Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles in aquatic ecosystem. To investigate the characteristics of DOM in Huangpu River (the last tributary of the Yangtze River), surface water samples were collected along the river from December 2011 to June, 2013. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the absorbance and fluorescence spectrum of DOM in water samples were measured. Fluorescent DOM in the Huangpu River was decomposed into four components by the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), including one humic-like substance and three protein-like substances. It showed that high spatial variability of DOC concentration was observed in the upstream water compared to the downstream water, and so did the absorbance coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and the total fluorescence intensities of different PARAFAC components of DOM. Furthermore, there was a large difference between the polarity and bioavailability of DOM in the Huangpu River. Polar compounds dominated tyrosine-like component of fluorescent DOM in all seasons. Tryptophan-like and humic-like substances had more polar fraction in summer and autumn than those in winter, while aromatic protein-like materials had the highest polar fraction in winter. Almost all of fluorescent DOM components were refractory in spring, while less than 20% of fluorescent DOM in average were biodegradable within 4weeks in other seasons. We concluded that the spatial variation in the abundance of DOM in the Huangpu River is mainly affected by the water discharges from the Hangjiahu Plain and the seasonal difference in polarity and bioavailability of DOM is largely determined by its origins.
Studies on the prevalence and virulence genes of Klebsiella mastitis pathogens in a buffalo population are undocumented. Also, the association of rmpA kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, K1 and K2 virulent factors with K. pneumoniae buffalo, and cow mastitis is unreported. The virulence of K. pneumoniae was evaluated through both phenotypic and molecular assays. In vivo virulence was assessed by the Vero cell cytotoxicity, suckling mouse assay and mice lethality test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. The 45 K. pneumoniae isolates from buffalo (n = 10/232) and cow (n = 35/293) milk were isolated (45/525; 8.6%) and screened via PCR for seven virulence genes encoding uridine diphosphate galactose 4 epimerase encoding gene responsible for capsule and smooth lipopolysaccharide synthesis (uge), siderophores (kfu and aerobactin), protectines or invasins (rmpA and magA), and the capsule and hypermucoviscosity (K1 and K2). The most common virulence genes were rmpA, kfu, uge, and magA (77.8% each). Aerobactin and K1 genes were found at medium rates of 66.7% each and K2 (55.6%). The Vero cell cytotoxicity and LD (50) in mice were found in 100% of isolates. A multidrug resistance pattern was observed for 40% of the antimicrobials. The distribution of virulence profiles indicate a role of rmpA, kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, and K1 and K2 in pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae in udder infections and invasiveness, and constitutes a threat for vulnerable animals, even more if they are in combination with antibiotic resistance.
The main objectives of the current study were to evaluate the potential effects of biochar derived from sugar cane bagasse (SC-BC) and orange peel (OP-BC) on improving the physicochemical properties of a metal smelter contaminated soil, and determining its potentiality for stabilizing Pb and As in soil. To achieve these goals, biochar was produced in a small-scale biochar producing plant, and an incubation experiment was conducted using a silt loam metal-contaminated soil treated with different application rates of biochar (0-10% w/w). The obtained results showed that, the addition of SC-BC and OP-BC increased significantly the soil aggregate stability, water-holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, organic matter and N-status in soil. SC-BC considerably decreased the solubility of Pb to values lower than the toxic regulatory level of the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure extraction (5mgL(-1)). The rise in soil pH caused by biochar application, and the increase of soil organic matter transformed the labile Pb into less available fractions i.e. "Fe-Mn oxides" and "organic" bound fractions. On the other hand, As was desorbed from Fe-Mn oxides, which resulted in greater mobility of As in the treated soil. We concluded that SC-BC and OP-BC could be used successfully for remediating soils highly contaminated with Pb. However, considerable attention should be paid when using it in soil contaminated with As.
EDTA amendments are widely used for micronutrient fertilization in arid soils, besides their effectiveness in the remediation process of heavy metal from contaminated soils. However, the persistence of EDTA in arsenic contaminated soil may have further negative effects on the grown plants. To investigate the influences of EDTA on soil As, a pot experiment was conducted using a sandy clay loam As-polluted soil treated with gradual rates of EDTA (0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5 mmol kg(-1)) and planted with maize for two months. The key findings reveal that EDTA applications increased AB-DTPA extractable and water soluble As significantly. Such increases seemed to be the main reasons behind the increase in As uptake by maize plants as the addition of EDTA at the rates of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mmol kg(-1) increased significantly As uptake by shoots 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0 folds, respectively compared to the untreated soil. On the other hand, As uptake by roots did not increase significantly except with the highest application rates of 2.5 and 5.0 mmol kg(-1). The results also show that arsenic translocation factor (TF) values were too low to attain successful phytoextraction. In conclusion, the bioavailable fraction of As is important to investigate the phytoextraction and phytotoxicity of As.
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