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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Utilization of public and private health services by the population of Belo Horizonte.
Rev Bras Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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To analyze the differences in health services utilization by users of Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) and beneficiaries of Supplemental Health (SH).
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Omics profiles used to evaluate the gene expression of Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7 during cold adaptation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Exiguobacterium antarcticum strain B7 is a Gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterial species isolated in Antarctica. Although this bacteria has been poorly studied, its genome has already been sequenced. Therefore, it is an appropriate model for the study of thermal adaptation. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptomes and proteomes of E. antarcticum B7 grown at 0[degree sign]C and 37[degree sign]C by SOLiD RNA-Seq, Ion Torrent RNA-Seq and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (2D-DIGE-MS/MS).
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Dietary indexes, food patterns and incidence of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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We prospectively assessed the association between adherence to several a priori defined healthy food patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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Clustering and combining pattern of metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population.
Sao Paulo Med J
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of clustering and the combination pattern of three or more metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two rural communities located in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS The sample was composed of 534 adults (both sexes). Waist circumference, blood pressure and demographic, lifestyle and biochemical characteristics were assessed. The prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III. A binomial distribution equation was used to evaluate the probability of clustering of metabolic syndrome components. The statistical significance level was set at 5% (P < 0.05). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more frequent among women (23.3%) than among men (6.5%). Clustering of three or more metabolic syndrome components was greater than expected by chance. The commonest combinations of three metabolic syndrome components were: hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension; and of four metabolic syndrome components: abdominal obesity + hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION The population studied presented high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and clustering of its components greater than expected by chance, suggesting that the combination pattern was non-random.
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Moving pieces in a venomic puzzle: unveiling post-translationally modified toxins from Tityus serrulatus.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Besides being a public health problem, scorpion venoms have a potential biotechnological application since they contain peptides that may be used as drug leads and/or to reveal novel pharmacological targets. A comprehensive Tityus serrulatus venom proteome study with emphasis on the phosphoproteome and N-glycoproteome was performed to improve our knowledge on the molecular diversity of the proteinaceous toxins. We combined two peptide identification methodologies, i.e., database search and de novo sequencing, to achieve a more comprehensive overview of the molecular diversity of the venoms. A total of 147 proteins were identified, including neurotoxins, enzymes, bradykinin-potentiating peptides, and molecules with antimicrobial and diuretic activities. Among those, three proteins were found to be phosphorylated, and one N-glycosylated. Finally, cleavage of toxin polypeptide chains seems to be a common post-translational modification in the venom since 80% of the identified molecules were, in fact, products of toxins proteolysis.
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Another record of significant regional variation in toxicity of Tityus serrulatus venom in Brazil: a step towards understanding the possible role of sodium channel modulators.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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The scorpion Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most severe accidents that have been registered in Brazil, mainly in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), being the lung edema (LE), the main cause of death in these accidents. Although an increased in the number of accidents caused to this species in Federal District (Distrito Federal - DF), it seems that this particular species is not responsible for severe scorpionism cases in this region. Given this observation, we tested the toxicity in mice and compared the ability of T. serrulatus venom from DF (Ts-DF) and Minas Gerais State (Ts-MG) to induce LE in rats. The LD50 of Ts-DF venom was 51.6 ?g/mouse, almost twice (1.98) higher than that obtained for Ts-MG venom. The ability of venom (0.5 mg/kg) to induce LE in rats was determined by the wet weight differences between treated and untreated lungs, by pulmonary morphological analyses and by pulmonary vascular permeability (PVP) using the Evans blue protocol. Significant differences in the wet weight of lungs and changes in PVP were found in Ts-MG venom treated rats when compared to rats treated with Ts-DF venom or untreated rats (p < 0.001), but no differences occurred when comparing rats treated with Ts-DF venom and untreated rats (p < 0.05). These results were confirmed by evaluation of pulmonary morphology. Comparison of chromatographic profiles obtained from these venoms (Ts-DF and Ts-MG) using the fractal dimension (D) analysis and the molecular mass fingerprint of the chromatographic fractions showed a higher number of components between 35 and 40% acetonitrile in Ts-MG venom than in Ts-DF venom, indicating a higher diversity of sodium channel modulators in that venom.
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Identification of 11 new exoproteins in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis by comparative analysis of the exoproteome.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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This study involves the comparison between the exoproteomes of two different strains of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants. In a previous study, based on a gel-free system (TPP-LC/MS(E)), 70 exoproteins for the strain 1002 and 67 for the strain C231, totaling 93 different extracellular proteins for C. pseudotuberculosis, were identified. In the present work, we have used 2D gel electrophoresis to resolve the extracellular proteins of both strains, which were then digested with trypsin, analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and identified with the software MASCOT(®). A total of 45 extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified by this approach. The comparative analysis between the strains 1002 and C231 identified 13 and 3 strain-specific proteins, respectively, 11 of which are novel. These newly identified proteins may play an important role in the physiology and virulence of C. pseudotuberculosis.
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The proteomic profile of Stichodactyla duerdeni secretion reveals the presence of a novel O-linked glycopeptide.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Sea anemones represent one of the emerging groups of interest concerning venomous animals in toxinology and the goal of the present work was the prospection, and the structural and functional characterization of the compounds present in the secretion of the sea anemone Stichodactyla duerdeni from Brazilian coast. We used a combination of offline RPC-MALDI-TOF and online nano-RPC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap proteomic techniques as well as functional bioassays. The mucus was milked by electric stimulation and fractionated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 yielding 5 main fractions. The low molecular weight fractions were further submitted to RP-HPLC resulting in 35 new subfractions that were subsequently analyzed by offline MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. MALDI peptide mass fingerprinting yielded up to 134 different molecular masses, ranging from m/z 901 to 10,833. Among these subfractions, a new peptide of 3431Da, named U-SHTX-Sdd1, was purified and completely sequenced by automated Edmans degradation and tandem mass spectrometry. An analysis of U-SHTX-Sdd1 revealed a modified O-HexNAc-Threonine at position 1, which, at the best of our knowledge, constitutes the first sea anemone toxin reported with such post-translational modification. Because of its sequence similarity with other sea anemone toxins, the pharmacological activity of U-SHTX-Sdd1 was assessed by electrophysiological measurements using the two electrode voltage-clamp technique on cloned voltage-gated potassium channel subtypes, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. However, U-SHTX-Sdd1 did not show activity on these channels. A large-scale proteomic approach was also employed to shed lights on the sea anemone compounds, and a total 67 proteins and peptides were identified.
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?-Theraphotoxin-An1a: primary structure determination and assessment of the pharmacological activity of a promiscuous anti-insect toxin from the venom of the tarantula Acanthoscurria natalensis (Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae).
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Tarantulas are included in the mygalomorph spider family Theraphosidae. Although the pharmacological diversity of theraphosid toxins (theraphotoxins) is broad, studies dedicated to the characterization of biologically active molecules from the theraphosid genus Acanthoscurria have been restricted to the investigation of antimicrobial peptides and polyamines produced by the hemocytes of Acanthoscurria gomesiana. The present study reports the purification, primary structure determination and electrophysiological effects of an anti-insect toxin, named ?-theraphotoxin-An1a (?-TRTX-An1a), from the venom of Acanthoscurria natalensis - a tarantula species occurring in the Brazilian biomes caatinga and cerrado. The analysis of the primary structure of ?-TRTX-An1a revealed the similarity of this toxin to theraphosid toxins bearing a huwentoxin-II-like fold. Electrophysiological experiments showed that ?-TRTX-An1a (100 nM) induces membrane depolarization, increases the spontaneous firing frequency and reduces spike amplitude of cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. In addition, under voltage-clamp conditions, ?-TRTX-An1a (100 nM) only partially blocks voltage-dependent sodium current amplitudes in DUM neurons without any effect on their voltage dependence. This effect correlates well with the reduction of the spontaneous action potential amplitudes. Altogether, these last results suggest that ?-TRTX-An1a affects insect neuronal voltage-dependent sodium channels, which are among possible channels targeted by this promiscuous toxin.
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Discovery and characterization of alamandine: a novel component of the renin-angiotensin system.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of the cardiovascular system, electrolyte, and water balance. Here, we report identification and characterization of alamandine, a new heptapeptide generated by catalytic action of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 angiotensin A or directly from angiotensin-(1-7).
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New insights on arthropod toxins that potentiate erectile function.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The use of natural substances for the treatment of diseases or injuries is an ancient practice of many cultures. According to folklore, natural aphrodisiacs may help to raise libido and increase desire. The supposed aphrodisiacs mainly include a plethora of preparations of plants, among other substances. However, the real boundary between myth and reality has not been established yet in most cases and such boundaries must be drawn by scientific methods. A growing interest of the scientific community has been focused on animal venoms, especially those from arthropods, i.e. spiders and scorpions, which cause priapism, a prolonged and painful erection. This review highlights the studies that have been performed with venoms and toxins from arthropods known to cause priapism, among other toxic symptoms, pointing out some pharmacological approaches for better understanding this effect. To date, the venom of some spiders, mainly Phoneutria nigriventer, and scorpions, such as the yellow South American scorpion Tityus serrulatus, among others, have been known to cause priapism. Since erectile dysfunction (ED) is a growing health problem in the world, more common in patients with vascular diseases as diabetes and hypertension, the use of animal venoms and toxins as pharmacological tools could not only shed light to the mechanisms involved in erectile function, but also represent a possible model for new drugs to treat ED. Unfortunately, attempts to correlate the structure of those priapism-related toxins were unfruitful. Such difficulties lie firstly on the poor data concerning purified priapism-related toxins, instead of whole venoms and/or semi-purified fractions, and secondly, on the scarce available primary sequences and structural data, mainly from spider toxins. It has been shown that all these toxins modify the sodium (Na(+)) channel activity, mostly slowing down its inactivation current. Improving the knowledge on the tertiary structure of these toxins could provide a key in the search of a new drug for ED treatment.
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Differential Exoproteome analysis of two corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis strains isolated from goat (1002) and sheep (C231).
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis a chronic infectious disease affecting small ruminants. The 2D-DIGE technique was used to compare the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis strains isolated from goat (strain 1002) and sheep (strain C231). Seventeen proteins differentially produced were identified here. Nine proteins appeared over-produced in the exoproteome of 1002 goat strain and 8 in that of C231 sheep strain. These proteins were related to various biological functions, such as the cell envelope, respiratory metabolism and proteolysis. This proteomic analysis revealed strain-specific exoproteins although each of the corresponding genes was found in both strain genomes. Such differential expression pattern may reflect inter-strain differences in adaptation to a specific host, in pathogenicity and or in antigenicity of this pathogenic bacterium.
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Chromobacterium violaceum: important insights for virulence and biotechnological potential by exoproteomic studies.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Chromobacterium violaceum is a beta-proteobacterium with high biotechnological potential, found in tropical environments. This bacterium causes opportunistic infections in both humans and animals, that can spread throughout several tissues, quickly leading to the death of the host. Genomic studies identified potential mechanisms of pathogenicity but no further studies were done to confirm the expression of these systems. In this study 36 unique protein entries were identified in databank from a two-dimensional profile of C. violaceum secreted proteins. Chromobacterium violaceum exoproteomic preliminary studies confirmed the production of proteins identified as virulence factors (such as a collagenase, flagellum proteins, metallopeptidases, and toxins), allowing us to better understand its pathogenicity mechanisms. Biotechnologically interesting proteins (such as chitinase and chitosanase) were also identified among the secreted proteins, as well as proteins involved in the transport and capture of amino acids, carbohydrates, and oxidative stress protection. Overall, the secreted proteins identified provide us important insights on pathogenicity mechanisms, biotechnological potential, and environment adaptation of C. violaceum.
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Biochemical and electrophysiological characterization of two sea anemone type 1 potassium toxins from a geographically distant population of Bunodosoma caissarum.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) venom is an important source of bioactive compounds used as tools to study the pharmacology and structure-function of voltage-gated K+ channels (KV). These neurotoxins can be divided into four different types, according to their structure and mode of action. In this work, for the first time, two toxins were purified from the venom of Bunodosoma caissarum population from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveals that BcsTx1 and BcsTx2 are the newest members of the sea anemone type 1 potassium channel toxins. Their functional characterization was performed by means of a wide electrophysiological screening on 12 different subtypes of KV channels (KV1.1-KV1.6; KV2.1; KV3.1; KV4.2; KV4.3; hERG and Shaker IR). BcsTx1 shows a high affinity for rKv1.2 over rKv1.6, hKv1.3, Shaker IR and rKv1.1, while Bcstx2 potently blocked rKv1.6 over hKv1.3, rKv1.1, Shaker IR and rKv1.2. Furthermore, we also report for the first time a venom composition and biological activity comparison between two geographically distant populations of sea anemones.
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PRODIS: a proteomics data management system with support to experiment tracking.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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A research area that has greatly benefited from the development of new and improved analysis technologies is Proteomics and large amounts of data have been generated by proteomic analysis as a consequence. Previously, the storage, management and analysis of these data have been done manually. This is, however, incompatible with the volume of data generated by modern proteomic analysis. Several attempts have been made to automate the tasks of data analysis and management. In this work we propose PRODIS (Proteomics Database Integrated System), a system for proteomic experimental data management. The proposed system enables an efficient management of the proteomic experimentation workflow, simplifies controlling experiments and associated data and establishes links between similar experiments through the experiment tracking function.
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Peptide fingerprinting of the neurotoxic fractions isolated from the secretions of sea anemones Stichodactyla helianthus and Bunodosoma granulifera. New members of the APETx-like family identified by a 454 pyrosequencing approach.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2011
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Sea anemones are known to contain a wide diversity of biologically active peptides, mostly unexplored according to recent peptidomic and transcriptomic studies. In the present work, the neurotoxic fractions from the exudates of Stichodactyla helianthus and Bunodosoma granulifera were analyzed by reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry. The first peptide fingerprints of these sea anemones were assessed, revealing the largest number of peptide components (156) so far found in sea anemone species, as well as the richer peptide diversity of B. granulifera in relation to S. helianthus. The transcriptomic analysis of B. granulifera, performed by massive cDNA sequencing with 454 pyrosequencing approach allowed the discovery of five new APETx-like peptides (U-AITX-Bg1a-e - including the full sequences of their precursors for four of them), which together with type 1 sea anemone sodium channel toxins constitute a very distinguishable feature of studied sea anemone species belonging to genus Bunodosoma. The molecular modeling of these new APETx-like peptides showed a distribution of positively charged and aromatic residues in putative contact surfaces as observed in other animal toxins. On the other hand, they also showed variable electrostatic potentials, thus suggesting a docking onto their targeted channels in different spatial orientations. Moreover several crab paralyzing toxins (other than U-AITX-Bg1a-e), which induce a variety of symptoms in crabs, were isolated. Some of them presumably belong to new classes of crab-paralyzing peptide toxins, especially those with molecular masses below 2kDa, which represent the smallest peptide toxins found in sea anemones.
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[Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors in a rural area of Minas Gerais State (MG, Brazil)].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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To estimate the metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence and its associated factors in rural communities of Minas Gerais State.
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Venomic analysis and evaluation of antivenom cross-reactivity of South American Micrurus species.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Coral snakes from Micrurus genus are the main representatives of the Elapidae family in South America. However, biochemical and pharmacological features regarding their venom constituents remain poorly investigated. Here, venomic analyses were carried out aiming at a deeper understanding on the composition of M. frontalis, M. ibiboboca, and M. lemniscatus venoms. In the three venoms investigated, proteins ranging from 6 to 8 kDa (3FTx) and 12 to 14 kDa (PLA(2)) were found to be the most abundant. Also, the N-terminal sequences of four new proteins, purified from the M. lemniscatus venom, similar to 3FTx, PLA(2) and Kunitz-type protease inhibitor from other Micrurus and elapid venoms are reported. Cross-reactivity among different Micrurus venoms and homologous or heterologous antivenoms was carried out by means of 2D-electrophoresis and immunoblotting. As, expected, the heterologous anti-Elapid venom displayed the highest degree of cross-reactivity. Conversely, anti-M. corallinus reacted weakly against the tested venoms. In gel digestions, followed by mass spectrometry sequencing and similarity searching, revealed the most immunogenic protein families as similar to short and long neurotoxins, weak neurotoxins, PLA(2), ?-bungarotoxin, venom protein E2, frontoxin III, LAO and C-type lectin. The implications of our results for the production of Micrurus antivenoms are discussed.
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From the stretcher to the pharmacys shelf: drug leads from medically important brazilian venomous arachnid species.
Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Accidents involving venomous animals have always caught the attention of mankind due to their lethality and other clinical implications. However, since the molecules obtained from animal venoms have been the product of millions of years of evolutionary process, toxins could be used to probe physiological mechanisms and could serve as leads for drug development. The present work reviews the state of the art pertaining to venom molecules from Brazilian medically important arachnid species bearing potential biotechnological applications. Special focus is given to toxins isolated from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus and the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Lycosa erythrognatha, whose venoms possess molecules acting as erectile function modulators and as antihypertensive, analgesic, neuroprotective and antimicrobial agents.
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New cassane diterpenes from Caesalpinia echinata.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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An investigation of the ethanolic extract from stems of Caesalpinia echinata Lam (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenes along with known lambertianic acid. Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. A preliminary study on leishmanicidal activity demonstrated that compounds 1, 2 and 6 were found to inhibit the growth of amastigote-like forms of Leishmania amazonensis without affecting mononuclear cells obtained from human peripheral blood.
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A combined approach for comparative exoproteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Bacterial exported proteins represent key components of the host-pathogen interplay. Hence, we sought to implement a combined approach for characterizing the entire exoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and goats.
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Childhood underweight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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To assess associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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Peptidomic dissection of the skin secretion of Phasmahyla jandaia (Bokermann and Sazima, 1978) (Anura, Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae).
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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The systematic investigation of the peptidic composition of the skin secretion of Phasmahyla jandaia, a phyllomedusine anuran endemic to the southern region of the Espinhaço range in Brazil, is herein reported. By means of de novo interpretation of tandem mass spectrometric data, Edman N-terminal sequencing and similarity searches, 57 peptides - including phylloseptins, dermaseptins stricto sensu, dermatoxins, hyposins, tryptophyllins, caerulein-related, bradykinin-related, bradykinin potentiating, tyrosine-rich, and opioid peptides - were sequenced. Moreover, five peptide families without significant similarity to other known molecules were verified. Differently from most Phyllomedusinae genera, the molecular diversity in the skin of representatives of Phasmahyla remained unprospected until now. Therefore, besides disclosing novel natural variants of number of bioactive peptides, the present study contributes to the understanding of the evolution of biochemical characters of the phyllomedusines.
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Structure-function studies of Tityus serrulatus Hypotensin-I (TsHpt-I): A new agonist of B(2) kinin receptor.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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In order to better understand the relationship between the primary structure of TsHpt-I - a bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP) isolated from the venom of the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, with a non-canonical Lys residue prior to the conservative Pro-Pro doublet - and its cardiovascular effects, a series of ladder peptides were synthesized using the C-terminal portion of TsHpt-I as a template. All synthetic peptides having the Pro-Pro doublet at their C-terminal were able to potentiate the hypotensive effect of bradykinin. Conversely, only those analogues having Lys residue could induce a transient hypotension when intravenously administrated in male rats, indicating that the positive charge located toward the radical of this amino acid residue is crucial for this cardiovascular effect. Differently from all known BPPs, TsHpt-I acts as an agonist of the B(2) receptor and does not inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme. The capacity of this peptide to activate this subtype of kinin receptor, releasing NO, was also affected by the absence of Lys side-chain positive charge. Moreover, this study has demonstrated that the minimization of the primary structure of TsHpt-I does not significantly alter the biological effects of this native peptide, which could be of interest for biotechnological purposes.
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Childhood and young adult overweight/obesity and incidence of depression in the SUN project.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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This study included 11,825 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort based on former students from University of Navarra, registered professionals from some Spanish provinces, and university graduates from other associations, followed-up for 6.1 years. We aimed to assess the association between childhood or young adult overweight/obesity and the risk of depression. Participants were asked to select which of nine figures most closely represented their body shape at ages 5 and 20 years. Childhood and young adult overweight/obesity was defined as those cases in which participants reported body shape corresponding to the figures 6-9 (more obese categories) at age 5 or 20, respectively. A subject was classified as incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of biannual follow-up questionnaires. The association between childhood and young adult overweight/obesity and incidence of depression was estimated by multiple-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Overweight/obesity at age 5 years predicted an increased risk for adult depression (HR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06-2.12), and a stronger association was observed at age 20 years ((HR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.22-4.08), (subjects younger than 30 years at recruitment were excluded from this last analysis)). Childhood or young adult overweight/obesity was associated with elevated risk of adult depression. These results, if causal and confirmed in other prospective studies, support treating childhood and young adult overweight/obesity as part of comprehensive adult depression prevention efforts.
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Complete amino-acid sequence, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of leucurolysin-a, a nonhaemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops leucurus snake venom.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Leucurolysin-a (leuc-a) is a class P-I snake-venom metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the South American snake Bothrops leucurus (white-tailed jararaca). The mature protein is composed of 202 amino-acid residues in a single polypeptide chain. It contains a blocked N-terminus and is not glycosylated. In vitro studies revealed that leuc-a dissolves clots made either from purified fibrinogen or from whole blood. Unlike some other venom fibrinolytic metalloproteinases, leuc-a has no haemorrhagic activity. Leuc-a was sequenced and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. Crystals were obtained using PEG 6000 or PEG 1500. Diffraction data to 1.80 and 1.60 A resolution were collected from two crystals (free enzyme and the endogenous ligand-protein complex, respectively). They both belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with very similar unit-cell parameters (a = 44.0, b = 56.2, c = 76.3 A for the free-enzyme crystal).
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Work hours and incidence of hypertension among Spanish university graduates: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra prospective cohort.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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The aim of this study was to assess the association between work hours and incidence of hypertension in 8779 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates.
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Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression.
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[Adverse events following vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in children].
Cad Saude Publica
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The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of adverse events following vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 and associated factors in children from six months to two years of age (n = 156). Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the independent associations between covariates and complaints of at least one adverse event. Strength of association was measured by hazard ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals. Following the first dose, 40.3% of parents reported one or more adverse events in their children, compared to 35.5% after the second dose. Systemic adverse events, specifically irritation, diarrhea, and fever, were more frequent than local reactions at the vaccination site. Incidence rates for adverse events in general and systemic reactions following the first dose were higher in children with concomitant illness or allergies (HR = 3.43, 95%CI: 1.34-8.77 and HR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.11-6.89). Most events were mild. Cases of high fever, vomiting, and diarrhea prompted parents to seek care for their children at health services.
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Profiles of toxic and non-toxic oligopeptides of Radiocystis fernandoii (Cyanobacteria) exposed to three different light intensities.
Microbiol. Res.
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Cyanobacteria produce a high variety of bioactive oligopeptides, which function, ecological, physiological roles and responses to environmental changes are still unclear. The influence of light intensity on the cell quota and the diversity of oligopeptides of two strains of the cyanobacterium Radiocystis fernandoii were experimentally tested. The peptides were quantified by HPLC and identified by a MALDI-TOF-TOF. Microcystins (MC) were generally more abundant in the treatment with low light. A compensatory mechanism was observed for the different variants of microcystin, whereby MC-RR responses were contrary to those observed for the other three variants and showed higher concentration in the treatment with intermediate light. Two microviridins were also produced at higher amounts at intermediate irradiance. For cyanopeptolins and a third microviridin no significant difference among treatments was found. The absence of a similar response for all peptides suggests that these compounds may have unique cellular functions, which better understanding could help explaining changes in toxicity. Finally, we observed that each chemical profile reflected in physiological differences between strains, strengthening the idea that chemotypes may act as distinct ecotypes in nature.
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Greater binding affinity of trivalent antimony to a CCCH zinc finger domain compared to a CCHC domain of kinetoplastid proteins.
Metallomics
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It has been reported recently that Sb(III) competes with Zn(II) for its binding to the CCHC zinc finger domain of the HIV-1 NCp7 protein, suggesting that zinc finger proteins may be molecular targets for antimony-based drugs. Here, the interaction of Sb(III) with a CCCH zinc finger domain, which is considered to play a crucial role in the biology of kinetoplastid protozoa, has been characterized for the first time. The binding characteristics of Sb(III) were compared between a CCCH-type peptide derived from a kinetoplastid protein and two different CCHC-type zinc finger peptides. The formation of 1 : 1 Zn-peptide and Sb-peptide complexes from the different peptides was demonstrated using circular dichroism, UV absorption, fluorescence spectroscopies and ESI-MS. Titration of the Zn-peptide complexes with SbCl(3) was performed at pH 6 and 7, exploiting the intrinsic fluorescence of the peptides. The differential spectral characteristics of the peptides allowed for competition experiments between the different peptides for binding of Zn(II). The present study establishes that Sb(III) more effectively displaces Zn(II) from the CCCH peptide than CCHC ones, as a result of both the greater stability of the Sb-CCCH complex (compared to Sb-CCHC complexes) and the lower stability of the Zn-CCCH complex (compared to Zn-CCHC complexes). Comparison of the binding characteristics of Sb(III) or Zn(II) between the CCHC-type peptides with different amino acid sequences supports the model that not only the conserved zinc finger motif, but also the sequence of non-conserved amino acids determines the binding affinity of Sb(III) and Zn(II). These data suggest that the interaction of Sb(III) with CCCH-type zinc finger proteins may modulate, or even mediate, the pharmacological action of antimonial drugs.
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