Activation of the nuclear transcription factor ?B (NF-?B) regulates the expression of inflammatory genes crucially involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. NF-?B governs the expression of adhesion molecules that play a pivotal role in leukocyte-endothelium interactions. We uncovered the crucial role of NF-?B activation within endothelial cells in models of immune-mediated diseases using a "sneaking ligand construct" (SLC) selectively inhibiting NF-?B in the activated endothelium. The recombinant SLC1 consists of three modules: (i) an E-selectin targeting domain, (ii) a Pseudomonas exotoxin A translocation domain, and (iii) a NF-?B Essential Modifier-binding effector domain interfering with NF-?B activation. The E-selectin-specific SLC1 inhibited NF-?B by interfering with endothelial I?B kinase 2 activity in vitro and in vivo. In murine experimental peritonitis, the application of SLC1 drastically reduced the extravasation of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SLC1 treatment significantly ameliorated the disease course in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis. Our data establish that endothelial NF-?B activation is critically involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis and can be selectively inhibited in a cell type- and activation stage-dependent manner by the SLC approach. Moreover, our strategy is applicable to delineating other pathogenic signaling pathways in a cell type-specific manner and enables selective targeting of distinct cell populations to improve effectiveness and risk-benefit ratios of therapeutic interventions.
The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which enhances electrolyte clearance via cutaneous lymph vessels and increases eNOS expression in blood vessels. It is unclear whether this local MPS response to osmotic stress is important to systemic blood pressure control. Herein, we show that deletion of TonEBP in mouse MPS cells prevents the VEGFC response to a high-salt diet (HSD) and increases blood pressure. Additionally, an antibody that blocks the lymph-endothelial VEGFC receptor, VEGFR3, selectively inhibited MPS-driven increases in cutaneous lymphatic capillary density, led to skin Cl- accumulation, and induced salt-sensitive hypertension. Mice overexpressing soluble VEGFR3 in epidermal keratinocytes exhibited hypoplastic cutaneous lymph capillaries and increased Na+, Cl-, and water retention in skin and salt-sensitive hypertension. Further, we found that HSD elevated skin osmolality above plasma levels. These results suggest that the skin contains a hypertonic interstitial fluid compartment in which MPS cells exert homeostatic and blood pressure-regulatory control by local organization of interstitial electrolyte clearance via TONEBP and VEGFC/VEGFR3-mediated modification of cutaneous lymphatic capillary function.
Current teaching states that when sodium intake is increased from low to high levels, total-body sodium (TBNa) and water increase until daily sodium excretion again equals intake. When sodium intake is reduced, sodium excretion briefly exceeds intake until the excess TBNa and water are eliminated, at which point sodium excretion again equals intake. However, careful balance studies oftentimes conflict with this view and long-term studies suggest that TBNa fluctuates independent of intake or body weight. We recently performed the opposite experiment in that we fixed sodium intake for several weeks at three levels of sodium intake and collected all urine made. We found weekly (circaseptan) patterns in sodium excretion that were inversely related to aldosterone and directly to cortisol. TBNa was not dependent on sodium intake but instead exhibited far longer (?monthly) infradian rhythms independent of extracellular water, body weight, or blood pressure. The findings are consistent with our ideas on tissue sodium storage and its regulation that we developed on the basis of animal research. We are implementing (23)Na-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to pursue open questions on sodium balance in patients. Our findings could be relevant to therapeutic strategies for hypertension and target-organ damage.Kidney International advance online publication, 9 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.367.
The steady-state concept of Na(+) homeostasis, based on short-term investigations of responses to high salt intake, maintains that dietary Na(+) is rapidly eliminated into urine, thereby achieving constant total-body Na(+) and water content. We introduced the reverse experimental approach by fixing salt intake of men participating in space flight simulations at 12 g, 9 g, and 6 g/day for months and tested for the predicted constancy in urinary excretion and total-body Na(+) content. At constant salt intake, daily Na(+) excretion exhibited aldosterone-dependent, weekly (circaseptan) rhythms, resulting in periodic Na(+) storage. Changes in total-body Na(+) (±200-400 mmol) exhibited longer infradian rhythm periods (about monthly and longer period lengths) without parallel changes in body weight and extracellular water and were directly related to urinary aldosterone excretion and inversely to urinary cortisol, suggesting rhythmic hormonal control. Our findings define rhythmic Na(+) excretory and retention patterns independent of blood pressure or body water, which occur independent of salt intake.
Besides their role in immune system host defense, there is growing evidence that macrophages may also be important regulators of salt homeostasis and blood pressure by a TonEBP-VEGF-C dependent buffering mechanism. As macrophages are known to accumulate in the skin of rats fed under high salt diet conditions and are pivotal for removal of high salt storage, the question arose how macrophages sense sites of high sodium storage. Interestingly, we observed that macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and peritoneal macrophages recognize NaCl hypertonicity as a chemotactic stimulus and migrate in the direction of excess salt concentration by using an in vitro transwell migration assay. While RAW264.7 cells migrated toward NaCl in a dose-dependent fashion, no migratory response toward isotonic or hypotonic media controls, or other osmo-active agents, e.g. urea or mannitol, could be detected. Interestingly, we could not establish a specific role of the osmoprotective transcription factor TonEBP in regulating salt-dependent chemotaxis, since the specific migration of bone marrow-derived macrophages following RNAi of TonEBP toward NaCl was not altered. Although the underlying mechanism remains unidentified, these data point to a thus far unappreciated role for NaCl-dependent chemotaxis of macrophages in the clearance of excess salt, and suggest the existence of novel NaCl sensor/effector circuits, which are independent of the TonEBP system.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.