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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Low-dose acitretin in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome: treatment and 1-year follow-up.
Dermatol Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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The Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disease that manifests with palmoplantar keratoderma and destructive periodontitis resulting in early onset periodontal breakdown in deciduous and permanent dentition. Management of this condition is difficult. Here we report one 11-year-old consanguineous Muslim boy suffering from PLS. After failing to get any benefit from methotrexate, three cycles of acitretin, each for 2 months, were given 1 month apart. In each cycle, acitretin (25?mg) was given every other day. At the end of the third cycle, treatment was stopped for 4 months to observe the extent of relapse. Thereafter, acitretin (25?mg) was given twice weekly for 4 months and then the patient was followed up for 1 year. Treatment with acitretin resulted in excellent improvement of periodontitis, increase in the alveolar bone height, and periodontal attachment. Improvement remained stable at the end of 1-year follow-up. There was excellent (>75%) improvement in keratoderma at the end of active therapy. Mild worsening of palmoplantar keratoderma was noticed whenever the drug was stopped. It improved when the drug was restarted. Other areas remained stable. At the end of 1-year follow-up, good improvement (50%) in palmoplantar keratoderma was achieved.
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Cytological approach for diagnosis of non-healing oroantral fistula associated with candidiasis.
J Cytol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Oroantral fistula (OAF) and oral candidiasis are common to come across as separate individual lesions. However when candida organisms infect maxillary sinus through OAF then diagnosis should not be limited to clinical diagnosis only. In such situation role of cytological examination can prove to be fruitful. A female with chronic long standing OAF, not responding to conventional treatment approach is reported. On incisional biopsy, the case was diagnosed as chronic maxillary sinusitis with OAF. However patient did not respond to any treatment approach and later presented with a more progressive lesion involving maxillary sinus. A cytosmear stained with periodic acid Schiff stain, revealed the presence of numerous candidal hyphae. Finally, case was diagnosed as OAF with a superadded candidal infection. Patient responded well to antifungal treatment followed by reclosure of OAF. We should not neglect a simple cytological examination which may prevent wrong diagnosis and wrong treatment.
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The biomarker TP53 divides patients with neoadjuvantly treated esophageal cancer into 2 subgroups with markedly different outcomes. A p53 Research Group study.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Fluorouracil and cisplatin have been used most frequently as neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer. Both drugs are believed to act via a p53-dependent apoptosis pathway. The TP53 gene is frequently mutated in esophageal cancer.
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MRI patterns of Nissen fundoplication: normal appearance and mechanisms of failure.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The purpose of the study was to assess the role of MR fluoroscopy in the evaluation of post-surgical conditions of Nissen fundoplication due to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
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A phase II trial of two durations of Bevacizumab added to neoadjuvant gemcitabine for borderline and locally advanced pancreatic cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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We report the results of a phase II trial of adding the anti-ascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) bevacizumab to gemcitabine neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with borderline and unresectable non-metastatic pancreatic cancer.
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Mutations in IDH1, IDH2, and in the TERT promoter define clinically distinct subgroups of adult malignant gliomas.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Frequent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) and the promoter of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) represent two significant discoveries in glioma genomics. Understanding the degree to which these two mutations co-occur or occur exclusively of one another in glioma subtypes presents a unique opportunity to guide glioma classification and prognosis. We analyzed the relationship between overall survival (OS) and the presence of IDH1/2 and TERT promoter mutations in a panel of 473 adult gliomas. We hypothesized and show that genetic signatures capable of distinguishing among several types of gliomas could be established providing clinically relevant information that can serve as an adjunct to histopathological diagnosis. We found that mutations in the TERT promoter occurred in 74.2% of glioblastomas (GBM), but occurred in a minority of Grade II-III astrocytomas (18.2%). In contrast, IDH1/2 mutations were observed in 78.4% of Grade II-III astrocytomas, but were uncommon in primary GBM. In oligodendrogliomas, TERT promoter and IDH1/2 mutations co-occurred in 79% of cases. Patients whose Grade III-IV gliomas exhibit TERT promoter mutations alone predominately have primary GBMs associated with poor median OS (11.5 months). Patients whose Grade III-IV gliomas exhibit IDH1/2 mutations alone predominately have astrocytic morphologies and exhibit a median OS of 57 months while patients whose tumors exhibit both TERT promoter and IDH1/2 mutations predominately exhibit oligodendroglial morphologies and exhibit median OS of 125 months. Analyzing gliomas based on their genetic signatures allows for the stratification of these patients into distinct cohorts, with unique prognosis and survival.
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Noninvasive differentiation of simple steatosis and steatohepatitis by using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a proof-of-concept study.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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To determine whether gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to distinguish between simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined according to the steatosis activity and fibrosis (SAF) scoring system, which is based on the semiquantitative scoring of steatosis activity and liver fibrosis.
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Cytokine levels as biomarkers of radiation fibrosis in patients treated with breast radiotherapy.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Radiation fibrosis is not easily measurable although clinical scores have been developed for this purpose. Biomarkers present an alternative more objective approach to quantification, and estimation in blood provides accessible samples. We investigated if blood cytokines could be used to measure established fibrosis in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for breast cancer.
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P4 radiology of hepatobiliary diseases with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as a biomarker.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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A recent paradigm shift in radiology has focused on the globalization of so-called P4 radiology. P4 radiology represents delivery of imaging results that are predictive, personalized, pre-emptive and participatory. The combination of the P4 approach and biomarkers is particularly pertinent to MRI, especially with technological advances such as diffusion-weighted imaging. The development of new liver-specific MRI contrast media, particularly gadoxetic acid, demonstrate specific pharmacokinetic properties, which provide combined morphologic and functional information in the same setting. The evaluation of hepatobiliary pathology beyond morphology gives rise to the possibilty of using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as an imaging biomarker of hepatobiliary diseases. The integration of functional imaging with an understanding of complex disease mechanisms forms the basis for P4 radiology, which may ultimately lead to individualized, cost-effective, targeted therapy for patients. This will enable radiologists to determine the prognosis of the disease and estimate early response to treatment, with the participation of all the required medical disciplines.
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Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive's parameters such as age group and sex.
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Quality of wastewater reuse in agricultural irrigation and its impact on public health.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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This study is planned to perform a sanitary survey of the largest sewage treatment plant in Riyadh, KSA, fortnightly for 6 months to examine its effluent quality as an example for the growing dependence on reuse of treated municipal wastewater in agricultural irrigation purposes to cope with increasing water shortage. The biological and physico-chemical parameters of 12 wastewater samples from the plant were examined using standard methods. The physico-chemical analysis indicated that the surveyed municipal wastewater treatment plant contained some of the studied parameters, such as turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and residual chlorine above the maximum permissible wastewater limits set by the Saudi Standards. However, heavy metal concentrations in all samples were lower than the recommended standards. Total and faecal coliform counts were above the permissible limits indicating poor sanitation level. Fifty percent of all wastewater samples were contaminated with faecal coliforms but, surprisingly, Escherichia coli were only detected in 8.3 % of the samples. Regular monitoring and enhancement of microbial and physico-chemical parameters of the wastewater quality served by different wastewater treatment plants for reuse in agricultural irrigation is recommended to preserve the environment and public health.
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A cross sectional study of dermatoglyphics and dental caries in Bengalee children.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Context: Dermatoglyphic is the permanent imprint found in hands. Variations of dermatoglyphic patterns among the individuals have been noted. Aims: To find out the dermatoglyphic pattern variations in dental caries between study group and the control group. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done on 300 Bengalee children of Kolkata between the age group of 4-14 years. Materials and Methods: The samples were divided into two groups; study group and control group. Dental caries were detected clinically using mouth mirror and probe in daylight. Ink was applied on palm and finger by pressure pad. Bilateral palm and finger prints were taken by placing the palm and fingers over glazed paper and applying pressure over palm. Finger and palm prints obtained were inspected by magnifying glass for the study of different dermatoglyphic parameters. Statistical analysis used: Analytical statistical method with the help of students t-test was used to determine mean values and gender differences in the findings using SPSS version 11.0. Results: The characteristic feature which shows significant increase in caries sample group were increased total finger ridge count (TRFC) and absolute finger ridge count (AFRC) on fingers, representing pattern size and types. ab count and tr count were significantly lower in male and female caries sample group compared with the control group. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between caries and control group in different patterns and number of "tri radii on fingers" in fingers, the percentage of patterns on all palmar areas, total number of triradii on palm and main line index. Perhaps more systematic larger samples consisting of different genetic population are necessary to verify the conclusion.
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Liver Failure after Major Liver Resection: Risk Assessment by Using Preoperative Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced 3-T MR Imaging.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose To determine if gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with measurement of relative liver enhancement (RLE) on hepatobiliary phase images can allow preoperative assessment of the risk of liver failure after major liver resection. Materials and Methods The local institutional review committee approved this retrospective analysis and waived written informed consent. The study included 73 patients (39 men; median age, 64.4 years) who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3-T MR imaging before resection of three or more liver segments. RLE was calculated as the ratio of signal intensity measurements of the liver parenchyma before and 20 minutes after intravenous administration of gadoxetic acid. RLE was assessed in each liver segment and the mean value of all segments was used for analysis. Posthepatectomy liver failure was defined according to the "50-50 criteria" (ie, prothrombin time <50% and serum bilirubin >50 µmol/L on postoperative day 5) and the International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS) classification. The association of RLE and liver failure was tested with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. In addition to RLE, the latter also included demographic, clinical, operative, and histologic variables. Results Patients with liver failure according to the 50-50 criteria (n = 3) had significantly lower RLE (54.5%) than those without (125.6%) (P = .009). According to ISGLS criteria, RLE was 112.5% in patients with grade A liver failure (n = 20), 88.4% in patients with grade B (n = 7), 41.7% (n = 2) in patients with grade C, and 136.5% (P < .001) in those without liver failure. In a logistic regression analysis, RLE was inversely related to the probability of liver failure according to the 50-50 (P = .02) and ISGLS (P < .001) criteria. In a multivariate analysis, RLE was independently associated with a higher probability of liver failure according to ISGLS classification (P = .003). Conclusion Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging can help with the assessment of the risk for liver failure after major liver resection. © RSNA, 2013.
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Susceptibility-weighted MR Imaging in the Grading of Liver Fibrosis: A Feasibility Study.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose To assess the feasiblity of magnetic resonance (MR) susceptibility-weighted (SW) imaging as a tool to evaluate liver fibrosis grades in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) utilizing signal intensity (SI) measurements, with histopathologic findings as the reference standard. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the local ethics committee. All subjects gave written informed consent. Eighty consecutive patients (mean age, 56.8 years), 60% of whom were male [n = 48] and 40% of whom were female [n = 32], with CLD due to various underlying causes and histopathologically proved liver fibrosis were included. Biopsies were evaluated for liver fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity (according to METAVIR scoring system), iron load, and steatosis. Two radiologists, blinded to the clinical data, assessed regions of interest in the liver and spinal muscle in consensus. Liver-to-muscle SI ratios were calculated and correlated to histopathologic findings and clinical data by using univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results Liver-to-muscle SI ratio decreased in parallel with the increasing grade of liver fibrosis and correlated strongly with liver fibrosis (r = -0.81, P < .0001) and moderately with necroinflammatory activity (r = -0.52, P < .0001) and iron load (r = -0.37, P = .0002) but did not correlate with steatosis (r = -0.18, P = .11). In multiple regression analysis, liver fibrosis and iron load independently influenced SW imaging measurements, explaining 69% of the variance of liver-to-muscle SI ratio (R(2) = 0.69, P < .001). Liver-to-muscle SI ratio performed well in grading liver fibrosis, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92 for scores of F2 or higher and 0.93 for score of F4 (liver cirrhosis). Conclusion SW imaging is a feasible noninvasive tool to detect moderate and advanced liver fibrosis in CLD patients. © RSNA, 2013.
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Comparison between DCF (Docetaxel, Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil) and modified EOX (Epirubicin, Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine) as palliative first-line chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The efficacy of triple-drug combination regimens such as docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF), and epirubicin, oxaliplatin and capecitabine (EOX), is superior to standard cisplatin/5-fluorouracil in patients with upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. In this analysis, we compare DCF and EOX regarding toxicity and efficacy.
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Liver fibrosis: histopathologic and biochemical influences on diagnostic efficacy of hepatobiliary contrast-enhanced MR imaging in staging.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the staging of liver fibrosis in patients with diffuse chronic liver diseases (CLDs) and to investigate the factors that may influence the results.
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Universal salt iodization is successful in Kashmiri population as iodine deficiency no longer exists in pregnant mothers and their neonates: Data from a tertiary care hospital in North India.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Normal pregnancy results in a number of important physiological and hormonal changes that alter thyroid function. In pregnancy, the thyroid gland being subjected to physiological stress undergoes several adaptations to maintain sufficient output of thyroid hormones for both mother and fetus. Consequently, pregnant women have been found to be particularly vulnerable to iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), and compromised iodine status during pregnancy has been found to affect the thyroid function and cognition in the neonates.
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The implementation of minimally-invasive esophagectomy does not impact short-term outcome in a high-volume center.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Esophagectomy represents the gold standard in the treatment of resectable esophageal cancer. Despite significant improvements in perioperative care, postoperative morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Minimally-invasive surgical techniques introduced to the surgical treatment of esophageal malignancies have been shown to successfully diminish surgical trauma and postoperative morbidity. Aim: In the present report we present the stepwise implementation of minimally-invasive techniques in the treatment of esophageal cancer at a high-volume center and its influence on overall patient outcome.
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Surgical treatment of GIST--an institutional experience of a high-volume center.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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Discovery of the molecular pathogenesis of Gastrointestinal stromal tumors led to the development of targeted therapies, revolutionizing their treatment. However, surgery is still the mainstay of GIST therapy and the only chance for cure.
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TERT promoter mutations occur frequently in gliomas and a subset of tumors derived from cells with low rates of self-renewal.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Malignant cells, like all actively growing cells, must maintain their telomeres, but genetic mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance in tumors have only recently been discovered. In particular, mutations of the telomere binding proteins alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death-domain associated protein (DAXX) have been shown to underlie a telomere maintenance mechanism not involving telomerase (alternative lengthening of telomeres), and point mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene increase telomerase expression and have been shown to occur in melanomas and a small number of other tumors. To further define the tumor types in which this latter mechanism plays a role, we surveyed 1,230 tumors of 60 different types. We found that tumors could be divided into types with low (<15%) and high (?15%) frequencies of TERT promoter mutations. The nine TERT-high tumor types almost always originated in tissues with relatively low rates of self renewal, including melanomas, liposarcomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, urothelial carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue, medulloblastomas, and subtypes of gliomas (including 83% of primary glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor type). TERT and ATRX mutations were mutually exclusive, suggesting that these two genetic mechanisms confer equivalent selective growth advantages. In addition to their implications for understanding the relationship between telomeres and tumorigenesis, TERT mutations provide a biomarker that may be useful for the early detection of urinary tract and liver tumors and aid in the classification and prognostication of brain tumors.
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Modified EOX (Epirubicin, Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine) as palliative first-line chemotherapy for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The efficacy of triple-drug combination regimens such as epirubicin, oxaliplatin and capecitabine (EOX) is superior to standard cisplatin/5-fluorouracil, but considerable toxicity needs to be taken into account in patients with upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we aimed to establish a modified version of the EOX regimen with improved tolerability for these patients.
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Magnetic field interactions of copper-containing intrauterine devices in 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: in vivo study.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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An ex vivo study found a copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD) to be safe for women undergoing an MRI examination at a 3.0-T field. No significant artifacts caused by the metallic implant were detected. However, there are still no in vivo data about these concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate 3.0-T magnetic field interactions of copper-containing IUDs in vivo.
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Texture-based classification of different gastric tumors at contrast-enhanced CT.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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To determine the feasibility of texture analysis for the classification of gastric adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors on contrast-enhanced hydrodynamic-MDCT images.
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: diagnosis, therapy and follow-up care in Austria.
Wien Med Wochenschr
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Optimal treatment for patients suffering from gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is based on an interdisciplinary treatment approach. Austrian representatives of Medical and Surgical Oncology, Pathology, Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Gastroenterology, and Laboratory Medicine issued this manuscript on a consensual base within the context of currently available and published literature. This paper contains guidelines and recommendations for diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of GIST patients in Austria.
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Gadoxetate-enhanced versus diffusion-weighted MRI for fused Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/MRI in patients with neuroendocrine tumours of the upper abdomen.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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To compare fused gadoxetate-enhanced Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/MRI and Ga-68-DOTANOC PET/DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) for the assessment of abdominal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).
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Downregulation of phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 associates with clinical risk factors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, but not with activation of the RAF-1-MEK-ETV1 pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Aim of this study was to investigate phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 (PEBP1) in GIST and its relations with MEK1/2 activation and ETV1 by immunohistochemistry. Loss of PEBP1 was found in 22/161 (13.7%) GIST, was associated with clinical risk factors and with a trend towards shorter disease free survival, but not with pMEK1/2 and ETV1 expression. So downregulation of PEBP1 does not activate the Ras-Raf-1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway by phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and does not influence ETV1 expression in GIST. Loss of PEBP1 associates with clinical risk factors, but since no significant influence on survival was found, further studies are required.
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Serial pathologic fractures of five long bones on four separate occasions in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism, challenges of management in a developing country: a case report.
Pan Afr Med J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Multiple pathologic fractures secondary to parathyroid adenoma is rarely recognized and reported in the tropics. Inadequate evaluation causes worsened disability and increased psychological stress. We present a 27-year-old Nigerian male student with recurrent unexplained pathological fractures of the long bones. Primary Hyperparathyroidism was later diagnosed and he benefited from a unilateral parathyroidectomy. Primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to parathyroid adenoma is difficult to diagnose and needs a high index of suspicion. Surgery and good post-operative biochemical control of serum calcium produce satisfying outcomes.
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Dynamics of some common epidemics in Karachi, Pakistan.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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To examine the severity, frequency, monthly variability and grouping of some common epidemics and its relation to hygienic conditions and life style of the people in Karachi.
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Shattering the underpinnings of neoplastic architecture in LNCap: synergistic potential of nutraceuticals in dampening PDGFR/EGFR signaling and cellular proliferation.
J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Prostate cancer is a polyfactorial molecular anomaly that is offering refractoriness against a broad range of therapeutic drugs. Growth factor receptors are actively implicated in oncogenesis. PDGFR/EGFR mediated exacerbated signaling has a central participation and is contributory in fueling the signal transductions that gear up prostate cancer progression.
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Intestinal volvulus: aetiology, morbidity and mortality in Tunisian children.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Intestinal volvulus (IV) can occur at various sites of the gastrointestinal tract. In Europe, IV in children is most frequently due to malrotation but in Asia Ascaris infestation is a common cause. This report reviews the experience with IV in children in Tunisia; analyzes the aetiologies as well as the clinical presentations and the benefits of the Ladds procedure in the treatment of the IV.
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Barretts esophagus: treatments of adenocarcinomas I.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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The following on the treatments of adenocarcinomas in Barretts esophagus contains commentaries on endo mucosal resection; choice between other ablative therapies; the remaining genetic abnormalities following stepwise endoscopic mucosal resection and possible recurrences; the Fotelo-Fotesi PDT; the CT TNM classification of early stages of Barretts carcinoma; the indications of lymphadenectomy in intramucosal cancer; the differences in lymph node yield in transthoracic versus transhiatal dissection; video-assisted lymphadenectomy; and the importance of the length of proximal esophageal resectipon; and indications of sentinel node dissection.
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(Pro)renin receptor as a new drug target.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Over the last few years, the implication of the (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] in the pathogenesis of end-organ damage has been shown through many different studies. The (P)RR plays a dual role when stimulated by renin or prorenin as it enhances both cell surface production of angiotensin and stimulates angiotensin-independent intracellular signaling cascades. Since Ichiharas group demonstrated activation of prorenin when it was bound to antibodies targeted against a specific region in the renin prosegment, they designed a complementary decapeptide to this region called the handle region to use as a potential (P)RR blocker (PRRB). The effects of systemic administration of the PRRB on the development and progression of different renal, cardiac and ocular pathologies have been observed and have thus proposed the blocker as a potential new treatment for these afflictions. Conversely, the specificity of the PRRB has been questioned as conflicting results have been reported in the literature. A recent study has described a new high affinity binding site for renin and prorenin to the (P)RR called the hinge region. Hence, although there is great promise in the (P)RR potential as a therapeutic target, still much research is required to better identify adequate blockers.
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(E)-2-{[1-Carb-oxy-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl-iminio]meth-yl}-6-hy-droxy-phenolate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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In the zwitterionic title compound, C(18)H(16)N(2)O(4), the dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene and indole rings is 26.38?(10)°. An intra-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked through N-H?O, O-H?O and C-H?O hydrogen bonds into infinite chains propagating in [010].
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Association between body mass index and risk of breast cancer in Tunisian women.
Ann Saudi Med
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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The number of breast cancer in women has increased dramatically in Tunisia. The cause is perceived to stem from adaptation to a westernized life style which increases body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to investigate the association between BMI and breast cancer among Tunisian women.
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Docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis in patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction: experience at the Medical University of Vienna.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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A retrospective analysis was carried out to evaluate toxicity and efficacy of the combination chemotherapy of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis (G-CSF) in patients with metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
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Altered telomeres in tumors with ATRX and DAXX mutations.
Science
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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The proteins encoded by ATRX and DAXX participate in chromatin remodeling at telomeres and other genomic sites. Because inactivating mutations of these genes are common in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs), we examined the telomere status of these tumors. We found that 61% of PanNETs displayed abnormal telomeres that are characteristic of a telomerase-independent telomere maintenance mechanism termed ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres). All of the PanNETs exhibiting these abnormal telomeres had ATRX or DAXX mutations or loss of nuclear ATRX or DAXX protein. ATRX mutations also correlate with abnormal telomeres in tumors of the central nervous system. These data suggest that an alternative telomere maintenance function may operate in human tumors with alterations in the ATRX or DAXX genes.
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(E)-2-[(2,4-Dihy-droxy-benzyl-idene)aza-nium-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propano-ate monohydrate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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In the zwitterionic title compound, C(18)H(16)N(2)O(4)·H(2)O, the dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene and indole rings is 39.20?(8)°. An intra-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, inter-molecular hy-droxy and water O-H?O(carboxyl-ate) and N(+)-H?O(carboxyl-ate) and indole N-H?O(water) hydrogen bonds give a three-dimensional structure.
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PDGF: the nuts and bolts of signalling toolbox.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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PDGF is a growth factor and is extensively involved in multi-dimensional cellular dynamics. It switches on a plethora of molecules other than its classical pathway. It is engaged in various transitions of development; however, if the unleashed potentials lead astray, it brings forth tumourigenesis. Conventionally, it has been assumed that the components of this signalling pathway show fidelity and act with a high degree of autonomy. However, as illustrated by the PDGF signal transduction, reinterpretation of recent data suggests that machinery is often shared between multiple pathways, and other components crosstalk to each other through multiple mechanisms. It is important to note that metastatic cascade is an intricate process that we have only begun to understand in recent years. Many of the early steps of this PDGF cascade are not readily targetable in the clinic. In this review, we will unravel the paradoxes with reference to mitrons and cellular plasticity and discuss how disruption of signalling cascade triggers cellular proliferation phase transition and metastasis. We will also focus on the therapeutic interventions to counteract resultant molecular disorders.
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Accuracy of hydro-multidetector row CT in the local T staging of oesophageal cancer compared to postoperative histopathological results.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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To evaluate the accuracy of multidetector computed tomography with water filling (Hydro-MDCT) in the T-staging of patients with oesophageal cancer.
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Risk factors in various subtypes of ischemic stroke according to TOAST criteria.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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To identify the frequency of risk factors in various subtypes of acute ischemic stroke according to TOAST criteria.
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Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced 3.0-T MR imaging versus multiphasic 64-detector row CT: prospective evaluation in patients suspected of having pancreatic cancer.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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To compare the diagnostic performance (detection, local staging) of multiphasic 64-detector row computed tomography (CT) with that of gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients suspected of having pancreatic cancer.
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Transmalleolar approach to a tubercular lytic lesion of the talar body: a case report.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Tuberculosis of the talus is a rare condition, and the diagnosis can be difficult to make because of inconclusive laboratory and ancillary testing. In such cases, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment may require the use of a transmalleolar osteotomy to gain access to the involved portion of the talar body. In the case described in this article, a transmalleolar approach was used to gain access to a lytic lesion of the talar body so as to obtain microbiological and histopathological specimens for diagnostic purposes, and to thoroughly debride the lesion. After 6 years of postsurgical follow-up, the patient was leading a normal life with a full range of ankle and subtalar motion. The rarity of the diagnosis, and the use of the transmalleolar approach to a lytic and likely infected lesion in the body of the talus, makes this case worthy of public discussion.
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Snake bite envenomation in children in Kashmir.
Indian Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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A three year retrospective study was done to study snakebite envenomation among Kashmiri children. Ten children were admitted with snakebite. Snakebite was vasculotoxic in seven and mixed in two. Levantine viper bites were seen in five who had Grade 3 bites with severe local signs, severe coagulopathy and hypotension. Both environmental risk and seasonal incidence was observed.
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Giant osteochondroma of proximal fibula in a skeletally mature patient.
Musculoskelet Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Osteochondroma are believed to be most common benign tumors. The growth of osteochondroma usually ceases when skeletal maturity is reached but becomes a matter of concern to the attending doctor if the lesion becomes painful and shows evidence of increased growth even after physeal closure, which may be an indication of sarcomatous change in the lesion. We present a case with substantial growth of an osteochondroma after attainment of skeletal maturity. The tumor turned out to be histologically benign, and patient had an uneventful recovery with no recurrence.
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Physical activity reduces breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Tunisia.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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This study examined the relationship between lifetime history of physical activity and breast cancer risk.
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Frequency of hepatitis D virus infection in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive liver diseases.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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To determine the frequency of HDV among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive liver disorders.
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Xeroderma pigmentosum.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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To describe the features of Xeroderma pigmentosum observed in the stage 3 of the disease.
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Confident non-invasive diagnosis of pseudolesions of the liver using diffusion-weighted imaging at 3T MRI.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Pseudolesions of the liver including focal steatosis or non-steatosis and THID (transient hepatic intensity differences) are often challenging, especially when imaging patients with underlying malignant disease. We evaluated the efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnostic work-up of pseudolesions.
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Mayer-Rokintansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome associated with atrial septal defect, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection and unilateral kidney--an unusual triad of anomalies.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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Mayer Rokintansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome is characterized by the congenital absence of the vagina with a variety of Müllerian duct anomalies. Because of normal sexual development, the syndrome usually remains undetected until primary amenorrhea and/or difficulty in attempting sexual intercourse result in the diagnosis. MRKHS frequently is associated with anomalies of the urinary tract (unilateral agenesis, or ectopia of one or both kidneys, horse-shoe kidney), cervico-thoracic region (asymmetric, fused or wedged vertebrae, scoliosis and Klippel-Feil anomaly), congenital cardiac defects, hearing defects, and digital anomalies of varying severity. Congenital heart diseases in the form of atrial septal defect, Holt-Oram Syndrome with or without aorticopulmonary window, pulmonary stenosis etc in association with MRKHS have been described in the literature. We present a case of MRKHS with unilateral agenesis of the kidney and atrial septal defect with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. This combination of anomalies has not been reported in the literature so far. The various presentations and the pathogenesis of the condition are discussed.
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The genetic landscape of the childhood cancer medulloblastoma.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of children. To identify the genetic alterations in this tumor type, we searched for copy number alterations using high-density microarrays and sequenced all known protein-coding genes and microRNA genes using Sanger sequencing in a set of 22 MBs. We found that, on average, each tumor had 11 gene alterations, fewer by a factor of 5 to 10 than in the adult solid tumors that have been sequenced to date. In addition to alterations in the Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, our analysis led to the discovery of genes not previously known to be altered in MBs. Most notably, inactivating mutations of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase genes MLL2 or MLL3 were identified in 16% of MB patients. These results demonstrate key differences between the genetic landscapes of adult and childhood cancers, highlight dysregulation of developmental pathways as an important mechanism underlying MBs, and identify a role for a specific type of histone methylation in human tumorigenesis.
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MR imaging of benign focal liver lesions.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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MRI has become the most important imaging modality for detecting and characterizing focal liver lesions. The introduction of high-field-strengths, such as 3 Tesla MR imaging, in combination with the parallel imaging technique, has led to significant improvements in spatial and temporal resolution and has established this technique as a valuable asset in daily clinical practice. New techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, may improve MR imaging sensitivity and specificity in the diagnostic workup of focal liver lesions. The tailored administration of various nonspecific and liver-specific contrast agents enables clinicians to increase the detection rate and improve the characterization of the different focal liver lesions. This article describes the usefulness of these imaging techniques in detecting and characterizing the most common benign focal liver lesions.
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Klebsiella brain abscess in a neonate.
Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
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Klebsiella pneumoniae is rarely associated with neonatal cerebral abscess. A case of Klebsiella brain abscess in a neonate is described. Diagnosis of abscess was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-guided aspiration.
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Cumulative effective doses from radiologic procedures for pediatric oncology patients.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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Our aim was to estimate the cumulative effective doses (CEDs) from radiologic procedures for a cohort of pediatric oncology patients.
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In-situ pinning for Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis in blacks: experience in a regional orthopaedic centre.
Niger Postgrad Med J
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) is the commonest pathology affecting the adolescent hip with an incidence of approximately 2 per 100,000 population. Blacks are more commonly affected than Caucasians. Of many treatment options available, in-situ-pinning appears to be the most widely employed.
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Texture-based classification of focal liver lesions on MRI at 3.0 Tesla: a feasibility study in cysts and hemangiomas.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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To determine the feasibility of texture analysis for the classification of liver cysts and hemangiomas, on nonenhanced, zero-fill interpolated T1- and T2-weighted MR images.
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Imaging in pediatric patients: time to think again about surveillance.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Despite concerns regarding ionizing radiation exposures from diagnostic imaging procedures in pediatric patients, many are deemed unavoidable or even mandated by treatment protocols. A prior review at our institution found patients with lymphoma had a higher median cumulative radiation exposure (191 mSv) versus other oncology subgroups (61 mSv).
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Bacteriological and clinical profile of Community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients.
Lung India
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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The aim of our study was to obtain comprehensive insight into the bacteriological and clinical profile of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. The patient population consisted of 100 patients admitted with the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), as defined by British Thoracic society, from December 1998 to Dec 2000, at the Sher- i-Kashmir institute of Medical Sciences Soura, Srinagar, India. Gram negative organisms were the commonest cause (19/29), followed by gram positive (10/29). In 71 cases no etiological cause was obtained. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen (10/29), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7/29), Escherichia coli (6/29), Klebsiella spp. (3/29), Streptococcus pyogenes (1/29), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1/29) and Acinetobacter spp. (1/29). Sputum was the most common etiological source of organism isolation (26) followed by blood (6), pleural fluid (3), and pus culture (1). Maximum number of patients presented with cough (99%), fever (95%), tachycardia (92%), pleuritic chest pain (75%), sputum production (65%) and leucocytosis (43%). The commonest predisposing factors were smoking (65%), COPD (57%), structural lung disease (21%), diabetes mellitus (13%), and decreased level of consciousness following seizure (eight per cent) and chronic alcoholism (one per cent). Fourteen patients, of whom, nine were males and five females, died. Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in four, Pseudomonas in two, Klebsiella in one, and no organism was isolated in seven cases. The factors predicting mortality at admission were - age over 62 years, history of COPD or smoking, hypotension, altered sensorium, respiratory failure, leucocytosis, and staphylococcus pneumonia and undetermined etiology. The overall rate of identification of microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia was 29%, which is very low, and if serological tests for legionella, mycoplasma and viruses are performed the diagnostic yield would definitely be better. This emphasizes the need for further studies (including the serological tests for Legionella, mycoplasma and viruses) to identify the microbial etiology of CAP.
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Awareness and practice of breast cancer and breast-self examination among university students in Yemen.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among females in Yemen and world-wide, Yemeni women are still facing an increasing threat to it in recent years and optimal chances for survival from BC in women can be achieved by detecting it early by Breast self examination (BSE).
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Central nervous system.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2010
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Several different types of tumors, benign and malignant, have been identified in the central nervous system (CNS). The prognoses for these tumors are related to several factors, such as the age of the patient and the location and histology of the tumor. In adults, about half of all CNS tumors are malignant, whereas in pediatric patients, more than 75% are malignant. For most benign CNS tumors that require treatment, neurosurgeons can offer curative resections or at least provide significant relief from mass effect. Unfortunately, we still lack effective treatments for most primary and secondary malignant CNS tumors. However, the past decade has witnessed an explosion in the understanding of the early molecular events in malignant primary CNS tumors, and for the first time in history, oncologists are seeing that a plethora of new therapies targeting these molecular events are being tested in clinical trials. There is hope on the horizon for the fight against these deadly tumors. The distribution of CNS tumors by location has remained constant for numerous years. The majority of primary CNS tumors arise in the major cortical lobes. Twenty nine percent of primary CNS tumors arise from the dural meninges that encase the CNS structures. The vast majority of these are meningiomas, of which over 90% are benign. About 10% of primary CNS tumors are found in the sella turcica region, where the pituitary gland resides. Other much less common sites of primary CNS tumors include the pineal region, ventricular system, cerebellum, brain stem, cranial nerves, and spinal cord. The distribution of CNS tumors by histology has seen a slight increase in more malignant tumors over the past decade, possibly due to increased neuroimaging practices or environmental exposures. Arising from glial cells, gliomas represent over 36% of all primary CNS tumors and consist of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, mixed gliomas, and neuroepithelial tumors. The benign meningiomas make up 32% of primary CNS tumors, followed by nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors. Primary CNS lymphomas, embryonal tumors, and craniopharyngiomas are uncommon. The most common gliomas are astrocytomas, and these tumors are typically classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Grades I through IV. Grade IV, the most malignant grade of astrocytoma, includes glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant primary CNS glioma in adults, which represents 51% of all CNS gliomas. GBM is unfortunately the most challenging to effectively treat and has the worst patient survival. This chapter is therefore primarily devoted to the current understanding of this topic. Here we describe the molecular and cellular events associated with malignant glioma initiation and progression. We also review the importance of glioma stem cell biology and tumor immunology in early gliomagenesis. In addition, we present a brief description of the most common malignant primary CNS glioma in pediatric patients - medulloblastoma, as well as familial cancer syndromes that include gliomas as part of the syndrome.
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WITHDRAWN: Physical activity reduces the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Tunisian population.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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WITHDRAWN: Effect of obesity at the pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among premenopausal Tunisian women with breast cancer.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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In this article, we evaluated BMI and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) in premenopausal Tunisian women with operable breast cancer. From May 2006 to July 2009, 800 patients were diagnosed and received NC from CHU Farhat Hached (Sousse, Tunisia). Patients were categorized as obese (BMI >/=30 kg/m(2)), overweight (25
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Validity of pneumonia severity index and CURB-65 severity scoring systems in community acquired pneumonia in an Indian setting.
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Little information is available from India regarding prognostic factors in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP).
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Preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in fatty liver: MDCT or MRI?
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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To compare the diagnostic value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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NeoGemOx: Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin as neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced, nonmetastasized pancreatic cancer.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can facilitate pancreatic resection in patients with initially unresectable pancreatic cancer (PC). We report the results of a phase II trial of gemcitabine-oxaliplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic PC.
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Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma: Surgery and chemotherapy.
N Am J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma of high malignant potential. It most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera.
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Indicators of oxidative stress in weanling and pubertal rats following exposure to nicotine via milk.
Hum Exp Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2009
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Nicotine, a major toxic component of tobacco, has been identified as an important risk factor for infant and children diseases. It is concentrated in breast milk and is absorbed by the infant. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on breast-fed rats and at the pubertal age by measuring biomarkers of oxidative stress. Particularly, a new parameter, the thiol concentration was evaluated. Two groups of lactating Wistar rats were used. For the first group, female rats were given an intraperitoenal injection of nicotine or saline (2 mg/kg per day) during lactation. For the second group, we reproduced the same process described above and then the female and male pups were separately kept after weaning without any treatment until the puberty (at 45 days of age). In the liver and lung of the offspring, we examined the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the thiol concentration, and the activities of two antioxidant enzymes: superoxyde dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). In the plasma, alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities were measured. For rats aged 21 days, the treatment significantly reduced the thiol concentration, SOD, and CAT activities but increased MDA level, AST, and ALT activities. For rats aged 45 days, the males and females did not react the same way. In fact, the males were more affected. These results indicate that maternal nicotine exposure during the lactation period induces oxidative stress in the liver and lung of lactating offspring, which is maintained until the puberty, especially for the male rats.
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A comparison of methods for assessing penetrating trauma on retrospective multi-center data.
J Biomed Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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TraumaSCAN-Web (TSW) is a computerized decision support system for assessing chest and abdominal penetrating trauma which utilizes 3D geometric reasoning and a Bayesian network with subjective probabilities obtained from an expert. The goal of the present study is to determine whether a trauma risk prediction approach using a Bayesian network with a predefined structure and probabilities learned from penetrating trauma data is comparable in diagnostic accuracy to TSW.
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Clinical value of MRI liver-specific contrast agents: a tailored examination for a confident non-invasive diagnosis of focal liver lesions.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Screening of the liver for hepatic lesion detection and characterization is usually performed with either ultrasound or CT. However, both techniques are suboptimal for liver lesion characterization and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as the preferred radiological investigation. In addition to unenhanced MR imaging techniques, contrast-enhanced MR imaging can demonstrate tissue-specific physiological information, thereby facilitating liver lesion characterization. Currently, the classes of contrast agents available for MR imaging of the liver include non-tissue-specific extracellular gadolinium chelates and tissue-specific hepatobiliary or reticuloendothelial agents. In this review, we describe the MR features of the more common focal hepatic lesions, as well as appropriate imaging protocols. A special emphasis is placed on the clinical use of non-specific and liver-specific contrast agents for differentiation of focal liver lesions. This may aid in the accurate diagnostic workup of patients in order to avoid invasive procedures, such as biopsy, for lesion characterization. A diagnostic strategy that considers the clinical situation is also presented.
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Injuries from bear (Ursus thibetanus) attacks in Kashmir.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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Strict conservation of wildlife and encroachment into its habitat have led to an increase in the number of wild animal-inflicted injuries and fatalities in Kashmir. The aim of this study was to report injuries inflicted during bear attacks and discuss their management and sequelae.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.