentation distance (Total ID), indentation distance increase (IDI), and creep indentation distance (Creep ID) were measured (microns). Age-adjusted analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for comparisons. Controls were significantly younger than fracture groups. Bisphosphonate exposure was on average 5.5 years (range 5 to 12 years) for the AFF and 5.4 years (range 5 to 8 years) for the LTB groups. Total ID (microns) showed better material properties (lower Total ID) for controls 36 (±?6; mean?±?SD) than for AFF 46 (±?4) and for typical femoral fractures 47 (±?13), respectively. Patients on LTB showed values between controls and fractures, 38 (±?4), although not significantly different from any of the other three groups. IDI values showed a similar pattern 13 (± 2), 16 (±?6), 19 (±?3), and 18 (±?5). After adjusting by age, significant differences were seen between controls and typical (p?
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Genetic determinants of aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia: the B-ABLE cohort study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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A major side effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy is AI-related arthralgia (AIA), which often leads to therapy discontinuation. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with AIA and therapy discontinuation in the first year of AI treatment. Our prospective cohort study included 343 postmenopausal women with early breast cancer starting AI therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes involved in estrogen and vitamin D signaling were selected. Univariate and multivariate linear/logistic regressions were fitted in order to asses the association between studied SNPs and AIA intensity (visual analogic scale score) at 3 and 12 months of follow-up, worsening pain, and therapy discontinuation. We also tested for a priori-defined interactions by introducing multiplicative terms in the regression equations. SNPs in CYP17A1 and VDR genes appeared significantly associated with AIA (P = 0.003, P = 0.012, respectively). One SNP in CYP27B1 gene was related to therapy discontinuation [P = 0.02; OR 0.29 (0.09-0.99)]. We revealed interactions between CYP27B1 and both CYP17A1 (P = 0.01) and VDR SNPs (P = 0.06). Furthermore, an additive effect on pain intensity was shown for unfavorable alleles, with two points higher mean absolute pain increase and up to 5.3-fold higher risk of worsening pain compared to favorable genotypes. SNPs in CYP17A1, VDR, and CYP27B1 genes predict the risk of AIA. Their determination would be useful to trigger the monitoring strategies in women at risk of therapy discontinuation.
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Update on long-term treatment with bisphosphonates for postmenopausal osteoporosis: A systematic review.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Osteoporosis is a progressive skeletal disorder that requires long-term treatment. However, there is little guidance regarding optimal treatment duration and what the treatment discontinuation and retreatment criteria should be. Given that bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed class of agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, we reviewed the long-term data relating to these therapies and discussed the considerations for using bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
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Analyses of RANK and RANKL in the Post-GWAS Context: Functional Evidence of Vitamin D Stimulation Through a RANKL Distal Region.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Over the past decade, many genome-wide association studies (GWAs) and meta-analyses have identified genes and regions involved in osteoporotic phenotypes. Nevertheless, the large majority of these results were not tested at any functional level. GWA-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near candidate genes such as RANK and RANKL suggest that these SNPs and/or other variants nearby may be involved in bone phenotype determination. This study focuses on SNPs along these two genes, which encode proteins with a well-established role in the bone remodeling equilibrium. Thirty-three SNPs, chosen for their location in evolutionary conserved regions or replicated from previous studies, were genotyped in the BARCOS cohort of 1061 postmenopausal women and tested for association with osteoporotic phenotypes. SNP rs9594738, which lies 184?kb upstream of the RANKL gene, was the only SNP found to be associated with a bone phenotype (dominant model: beta coefficient?=?-0.034, p?=?1.5?×?10(-4) , for lumbar spine bone mineral density). Functional experiments exploring a distal region (DR) of 831 bp that harbors this SNP in a centered position (nt 470) demonstrated its capacity to inhibit the RANKL promoter in reporter gene assays. Remarkably, this DR inhibition was significantly reduced in the presence of vitamin D. In conclusion, the GWA-associated SNP rs9594738 lies in a region involved in transcription regulation through which vitamin D could be regulating RANKL expression and bone mineral density. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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HIV infection is strongly associated with hip fracture risk, independently of age, gender, and comorbidities: a population-based cohort study.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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HIV infection and antiretroviral therapies have detrimental effects on bone metabolism, but data on their impact on fracture risk are controversial. We conducted a population-based cohort study to explore the association between clinical diagnosis of HIV infection and hip and major osteoporotic fracture risk. Data were obtained from the SIDIAP(Q) database, which contains clinical information for >2 million patients in Catalonia, Spain (30% of the population). We screened the database to identify participants with a clinical diagnosis of HIV infection, and ascertained incident hip and osteoporotic major fractures in the population aged 40 years or older in 2007 to 2009. In addition, data on incident fractures involving hospital admission were obtained from the Hospital Admissions database. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the HIV-infected versus uninfected participants. Models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol drinking, oral glucocorticoid use, and comorbid conditions (Charlson index). Among 1,118,156 eligible participants, we identified 2489 (0.22%) subjects with a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. Age- and sex-adjusted HR for HIV/AIDS were 6.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-10.9; p?
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The association between fracture site and obesity in men: a population-based cohort study.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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A site-dependent association between obesity and fracture has been reported in postmenopausal women. In this study we investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and fracture at different skeletal sites in older men (?65 years). We carried out a population-based cohort study using data from the Sistema dInformació per al Desenvolupament de lInvestigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP(Q) ) database. SIDIAP(Q) contains the primary care and hospital admission computerized medical records of >1300 general practitioners (GPs) in Catalonia (Northeast Spain), with information on a representative 30% of the population (>2?million people). In 2007, 186,171 men ?65 years were eligible, of whom 139,419 (74.9%) had an available BMI measurement. For this analysis men were categorized as underweight/normal (BMI?
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Comparison of the effects of ossein-hydroxyapatite complex and calcium carbonate on bone metabolism in women with senile osteoporosis: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, controlled, prospective study.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is recommended in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. One group that could benefit from this treatment is women with senile osteoporosis. Two sources of supplementary calcium are ossein-hydroxyapatite complex (OHC) and calcium carbonate, but, to date, their comparative effects on bone metabolism have not been studied in women with senile osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of OHC and calcium carbonate on bone metabolism in women with senile osteoporosis.
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Predicting fractures in an international cohort using risk factor algorithms without BMD.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Clinical risk factors are associated with increased probability of fracture in postmenopausal women. We sought to compare prediction models using self-reported clinical risk factors, excluding BMD, to predict incident fracture among postmenopausal women. The GLOW study enrolled women aged 55 years or older from 723 primary-care practices in 10 countries. The population comprised 19,586 women aged 60 years or older who were not receiving antiosteoporosis medication and were followed annually for 2 years. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, and health status. The main outcome measure compares the C index for models using the WHO Fracture Risk (FRAX), the Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator (FRC), and a simple model using age and prior fracture. Over 2 years, 880 women reported incident fractures including 69 hip fractures, 468 "major fractures" (as defined by FRAX), and 583 "osteoporotic fractures" (as defined by FRC). Using baseline clinical risk factors, both FRAX and FRC showed a moderate ability to correctly order hip fracture times (C index for hip fracture 0.78 and 0.76, respectively). C indices for "major" and "osteoporotic" fractures showed lower values, at 0.61 and 0.64. Neither algorithm was better than the model based on age?+?fracture history alone (C index for hip fracture 0.78). In conclusion, estimation of fracture risk in an international primary-care population of postmenopausal women can be made using clinical risk factors alone without BMD. However, more sophisticated models incorporating multiple clinical risk factors including falls were not superior to more parsimonious models in predicting future fracture in this population.
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Official Positions for FRAX® Bone Mineral Density and FRAX® simplification from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.
J Clin Densitom
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2011
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Tools to predict fracture risk are useful for selecting patients for pharmacological therapy in order to reduce fracture risk and redirect limited healthcare resources to those who are most likely to benefit. FRAX® is a World Health Organization fracture risk assessment algorithm for estimating the 10-year probability of hip fracture and major osteoporotic fracture. Effective application of FRAX® in clinical practice requires a thorough understanding of its limitations as well as its utility. For some patients, FRAX® may underestimate or overestimate fracture risk. In order to address some of the common issues encountered with the use of FRAX® for individual patients, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) assigned task forces to review the medical evidence and make recommendations for optimal use of FRAX® in clinical practice. Among the issues addressed were the use of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements at skeletal sites other than the femoral neck, the use of technologies other than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the use of FRAX® without BMD input, the use of FRAX® to monitor treatment, and the addition of the rate of bone loss as a clinical risk factor for FRAX®. The evidence and recommendations were presented to a panel of experts at the Joint ISCD-IOF FRAX® Position Development Conference, resulting in the development of Joint ISCD-IOF Official Positions addressing FRAX®-related issues.
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Functional relevance of the BMD-associated polymorphism rs312009: novel involvement of RUNX2 in LRP5 transcriptional regulation.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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LRP5 is an osteoporosis susceptibility gene. Association analyses reveal that individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determine variation in bone mineral density (BMD) among individuals as well as fracture risk. In a previous study, we identified a lumbar spine BMD-associated SNP, rs312009, located in the LRP5 5 region. A RUNX2 binding site was identified in this region by gel-shift experiments. Here we test the functionality of this SNP and examine whether RUNX2 is indeed a regulator of LRP5 expression. Gene reporter assays were used to test rs312009 functionality. Bioinformatic predictive tools and gel-shift and gene reporter assays were used to identify and characterize additional RUNX2 binding elements in the 3.3-kb region upstream of LRP5. Allelic differences in the transcriptional activity of rs312009 were observed in two osteoblastic cell lines, the T allele being a better transcriber than the C allele. RUNX2 cotransfection in HeLa cells revealed that the LRP5 5 region responded to RUNX2 in a dose-dependent manner and that the previously identified RUNX2 binding site participated in this response. Also, RUNX2 inhibition by RNAi led to nearly 60% reduction of endogenous LRP5 mRNA in U-2 OS cells. Four other RUNX2 binding sites were identified in the 5 region of LRP5. Luciferase experiments revealed the involvement of each of them in the RUNX2 response. The allelic differences observed point to the involvement of rs312009 as a functional SNP in the observed association. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the direct action of RUNX2 on LRP5 has been described. This adds evidence to previously described links between two important bone-regulating systems: the RUNX2 transcription-factor cascade and the Wnt signaling pathway.
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Probability of fractures predicted by FRAX® and observed incidence in the Spanish ECOSAP Study cohort.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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To assess the ability of the Spanish version of the WHO fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX®) to predict the observed incident fractures in the ECOSAP Study cohort.
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[Initial treatment trends in patient with osteoporosis: use of antiresorptive agents and pharmacologic supplements (calcium and vitamin D) in clinical practice].
Reumatol Clin
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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To describe the percentage of prescription of pharmacologic supplements in patients starting antiresorptive treatment (ART) for osteoporosis by specialists.
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Adverse reactions and drug-drug interactions in the management of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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The pharmacological management of disease should involve consideration of the balance between the beneficial effects of treatment on outcome and the probability of adverse effects. The aim of this review is to explore the risk of adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions with treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis. We reviewed evidence for adverse reactions from regulatory documents, randomized controlled trials, pharmacovigilance surveys, and case series. Bisphosphonates are associated with gastrointestinal effects, musculoskeletal pain, and acute-phase reactions, as well as, very rarely, atrial fibrillation, atypical fracture, delayed fracture healing, osteonecrosis of the jaw, hypersensitivity reactions, and renal impairment. Cutaneous effects and osteonecrosis of the jaw are of concern for denosumab (both very rare), though there are no pharmacovigilance data for this agent yet. The selective estrogen receptor modulators are associated with hot flushes, leg cramps, and, very rarely, venous thromboembolism and stroke. Strontium ranelate has been linked to hypersensitivity reactions and venous thromboembolism (both very rare) and teriparatide with headache, nausea, dizziness, and limb pain. The solidity of the evidence base depends on the frequency of the reaction, and causality is not always easy to establish for the very rare adverse reactions. Drug-drug interactions are rare. Osteoporosis treatments are generally safe and well tolerated, though they are associated with a few very rare serious adverse reactions. While these are a cause for concern, the risk should be weighed against the benefits of treatment itself, i.e., the prevention of osteoporotic fracture.
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Calcium citrate and vitamin D in the treatment of osteoporosis.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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The combination of calcium with vitamin D (vitamin D(3) [colecalciferol]) forms the basis of preventive and therapeutic regimens for osteoporosis. A number of studies have suggested that the combination of calcium and vitamin D is effective when administered at respective dosages of at least 1200?mg and 800?IU per day, although efficacy is, as expected, affected by patient compliance. Overall, treatment with this combination appears to be effective in reducing the incidence of non-vertebral and hip fractures. Also, in all drug studies (of antiresorptive and anabolic agents and strontium ranelate) that demonstrated a reduction in risk of osteoporotic fractures, patients also took calcium and vitamin D supplements. An important finding in this regard is that vitamin D levels have been demonstrated to be inadequate in more than half of women treated for osteoporosis in the US and Europe. The capacity of the small intestine to absorb calcium salts depends on the solubility and ionization of the salts. These properties vary for different salts, with fasting calcium citrate absorption being greater than that of calcium lactogluconate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate formulations taken between meals may help to prevent abdominal distension and flatulence, as well as minimize the risk of renal calculus formation, thus helping to optimize patient compliance. Therefore, calcium citrate combined with vitamin D is the combination of choice for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.
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[Usefulness of FRAX tool for the management of osteoporosis in the Spanish female population].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Osteoporotic fractures involve a significant consumption of health resources. Bone densitometry has been essential in the management of osteoporosis. However, for fracture absolute risk prediction, other important clinical risk factors are also important. WHO published a risk estimation tool (FRAX), and the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) reported thresholds for densitometry assessment based on cost-effectivity criteria. Our goal is to determine the diagnostic predictive validity of FRAX in our population, and to assess how its use (according to NOGG guidelines) would modify the current number of referrals to DXA scan in our health system.
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Bone health in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women receiving aromatase inhibitors for early breast cancer.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Baseline bone health in postmenopausal women is poorly characterized in prospective series of early breast cancer (EBC) patients candidates to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Our objective is to comprehensively evaluate bone health in a prospective clinical cohort of patients recruited prior to adjuvant AI therapy, with the aim of establishing potential AI impact on bone loss and fractures.
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Vitamin D threshold to prevent aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgia: a prospective cohort study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Aromatase inhibitor (AI)-associated arthralgia limits adherence to therapy in breast cancer. The pathophysiology may involve vitamin D status. We wished to establish the optimal concentration of 25(OH)D that prevents or minimizes arthralgia. We used a prospective cohort of 290 women starting AI in whom baseline vitamin D was measured. All received daily vitamin D(3) (800 IU) with calcium. Women with baseline 25(OH)D concentration <30 ng/ml also received 16,000 IU of D(3) orally every 2 weeks. The primary outcome was incident or worsening joint pain derived from baseline and 3-month visual analogic scale (VAS) for joint pain. Regression models were used to analyse the association between vitamin D concentrations at 3 months and pain adjusting for age, BMI, season when the sample was drawn, aromatase inhibitor (exemestane vs. letrozole/anastrozole), prior tamoxifen therapy, baseline NTX, and previous fracture. 90% of women had a 25(OH)D <30 ng/ml at baseline. After supplementation (daily 800 IU and additional 16,000 IU every 2 weeks), 50% of them still failed to reach adequate concentrations at 3 months. In the whole cohort, there was an increase in joint pain (mean 1.16 points SD 2.66; P < 0.001) and the increase was significantly (P = 0.02) attenuated in those that reached concentrations of 25(OH)D of ?40 ng/ml, with a lower risk of incident arthralgia (OR 0.12 ** [0.03 to 0.40]). A target concentration of 40 ng/ml 25OHD may prevent development of AI arthralgia but higher loading doses are required to attain this level in women with deficiency at baseline.
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Impact of prevalent fractures on quality of life: baseline results from the global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in women.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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To examine several dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in postmenopausal women who report previous fractures, and to provide perspective by comparing these findings with those in other chronic conditions (diabetes, arthritis, lung disease).
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Analysis of three functional polymorphisms in relation to osteoporosis phenotypes: replication in a Spanish cohort.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Osteoporosis is a complex disease involving many putative genetic factors. Association analysis of functional SNPs in candidate genes is an important tool for their identification. However, this approach is affected by limited power, population stratification, and other drawbacks that lead to discordant results. Replication in independent cohorts is essential. We performed association analyses of three functional polymorphisms previously associated with bone phenotypes--namely, Ala222Val in MTHFR, Ile1062Val in LRP6, and -13910C>T in LCT--in a cohort of 944 postmenopausal Spanish women, all of them with lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) data and most with femoral neck (FN) BMD and fracture data. We found significant differences between genotypes only for the MTHFR polymorphism and vertebral factures, with an OR of 2.27 (95% CI 1.17-4.38) for the TT vs. CC/CT genotypes, P = 0.018. We present genotype and allele frequency data for LCT -13910C>T for a Spanish population, where the T allele (conferring lactase persistence) has a frequency of 38.6%. Genotype frequencies were consistent with observed clines in Europe and with the prevalence of lactase nonpersistence. The LCT -13910C>T polymorphism was significantly associated with height and weight, such that T allele carriers were 0.88 cm taller (95% CI 0.08-1.59 cm, P = 0.032, adjusted by age) than CC individuals and TT homozygotes were 1.91 kg heavier than CC/CT individuals (95% CI 0.11-3.71 kg, P = 0.038, adjusted by age). In conclusion, no significant association was observed between the studied polymorphisms and LS BMD or FN BMD in postmenopausal Spanish women, and only MTHFR Ala222Val was associated with vertebral fractures.
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Vitamin D deficiency and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women receiving aromatase inhibitors for early breast cancer.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Aromatase inhibitors (AI) treatment leads to an increased risk of bone loss and fractures. In a group of women with early breast cancer (EBC) and baseline Vitamin D deficiency (<30 ng/ml) who are treated with AI, we aim to describe: serum levels of Vitamin D, bone mineral density (BMD), calcium intake, and the increase of serum 25(OH)D accomplished in 3 months of treatment with Vitamin D supplements.
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Effect of IL-1beta, PGE(2), and TGF-beta1 on the expression of OPG and RANKL in normal and osteoporotic primary human osteoblasts.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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The RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway is essential for bone remodeling regulation. Many hormones and cytokines are involved in regulating gene expression in most of the pathway components. Moreover, any deregulation of this pathway can alter bone metabolism, resulting in loss or gain of bone mass. Whether osteoblasts from osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic patients respond differently to cytokines is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of interleukin (IL)-1beta, proftaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) treatments on OPG and RANKL gene expression in normal (n = 11) and osteoporotic (n = 8) primary osteoblasts. OPG and RANKL mRNA levels of primary human osteoblastic (hOB) cell cultures were assessed by real-time PCR. In all cultures, OPG mRNA increased significantly in response to IL-1beta treatment and decreased in response to TGF-beta1 whereas PGE(2) treatment had no effect. RANKL mRNA levels were significantly increased by all treatments. Differences in OPG and RANKL responses were observed between osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic hOB: in osteoporotic hOB, the OPG response to IL-1beta treatment was up to three times lower (P = 0.009), whereas that of RANKL response to TGF-beta1 was five times higher (P = 0.002) after 8 h of treatment, as compared with those in nonosteoporotic hOBs. In conclusion, osteoporotic hOB cells showed an anomalous response under cytokine stimulation, consistent with an enhanced osteoclastogenesis resulting in high levels of bone resorption.
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Microindentation for in vivo measurement of bone tissue mechanical properties in humans.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Bone tissue mechanical properties are deemed a key component of bone strength, but their assessment requires invasive procedures. Here we validate a new instrument, a reference point indentation (RPI) instrument, for measuring these tissue properties in vivo. The RPI instrument performs bone microindentation testing (BMT) by inserting a probe assembly through the skin covering the tibia and, after displacing periosteum, applying 20 indentation cycles at 2 Hz each with a maximum force of 11 N. We assessed 27 women with osteoporosis-related fractures and 8 controls of comparable ages. Measured total indentation distance (46.0 +/- 14 versus 31.7 +/- 3.3 microm, p = .008) and indentation distance increase (18.1 +/- 5.6 versus 12.3 +/- 2.9 microm, p = .008) were significantly greater in fracture patients than in controls. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the two measurements were 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.1-100) and 90.3% (95% CI 73.2-100), respectively. Interobserver coefficient of variation ranged from 8.7% to 15.5%, and the procedure was well tolerated. In a separate study of cadaveric human bone samples (n = 5), crack growth toughness and indentation distance increase correlated (r = -0.9036, p = .018), and scanning electron microscope images of cracks induced by indentation and by experimental fractures were similar. We conclude that BMT, by inducing microscopic fractures, directly measures bone mechanical properties at the tissue level. The technique is feasible for use in clinics with good reproducibility. It discriminates precisely between patients with and without fragility fracture and may provide clinicians and researchers with a direct in vivo measurement of bone tissue resistance to fracture.
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[Bone mass loss after sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective comparative study with gastric bypass].
Cir Esp
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Bariatric surgery is the most effective option for the treatment of patients with a high risk of complications due to their obesity. However, it brings about a series of changes in calcium and vitamin D metabolism and an increase in resorption which lead to a loss of bone mass.
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Baseline observations from the POSSIBLE EU® study: characteristics of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications.
Arch Osteoporos
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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SUMMARY: Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience in Europe (POSSIBLE EU®) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study that utilises physician- and patient-reported measures to describe the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women on bone loss therapies. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of 3,402 women recruited from general practice across five European countries. PURPOSE: The POSSIBLE EU® is a study describing the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2008, general practitioners enrolled postmenopausal women initiating, switching or continuing treatment with bone loss treatment in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Patients and physicians completed questionnaires at study entry and at 3-month intervals, for 1 year. RESULTS: Of 3,402 women enrolled (mean age 68.2 years [SD] 9.83), 96% were diagnosed with low bone mass; 55% of these using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most women (92%) had comorbidities. Mean minimum T score (hip or spine) at diagnosis was -2.7 (SD 0.89; median -2.7 [interquartile range, -3.2, -2.2]) indicating low bone mineral density. Almost 40% of the women had prior fractures in adulthood, mostly non-vertebral, non-hip in nature, 30% of whom had at least two fractures and more than half experienced moderate/severe pain or fatigue. Bisphosphonates were the most common type of bone loss treatment prescribed in the 12 months preceding the study. CONCLUSIONS: POSSIBLE EU® characterises postmenopausal women with low bone mass, exhibiting a high rate of prevalent fracture, substantial bone fragility and overall comorbidity burden. Clinical strategies for managing osteoporosis in this population varied across the five participating European countries, reflecting their different guidelines, regulations and standards of care.
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Prevalence of vertebral fracture in postmenopausal women with lumbar osteopenia using MorphoXpress® (OSTEOXPRESS Study).
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Vertebral fracture (VF) is the most common complication of osteoporosis. However, more than half of all VF are asymptomatic and may go unnoticed, even in patients with osteoporosis. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of VF in postmenopausal women with osteopenic lumbar densitometry by means of vertebral morphometry, using the MorphoXpress® software.
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The tissue diagnostic instrument.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.
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[Validation of an algorithm to calculate the absolute risk of non-vertebral fragility fractures in a cohort of postmenopausal women].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Absolute risk estimate for fractures in the individual subject provides meaningful information for interventions. Recently, we have described an algorithm to calculate the absolute risk for non-vertebral fractures in women from Spain, aged 65 years or older, that includes clinical parameters and quantitative bone ultrasound values of the calcaneus (URL: www.ecosap.info). We assessed the performance of the algorithm by means of the statistical analysis of the model calibration.
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"Burden of osteoporotic fractures in primary health care in Catalonia (Spain): a population-based study".
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
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Knowledge on the epidemiology of non-hip fractures in Spain is limited and somewhat outdated. Using computerized primary care records from the SIDIAP database, we derived age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates for the region of Catalonia during the year 2009.
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Vitamin D threshold to prevent aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss: the B-ABLE prospective cohort study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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Aromatase inhibitor (AI)-related bone loss is associated with increased fracture rates. Vitamin D might play a role in minimising this effect. We hypothesised that 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] after 3 months supplementation might relate to bone loss after 1 year on AI therapy. We conducted a prospective cohort study from January 2006 to December 2011 of a consecutive sample of women initiating AI for early breast cancer who were ineligible for bisphosphonate therapy and stayed on treatment for 1 year (N = 232). Serum 25(OH)D was measured at baseline and 3 months, and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density at baseline and 1 year. Subjects were supplemented with daily calcium (1 g) and vitamin D(3) (800 IU) and additional oral 16,000 IU every 2 weeks if baseline 25(OH)D was <30 ng/ml. Linear regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. After 1 year on AI therapy, 232 participants experienced a significant 1.68 % [95 % CI 1.15-2.20 %] bone loss at LS (0.017 g/cm(2) [0.012-0.024], P < 0.0001). Higher 25(OH)D at 3 months protected against LS bone loss (-0.5 % per 10 ng/ml [95 % CI -0.7 to -0.3 %], adjusted P = 0.0001), and those who reached levels ?40 ng/ml had reduced bone loss by 1.70 % [95 % CI 0.4-3.0 %; adjusted P = 0.005] compared to those with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng/ml). We conclude that improved vitamin D status using supplementation is associated with attenuation of AI-associated bone loss. For this population, the current Institute of Medicine target recommendation of 20 ng/ml might be too low to ensure good bone health.
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Obesity, Health-Care Utilization, and Health-Related Quality of Life After Fracture in Postmenopausal Women: Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW).
Calcif. Tissue Int.
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Fractures may be associated with higher morbidity in obese postmenopausal women than in nonobese women. We compared health-care utilization, functional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese, nonobese, and underweight women with fractures. Information from the GLOW study, started in 2006, was collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. In this subanalysis, self-reported incident clinical fractures, health-care utilization, HRQL, and functional status were recorded and examined. Women in GLOW (n = 60,393) were aged ?55 years, from 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. Complete data for fracture and body mass index were available for 90 underweight, 3,270 nonobese, and 941 obese women with one or more incident clinical fractures during the 3-year follow-up. The median hospital length of stay, adjusted for age, comorbidities, and fracture type, was significantly greater in obese than nonobese women (6 vs. 5 days, p = 0.017). Physical function and vitality score were significantly worse in obese than in nonobese women, both before and after fracture; but changes after fracture were similar across groups. Use of antiosteoporosis medication was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese or underweight women. In conclusion, obese women with fracture undergo a longer period of hospitalization for treatment and have poorer functional status and HRQL than nonobese women. Whether these differences translate into higher economic costs and adverse effects on longer-term outcomes remains to be established.
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Relationship of weight, height, and body mass index with fracture risk at different sites in postmenopausal women: The global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in women (GLOW).
J. Bone Miner. Res.
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Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, rib, upper arm/shoulder, clavicle, ankle, lower leg, and upper leg fractures, we modeled the time to incident self-reported fracture over a 3-year period using the Cox proportional hazards model and fitted the best linear or non-linear models containing height, weight, and BMI. Of 52,939 women, 3628 (6.9%) reported an incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. Linear BMI showed a significant inverse association with hip, clinical spine, and wrist fractures: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per increase of 5?kg/m(2) were 0.80 (0.71-0.90), 0.83 (0.76-0.92), and 0.88 (0.83-0.94), respectively (all p?
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.