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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mycobacteria release active membrane vesicles that modulate immune responses in a TLR2-dependent manner in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Bacteria naturally release membrane vesicles (MVs) under a variety of growth environments. Their production is associated with virulence due to their capacity to concentrate toxins and immunomodulatory molecules. In this report, we show that the 2 medically important species of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin, release MVs when growing in both liquid culture and within murine phagocytic cells in vitro and in vivo. We documented MV production in a variety of virulent and nonvirulent mycobacterial species, indicating that release of MVs is a property conserved among mycobacterial species. Extensive proteomic analysis revealed that only MVs from the virulent strains contained TLR2 lipoprotein agonists. The interaction of MVs with macrophages isolated from mice stimulated the release of cytokines and chemokines in a TLR2-dependent fashion, and infusion of MVs into mouse lungs elicited a florid inflammatory response in WT but not TLR2-deficient mice. When MVs were administered to mice before M. tuberculosis pulmonary infection, an accelerated local inflammatory response with increased bacterial replication was seen in the lungs and spleens. Our results provide strong evidence that actively released mycobacterial vesicles are a delivery mechanism for immunologically active molecules that contribute to mycobacterial virulence. These findings may open up new horizons for understanding the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and developing vaccines.
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Factors affecting the introduction of new vaccines to poor nations: a comparative study of the Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B vaccines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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A major effort to introduce new vaccines into poor nations of the world was initiated in recent years with the help of the GAVI alliance. The first vaccines introduced have been the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and the hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccines. The introduction of these vaccines during the first phase of GAVIs operations demonstrated considerable variability. We set out to study the factors affecting the introduction of these vaccines. The African Region (AFRO), where new vaccines were introduced to a substantial number of countries during the first phase of GAVIs funding, was selected for this study.
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Attack rates assessment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A in children and their contacts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
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The recent H1N1 influenza A pandemic was marked by multiple reports of illness and hospitalization in children, suggesting that children may have played a major role in the propagation of the virus. A comprehensive detailed analysis of the attack rates among children as compared with their contacts in various settings is of great importance for understanding their unique role in influenza pandemics.
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The effect of social determinants on immunization programs.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
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Vaccine preventable diseases have been responsible for a significant portion of childhood mortality in low-income countries, and have been re-emerging in medium- and high-income countries. The effectiveness of routine childhood immunization programs relies on multiple factors. Social determinants have the potential to affect immunization programs around the world, with globalization and ease of communication facilitating their effect. Exploring the types of social determinants affecting immunization efforts in various countries is of great importance to the ability of nations to address them, prevent the spread of disease and lower mortality rates. The social determinants affecting vaccination programs can vary among countries of different income levels, with some social determinants overlapping among these country groups. In this article we explore the various social determinants affecting routine immunization programs in low-, middle- and high-income countries and possible interventions to address them.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.