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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of growth conditions on the production of neurotoxin 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) in Microcystis aeruginosa and its universal presence in diverse cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater in China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Neurotoxins ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and its isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) have been reported previously in diverse strains of cyanobacteria. In this study, BMAA and DAB were analyzed for two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa incubated with four different levels of phosphate, nitrate, illumination, and temperature, respectively, in order to explore the effects of growth factors on toxin-producing ability of cyanobacteria. Both toxins were also screened in 17 cyanobacterial strains cultured with BG-11 medium and conventional illumination and temperature conditions, and in three field phytoplankton samples collected from different lakes in China. All samples were analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system coupled with a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column. Results showed that no BMAA was detected in any of the cyanobacterial strains grown under our laboratory culture conditions, or in any of the field samples. Production of DAB in M. aeruginosa was significantly enhanced by extreme concentrations of nutrient and physical factors. Various concentrations of DAB were also present in most cultured samples (13 of 17) of cyanobacteria and were not species specific. This is the first time to report the production of DAB in M. aeruginosa cultured under alterative conditions in laboratory. Occurrence of DAB in most of the strains examined here means that consideration should be given to the presence of this compound in freshwater environment in China.
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Brain Connectivity in Late-Life Depression and Aging Revealed by Network Analysis.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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To use novel methods to examine age associations across an integrated brain network in healthy older adults (HOA) and individuals with late-life depression (LLD). Graph theory metrics describe the organizational configuration of both the global network and specified brain regions.
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Sparsity-inspired Non-parametric Probability Characterization for Radio Propagation in Body Area Networks.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Parametric probability models are common references for channel characterization. However, the limited number of samples and uncertainty of the propagation scenario affect the characterization accuracy of parametric models for body area networks. In this paper, we propose a sparse non-parametric probability model for body area wireless channel characterization. The path loss and root mean square delay, which are significant wireless channel parameters, can be learned from this non-parametric model. A comparison with available parametric models shows that the proposed model is very feasible for the body area propagation environment, and can be seen as a significant supplement to parametric approaches.
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[Legionella pneumophila eukaryotic-like effector LegK3 inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and modulates its vesicle trafficking pathway].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To study biochemical functions of the Legionella pneumophila eukaryotic-like effector protein LegK3, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as an alternative host in which growth defect induced by the ectopic expression of LegK3 was assessed.
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Lipophilic shellfish toxins in Dinophysis caudata picked cells and in shellfish from the East China Sea.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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We reported previously that okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) incidents due to consuming cultivated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in coastal cities near the East China Sea in May 2011. Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and its seco acids were also present in these mussels. Causative species of microalgae were not identified because detailed information on the location of the contaminated shellfish was not recorded. In order to explore potential causes for these poisoning events, the lipophilic toxin profiles in picked cells of Dinophysis and in shellfish samples collected from two mariculture zones in the East China Sea were analyzed in the present study. Single-cell isolates (100 cells total for each location) of Dinophysis were collected from the aquaculture zones of Gouqi Island (Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province) and Qingchuan Bay (Ningde City, Fujian Province) in July and September 2013, respectively, for lipophilic toxin profiling. Shellfish samples collected over the course of a year from the Gouqi Island aquaculture zone and mussels (M. galloprovincialis) collected four times from the Qingchuan Bay aquaculture zone were tested for lipophilic toxins by LC-MS/MS. The Dinophysis cells isolated from both sampling sites were identified under the light microscope as Dinophysis caudata. Average quota of PTX2, the predominant toxin in D. caudata isolated from the coastal waters of Gouqi Island and Qingchuan Bay, was 0.58 and 2.8 pg/cell, respectively. Only trace amounts of OA and DTX1 were detected in D. caudata. PTX2, PTX2sa, 7-epi-PTX2sa, OA, and/or DTX1 were found in samples of mussels (M. galloprovincialis and Mytilus coruscus) collected in the Gouqi Island aquaculture zone from the end of May to the beginning of July 2013. PTX2, PTX2sa, and 7-epi-PTX2sa were also detected in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) during that period, but almost no OA and DTX1 were present. Gymnodimine (GYM) was detected in almost all mussel (M. coruscus) samples, with the highest levels occurring in winter. Trace amounts of pectenotoxins (PTXs) and OAs were also found in mussels (M. galloprovincialis) collected from Qingchuan Bay. D. caudata is suggested as an important source of PTXs in shellfish cultivated in the East China Sea. This is the first report of toxin profiles for single-cell isolates of Dinophysis in the East China Sea.
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BRAF V600E mutation and KRAS codon 13 mutations predict poor survival in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA are the most common somatic alterations found in the colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from Western countries; but their prevalence and prognostic value have not been adequately assessed in Asian patients. The aim of this study was to determine the mutation frequencies of these genes in Chinese CRC patients and to investigate their impact on prognosis.
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Expression of the Annexin A1 gene is associated with suppression of growth, invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a highly increased incidence rate (20/100,000) in Southern regions of China, while being rare in the rest of the world. NPC is a malignant type of cancer due to its high occurrence rate of metastasis; however, biomarkers for effective diagnosis and treatment are yet to be identified. Annexin A1 is a glucocorticoid?regulated member of a large superfamily of calcium and phospholipid?binding proteins and has been shown to have important roles in tumor development and progression, and was demonstrated to be a prognostic biomarker for head and neck cancer types. A previous study by our group showed that Annexin A1 was decreased in NPC tissue as compared with normal adjacent tissue. To investigate whether Annexin A1 is a potential biomarker for NPC, the present study assessed the effect of the Annexin A1 on the biological behavior (i.e., invasion and metastasis) of the highly metastatic NPC cell line 5?8F and the non?metastatic NPC cell line 6?10B. The expression levels of Annexin A1 in the above two cell lines were determined by western blot analysis. Next, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP?C1?Annexin A1 and the small interfering (si)RNA plasmid pRNAT?U6.1?Annexin A1 were used and stably transfected into 5?8F and 6?10B cells, respectively. These established recombinant cell lines were then used to study the up- and downregulation of Annexin A1, respectively. The correlation of Annexin A1 expression levels with the biological behavior of NPC cell lines was analyzed using a cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, soft agar colony formation assay, as well as Transwell invasion and migration assays. The results demonstrated that upregulation of Annexin A1 suppressed the proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells, while downregulation of Annexin A1 promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells. These findings suggested that Annexin A1 may be a potential biomarker for the development and prognosis of NPC, and its dysregulation may have an important role in its underlying pathogenesis.
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Design and synthesis of Lapatinib derivatives containing a branched side chain as HER1/HER2 targeting antitumor drug candidates.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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A series of Lapatinib derivatives were designed and prepared by changing the straight alkyl side chain of Lapatinib into a branched one. ELISA assay and western blot analysis showed that these derivatives can significantly inhibit HER1/HER2 as well as their downstream signal transduction proteins. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that these compounds had potent cytotoxic effect against the HER1/HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. A representive compound, 2i, showed potent in vivo antitumor activity comparable to Lapatinib, which was found to block the cell-cycle progression of BT474 cells in the G1 phase causing tumor cell apoptosis in the flow cytometry study. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic investigation on 2i also indicated it had a good performance on both absorption and elimination profiles.
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An efficient preparative procedure for main flavonoids from the peel of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. using polyamide resin followed by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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In this study, a simple and efficient preparative procedure was developed for preparation of seven flavonoids from the peel of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. using polyamide resin followed by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (SPHPLC). First, the ethyl acetate fraction from the peel of T. kirilowii Maxim. obtained "prefractionation" using polyamide resin, which yielded two subfractions. And then the two subfractions were isolated by SPHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, seven known flavonoids were purified from 35 g of ethyl acetate extract including quercetin-3-O-[?-l-rhamnose (1?2)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (19 mg), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (24 mg), apigenin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (10mg), diosmetin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (45 mg), luteolin (21 mg), apigenin (15 mg), and diosmetin (56 mg). The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. In the present study, a simple, effective, and rapid procedure was established for preparative separation of multiple components from the peel of T. kirilowii Maxim. Furthermore, it was scalable and economical, so it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of flavonoids from other plant extracts.
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Microdialysis pharmacokinetic study of scopolamine in plasma, olfactory bulb and vestibule after intranasal administration.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the microdialysis pharmacokinetic of scopolamine in plasma, olfactory bulb and vestibule after intranasal administration. The pharmacokinetic study of subcutaneous and oral administration was also performed in rats. From the in vivo results, scopolamine intranasal administration can avoid hepatic first-pass effect. Tmax plasma samples after intranasal administration were significantly faster than oral administration and subcutaneous injection. The relative bioavailability of intranasal administrations was 51.8-70% when compared with subcutaneous injection. Moreover, one can see that in comparison with scopolamine subcutaneous administration, scopolamine intranasal gel and solutions can increased drug target index (DTI) with olfactory bulb 1.69 and 2.05, vestibule 1.80 and 2.15, respectively. The results indicated that scopolamine can be absorbed directly through the olfactory mucosa into the olfactory bulb, and then transported to various brain tissue after intranasal administration, with the characteristics of brain drug delivery.
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HLA-B27, but not HLA-B7, immunodominance to influenza is ERAP dependent.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Endoplasmic reticulum-associated aminopeptidase-1 (ERAP1) plays a critical role in the processing of peptides prior to binding to MHC class I molecules. In this article, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that the HLA-B27 immunodominant influenza nucleoprotein (NP) 383-391 epitope is made as an N-terminally extended 14-mer before it is trimmed by ERAP. In the absence of ERAP, there is a significant reduction in the CTL response to the B27/NP383-391 epitope in influenza A (flu)-infected B27/ERAP(-/-) mice. With the use of tetramer staining, the number of naive CD8(+) T cells expressing TCR V?8.1 in B27/ERAP(-/-) transgenic mice is significantly lower than that seen in B27/ERAP(+/+) mice. HLA-B27 surface expression in naive and flu-infected B27/ERAP(-/-) mice is also lower than the expression seen for the same allele in naive and flu-infected B27/ERAP(+/+) mice. In contrast, surface expression of HLA-B7 was unaffected by the absence of ERAP in B7/ERAP(-/-) transgenic mice. The B7-restricted NP418-426 CTL response in flu-infected B7/ERAP(-/-) and B7/ERAP(+/+) mice was also similar. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first in vivo demonstration of ERAP functionally influencing host immune response in an HLA allele-specific manner. This principle has relevance to diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, in which HLA-B27 and ERAP jointly contribute to disease predisposition.
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Identification and characterization of a novel phage display-derived peptide with affinity for human brain metastatic breast cancer.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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A novel peptide, BRBP1 (MYPWTEPSYLSN), was identified using an in vitro phage biopanning strategy against human brain-seeking breast carcinoma cells (231-BR cells).The peptide-phage clone, BRBP1-M13 displaying BRBP1 sequence, specifically bound to 231-BR cells and the binding could be competitively abolished by BRBP1. In vivo distribution studies showed that BRBP1-M13 preferentially homed to the 231-BR tumors. Fluorescently-labeled BRBP1, BRBP1-K(5-TAMRA), preferentially bound to 231-BR cells in a dose-dependent and energy-dependent manner and it was efficiently internalized into the cells after 2 h incubation. Near-infrared fluorophores imaging demonstrated the accumulation of Cy5.5-conjugated BRBP1 peptide in the tumors in vivo. Thus, BRBP1 is a promising peptide binding to human brain metastatic breast cancer and it may be applied to targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents to the intended tumor.
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Occurrence and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in marine sediments from the Chinese Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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In this study, 166 surface sediments and 3 sediment cores from the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) in China were collected to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions and the transport of PFASs. PFASs concentrations in the surface sediments ranged from below detection limit (
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Ordered hexagonal mesoporous aluminosilicates with low Si/Al ratio: synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Ordered hexagonal mesoporous aluminosilicates with lower Si/Al ratio below 5 have been successfully synthesized via the co-assembly of preformed aluminosilicate precursors with Gemini surfactant [C12H25N+(CH3)2(CH2)6N+(CH3)2C12H25] x 2Br(-) as the template. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, and temperature-programmed desorption of cyclohexylamine are employed to characterize the resulting samples. The phenol alkylation reaction is carried out to evaluate their catalytic performances. These studies indicate that the sample with a low Si/Al ratio of 3 still retains a highly ordered hexagonal mesoporous structure. And it also possesses the highest acidity of 0.96 mmol among the samples with lower Si/Al ratios below 5 due to its higher specific surface area together with more content of tetrahedrally coordinated Al in the framework. The catalytic tests confirm that the acidity of the samples plays a key role in determining their catalytic performances.
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Doping dependence of the anisotropic quasiparticle interference in NaFe(1-x)Co(x)As iron-based superconductors.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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We use scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the doping dependence of quasiparticle interference (QPI) in NaFe1-xCoxAs iron-based superconductors. The goal is to study the relation between nematic fluctuations and Cooper pairing. In the parent and underdoped compounds, where fourfold rotational symmetry is broken macroscopically, the QPI patterns reveal strong rotational anisotropy. At optimal doping, however, the QPI patterns are always fourfold symmetric. We argue this implies small nematic susceptibility and, hence, insignificant nematic fluctuation in optimally doped iron pnictides. Since TC is the highest this suggests nematic fluctuation is not a prerequistite for strong Cooper pairing.
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Cortical thinning in patients with late-life minor depression.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Clinically significant minor depression is among the most common mental disorders in the elderly individuals and is associated with considerable medical and psychosocial morbidity. Despite its clinical impact, the biological basis of minor depression in the elderly individuals remains poorly understood. The purpose of our current study was to examine cortical thickness in a sample of patients with late-life minor depression and non-depressed comparison subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Altered effective connectivity patterns of the default mode network in Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The aim of this work is to investigate the differences of effective connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC). The technique of independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to identify DMN components and multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) was used to explore an effective connectivity pattern. We found that: (i) connections in AD were decreased than those in NC, in terms of intensity and quantity. Posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) exhibited significant activity in NC as it connected with most of the other regions within the DMN. Besides, the PCC was the convergence center which only received interactions from other regions; (ii) right inferior temporal cortex (rITC) in the NC exhibited stronger interactions with other regions within the DMN compared with AD patients; and (iii) interactions between medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in the NC were weaker than those in AD patients. These findings may implicate a brain dysfunction in AD patients and reveal more pathophysiological characteristics of AD.
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Mandarin lexical tones identification among children with cochlear implants or hearing aids.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Mandarin Chinese is a lexical tone language that has four tones, with a change in tone denoting a change in lexical meaning. There are few studies regarding lexical tone identification abilities in deafened children using either cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). Furthermore, no study has compared the lexical tone identification abilities of deafened children with their hearing devices turned on and off. The present study aimed to investigate the lexical tone identification abilities of deafened children with CIs or HAs.
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Maclurin protects against hydroxyl radical-induced damages to mesenchymal stem cells: Antioxidant evaluation and mechanistic insight.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Maclurin, an exceptional member of phytophenol family, was found to effectively protect against mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) oxidative damage induced by hydroxyl radical (OH) at 62.1-310.5?M. Antioxidant assays indicated that maclurin could efficiently protect DNA from OH-induced damage at 114.6-382.2?M, and scavenge OH, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical), ABTS(+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical), and bind Cu(2+) (IC50 values were respectively 122.87±10.14, 10.15±0.85, 0.97±0.07, and 133.95±11.92?M). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the end-product of maclurin reaction with DPPH clearly suggested that maclurin (m/z=261.12 [M-H](-)) donated two hydrogen atoms to DPPH (m/z=394.06 [M](+)) to form ortho-benzoquinone moiety (?max=364nm; m/z=259.06 [M-H](-), loss of m/z=28) and DPPH2 molecule (m/z=395.03, 396.01), via hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) or sequential electron (e) proton transfer (SEPT), not radical adduct formation (RAF) mechanisms. Therefore, we concluded that: (i) maclurin can effectively protect against OH-induced damages to DNA and MSCs, thereby it may have a therapeutic potential in prevention of many diseases or MSCs transplantation; (ii) a possible mechanism for maclurin to protect against oxidative damages is OH radical-scavenging; (iii) maclurin scavenges OH possibly through metal-chelating, and direct radical-scavenging which is mainly via HAT or SEPT mechanisms; and (iv) the protective and antioxidant effects of maclurin can be primarily attributed to ortho-dihydroxyl groups, and ultimately to the relative stability of the ortho-benzoquinone form.
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Mesoporous silica shell alleviates cytotoxicity and inflammation induced by colloidal silica particles.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Core-shell mesoporous silica (MPS) materials have been proven to perform multiple simultaneous functions in biological systems and they demonstrate a vast potential for applications in the medical arena. Exploring such extensive potential requires a meticulous evaluation of their interactions with cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of MPS-shells on the viability and activation of human THP-1 macrophages by comparing core-shell MPS with colloidal silica particles. In the present study we find core-shell MPS particles with a solid colloidal silica core and a thin MPS-shell deliver significantly less cytotoxicity than their nonporous counterparts and induce lower expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Moreover, core-shell MPS particles show no effect on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), while colloidal silica particles do activate MAPKs under identical conditions. The corona of core-shell MPS particles is composed of a greater amount and variety of proteins as compared with colloidal silica particles. The abundant protein composition of the corona may inhibit the cellular toxicity by masking surface silanol groups at the MPS-cellular interface. In conclusion, the MPS-shell significantly alleviates both cytotoxicity and immune responses induced by colloidal silica particles while greatly improving the biocompatibility of colloidal silica materials.
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Allitridin reduces I Kr current by disrupting the trafficking of human ether-à-go-go-related gene channels.
Cardiology
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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To investigate the effects of allitridin on human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels.
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The variation of the water deficit during the winter wheat growing season and its impact on crop yield in the North China Plain.
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the main agricultural areas in China. However, it is also widely known for its water shortages, especially during the winter wheat growing season. Recently, climate change has significantly affected the water environment for crop growth. Analyzing the changes in the water deficit, which is only affected by climate factor, will help to improve water management in the NCP. In this study, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) was used to investigate the variations in the water deficit during the winter wheat growing season from 1961 to 2010 in 12 selected stations in the NCP. To represent the changes in the water deficit without any artificial affection, the rainfed simulation was used. Over the past 50 years, the average temperature during the winter wheat growing season increased approximately 1.42 °C. The anthesis date moved forward approximately 7-10 days and to late April, which increased the water demand in April. Precipitation in March and May showed a positive trend, but there was a negative trend in April. The water deficit in late April and early May became more serious than before, with an increasing trend of more than 0.1 mm/year. In addition, because the heading stage, which is very important to crop yield of winter wheat, moved forward, the impact of water deficit in late April was more serious to crop yield.
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One-stage posterior debridement and transpedicular screw fixation for treating monosegmental thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis in adults.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spinal tuberculosis is still prevalent in some developing countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of one-stage posterior debridement, autogenous bone grafting, and transpedicular screw fixation in treating monosegmental thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis in adults. 37 patients were retrospectively reviewed in this study. The data of images, operative time and blood loss volume, perioperative complications, time to achieve bony fusion, VAS score, and neurologic function preoperatively and postoperatively were collected. The mean follow-up period was 21.5 ± 3.5 months. The tuberculosis was cured after surgery in all patients, and no recurrence was observed. Bony fusion was achieved in all patients with a mean time of 5.6 ± 2.5 months. Neurological outcome did not change in one case with grade A, and increased by 1-3 grades in the other patients with nerve deficit. The average preoperative and postoperative VAS scores were 5.5 ± 2.23 and 1.5 ± 1.22, respectively; the difference was significant (P < 0.05). There were three perioperative complications (8.1%, 3/37) observed in this study. In conclusion, the procedure of one-stage posterior debridement, interbody fusion with autogenous bone grafting, and posterior fixation with pedicle screw is effective and safe for treating monosegmental thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis in adults.
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L539 fs/47, a truncated mutation of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG), decreases hERG ion channel currents in HEK 293 cells.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Mutations in the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) are responsible for congenital Type 2 long QT syndrome (LQT2). Previously, we reported a truncated mutation of hERG in a Chinese family with LQT2, namely L539 fs/47, which is composed of a 19 bp deletion mutation and an A1692G polymorphism. This mutation was found to cause an LQT2 phenotype. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional role of L539 fs/47 at the cellular level and its potential contribution to the loss of function of hERG channels. The function of the truncated mutation L539 fs/47 was evaluated by constructing a mutated plasmid, transfection of the mutated cDNA into HEK 293 cells and subsequent patch-clamp, western blotting and immunostaining experiments. Homologous expression of L539 fs/47 in HEK 293 cells produced a non-functional protein that was detected in cell membranes. When L539 fs/47 was expressed simultaneously with wild-type hERG, it suppressed wild-type hERG currents in a dose-dependent manner and changed the gating properties of the channel. Although L539 fs/47 hERG proteins were detected on plasma membranes, they failed to generate hERG currents. In general, L539 fs/47 dose-dependently decreases hERG ion channel currents and suppresses the function of wild-type channels function. This may explain, in part, the clinical manifestations of LQT2 in the family with this mutation.
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The similar expression pattern of MHC class I molecules in human and mouse cerebellar cortex.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are considered to be important in the immune system. However, the results reported in the past decade indicate that they also play important roles in the central nervous system. Here we examined the expression of MHC I and ?2-microglobulin (?2m) in human and mouse cerebellar cortex. The results show that MHC I molecules are expressed both in human and mouse cerebellar cortex during brain development. The expression of H-2K(b)/D(b) is gradually increased with the development of mouse cerebellar cortex, but finally decreased to a very low level. Similarly, the expression of HLA-B/C genes is increased in developing human cerebellar cortex, but decreased after birth. The spatial and temporal expression of ?2m overlaps mostly with that of HLA-B/C molecules, and they are co-expressed in Purkinje cells. Our findings provide a fundamental basis to reveal the functions of neuronal MHC class I molecules in the development of human cerebellum.
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The spatio-temporal expression of MHC class I molecules during human hippocampal formation development.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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In the immune system, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules mediate both the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. There has been a dogma that the central nervous system (CNS) is immune privileged and healthy neurons do not express MHC class I molecules. However, recent studies have indicated that the expression and non-immunobiologic roles of MHC class I in mammalian CNS. But data referring to humans are scarce. In this study we report the expression and cellular localization of MHC class I in the human fetal, early postnatal and adult hippocampal formation. The expression of MHC class I was very low in the hippocampus at 20 (gestational weeks) GW and slowly increased at 27-33 GW. The gradually increased expression in the somata of some granular cells in dentate gyrus (DG) was observed at 30-33 GW. Whereas, a rapid increase in MHC class I molecules expression was found in the subiculum and it reached high levels at 31-33 GW and maintained at postnatal 55 days. No expression of MHC class I was found in hippocampal formation in adult. MHC class I heavy chain and ?2 microglobulin (?2M) showed similar expression in some cells of the hippocampal formation at 30-33 GW. Moreover, MHC class I molecules were mainly expressed in neurons and most MHC class I-expressing neurons were glutamatergic. The temporal and spatial patterns of MHC class I expression appeared to follow gradients of pyramidal neurons maturation in the subiculum at prenatal stages and suggested that MHC class I molecules are likely to regulate neuron maturation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Priority to Publish.
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Identification of tetrabromobisphenol A allyl ether and tetrabromobisphenol A 2,3-dibromopropyl ether in the ambient environment near a manufacturing site and in mollusks at a coastal region.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and has been frequently detected in the environment and biota. Recent studies have found that derivatives of TBBPA, such as TBBPA bis(allyl) ether (TBBPA BAE) and TBBPA bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether (TBBPA BDBPE) are present in various environmental compartments. In this work, using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS), TBBPA allyl ether (TBBPA AE) and TBBPA 2,3-dibromopropyl ether (TBBPA DBPE) were identified in environmental samples and further confirmed by synthesized standards. Soil, sediment, rice hull, and earthworm samples collected near a BFR manufacturing plant were found to contain these two compounds. In sediments, the concentrations of TBBPA AE and TBBPA DBPE ranged from 1.0 to 346.6 ng/g of dry weight (dw) and from 0.7 to 292.7 ng/g of dw, respectively. TBBPA AE and TBBPA DBPE in earthworm and rice hull samples were similar to soil samples, which ranged from below the method limit of detection (LOD, <0.002 ng/g of dw) to 0.064 ng/g of dw and from below the LOD (<0.008 ng/g of dw) to 0.58 ng/g of dw, respectively. Furthermore, mollusks collected from the Chinese Bohai Sea were used as a bioindicator to investigate the occurrence and distribution of these compounds in the coastal environment. The detection frequencies of TBBPA AE and TBBPA DBPE were 41 and 32%, respectively, and the concentrations ranged from below LOD (<0.003 ng/g of dw) to 0.54 ng/g of dw, with an average of 0.09 ng/g of dw, for TBBPA AE, and from below LOD (<0.008 ng/g of dw) to 1.41 ng/g of dw, with an average of 0.15 ng/g of dw, for TBBPA DBPE.
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Anti-tumor selectivity of a novel tubulin and HSP90 dual-targeting inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer models.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Dose-limiting toxicity is a main road blocker for successful cancer chemotherapy. By phenotype screening, a novel chemical agent 2-(2-Chlorophenylimino)-5-(4-dimethylamino-benzylidene) thiazolidin-4-one (CDBT) was found to strongly inhibit the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells H460 and H322 while displaying no obvious toxicity to normal fast-dividing fibroblast cells NHFB and WI-38 at a concentration 100-fold higher than its EC50 to NSCLC cells. CDBT targets microtubule and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) simultaneously with moderate affinities compared to microtubule targeting Colchicine and HSP90 inhibitor 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygaldanamcyin (17-DMAG). CDBT blocks microtubule formation, decreases cancer-essential proteins CRAF-1, ERBB2 and phosphorylated AKT, and causes G2/M arrest and apoptosis. The moderate inhibitory effects of CDBT on targets require a higher cellular concentration of targets, a situation only exist in cancer cells. This accounts for its good cancer selectivity. Furthermore, CDBT effectively inhibits tumor growth by 62.4% relative to the vehicle control after i.p. administration at 30 mg/kg for 11 days while showing no toxicity to normal tissues in NSCLC H460 xenograft mouse model.
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Secalonic acid A protects dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP?)-induced cell death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Secalonic acid A (SAA) is a natural compound found in marine fungi. We have reported that SAA can attenuate the cytotoxicity of colchicine in rat cortical neurons. Whether SAA can also inhibit the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in dopaminergic neurons has not been investigated. Here, we show that pretreatment with 1 ?M SAA significantly rescued tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons from MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in primary dopaminergic neuron culture. Moreover, SAA at doses of 0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg increased the number of dopaminergic neurons and upregulated striatal dopamine in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsons disease mice experiments. We also show that SAA significantly attenuated cytotoxicity induced by 2.5 mM MPP(+) in SH-SY5Y cells. These results indicate that the activation of JNK, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and caspase-3 during apoptosis triggered by MPP(+) could be suppressed by SAA; on the other hand, an MPP(+)-induced increase in the expression of Bax in SH-SY5Y cells was blocked by SAA. These results indicate that inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, down-regulation of Bax expression, and suppression of caspase-3 activation are involved in the protective effects of SAA against MPP(+) toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. SAA may rescue dopaminergic neurons from MPP(+)-induced cell death through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
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Up-regulation of protein tyrosine nitration in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity through DDAH/ADMA/NOS pathway.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Protein tyrosine nitration is an important post-translational modification mediated by nitric oxide (NO) associated oxidative stress, occurring in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. In our previous study, an elevated level of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) protein was observed in different brain regions of acute methamphetamine (METH) treated rats, indicating the possibility of an enhanced expression of protein nitration that is mediated by excess NO through the DDAH1/ADMA (Asymmetric Dimethylated l-arginine)/NOS (Nitric Oxide Synthase) pathway. In the present study, proteomic methods, including stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and two dimensional electrophoresis, were used to determine the relationship between protein nitration and METH induced neurotoxicity in acute METH treated rats and PC12 cells. We found that acute METH administration evokes a positive activation of DDAH1/ADMA/NOS pathway and results in an over-production of NO in different brain regions of rat and PC12 cells, whereas the whole signaling could be repressed by DDAH1 inhibitor N(?)-(2-methoxyethyl)-arginine (l-257). In addition, enhanced expressions of 3 nitroproteins were identified in rat striatum and increased levels of 27 nitroproteins were observed in PC12 cells. These nitrated proteins are key factors for Cdk5 activation, cytoskeletal structure, ribosomes function, etc. l-257 also displayed significant protective effects against METH-induced protein nitration, apoptosis and cell death. The overall results illustrate that protein nitration plays a significant role in the acute METH induced neurotoxicity via the activation of DDAH1/ADMA/NOS pathway.
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A clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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To investigate the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical features of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the uterine cervix by conducting a retrospective study of 25 cases consecutively treated in three institutes over a 10 years period.
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Graph Theory Analysis of Cortical-Subcortical Networks in Late-Life Depression.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Late-life major depression (LLD) is characterized by distinct epidemiologic and psychosocial factors, as well as medical comorbidities that are associated with specific neuroanatomical differences. The purpose of this study was to use interregional correlations of cortical and subcortical volumes to examine cortical-subcortical structural network properties in subjects with LLD compared with healthy comparison subjects.
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Prefrontal vulnerabilities and whole brain connectivity in aging and depression.
Neuropsychologia
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Studies exploring the underpinnings of age-related neurodegeneration suggest fronto-limbic alterations that are increasingly vulnerable in the presence of disease including late life depression. Less work has assessed the impact of this specific vulnerability on widespread brain circuitry. Seventy-nine older adults (healthy controls=45; late life depression=34) completed translational tasks shown in non-human primates to rely on fronto-limbic networks involving dorsolateral (Self-Ordered Pointing Task) or orbitofrontal (Object Alternation Task) cortices. A sub-sample of participants also completed diffusion tensor imaging for white matter tract quantification (uncinate and cingulum bundle; n=58) and whole brain tract-based spatial statistics (n=62). Despite task associations to specific white matter tracts across both groups, only healthy controls demonstrated significant correlations between widespread tract integrity and cognition. Thus, increasing Object Alternation Task errors were associated with decreasing fractional anisotropy in the uncinate in late life depression; however, only in healthy controls was the uncinate incorporated into a larger network of white matter vulnerability associating fractional anisotropy with Object Alternation Task errors using whole brain tract-based spatial statistics. It appears that the whole brain impact of specific fronto-limbic vulnerabilities in aging may be eclipsed in the presence of disease-specific neuropathology like that seen in late life depression.
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Visualizing the microscopic coexistence of spin density wave and superconductivity in underdoped NaFe??xCoxAs.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Although the origin of high temperature superconductivity in the iron pnictides is still under debate, it is widely believed that magnetic interactions or fluctuations have a crucial role in triggering Cooper pairing. A key issue regarding the iron pnictide phase diagram is whether long-range magnetic order can coexist with superconductivity microscopically. Here we use scanning tunnelling microscopy to investigate the local electronic structure of underdoped NaFe1-xCoxAs near the spin density wave and superconducting phase boundary. Spatially resolved spectroscopy directly reveals both the spin density wave and superconducting gaps at the same atomic location, providing compelling evidence for the microscopic coexistence of the two phases. The strengths of the two orders are shown to anti-correlate with each other, indicating the competition between them. This work implies that Cooper pairing in the iron pnictides can occur when portions of the Fermi surface are already gapped by the spin density wave order.
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White matter tract integrity of anterior limb of internal capsule in major depression and type 2 diabetes.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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A number of studies have shown an association between diabetes and depression. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Previous findings indicate a role for the prefrontal cortex and subcortical gray matter regions in type 2 diabetes and major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study was to examine the white matter integrity in the fibers that are part of the anterior limb of internal capsule (ALIC) in MDD and diabetic subjects using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We studied 4 groups of subjects including 1) 42 healthy controls (HC), 2) 28 MDD subjects (MD), 3) 24 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes without depression (DC), and 4) 22 patients diagnosed with diabetes and depression (DD). Results revealed significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA; P=.021) and a trend towards significant increase in radial diffusivity (RD; P=.078) of the right ALIC in depressed subjects (MD+DD) compared to non-depressed subjects (HC+DC). While there were no significant diabetes effects or interactions between depression and diabetes, subjects with high depression ratings and high hemoglobin A1c levels had the lowest mean FA values in the right ALIC. In addition, we found a significant negative correlation between FA of the left ALIC with hemoglobin A1c in diabetic subjects (DC+DD; P=.016). Our study demonstrated novel findings of white matter abnormalities of the ALIC in depression and diabetes. These findings have implications for clinical manifestations of depression and diabetes as well as their pathophysiology.
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Mechanism and application of solid phase adsorption toxin tracking for monitoring microcystins.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The production of toxic microcystins by cyanobacteria is an important safety issue in terms of ecological food chains and drinking water supplies. Studies were carried out to demonstrate the applicability of solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) to the monitoring of microcystins in fresh water. Work focused on the distribution of the intra- and extra-cellular toxins MC-LR and [Dha(7)] MC-LR produced by Microcystis aeruginosa (FACHB 905). The dynamic adsorption and desorption behavior of both toxins on aromatic resins HP20 and SP700 was examined, and the use of SPATT bags for monitoring microcystins in cyanobacterial cultures is discussed. It was shown that intracellular MC-LR and [Dha(7)] MC-LR are released continuously during batch incubation. The adsorption capacity of the SP700 resin was higher than that of the HP20 resin, while the opposite was true for desorption efficiency. The highest desorption efficiency of HP20 was 91.5±4.6% and 89.0±7.1% for MC-LR and [Dha(7)] MC-LR, respectively; accordingly, that of SP700 was 78.1±4.1% and 72.3±2.1%, respectively. Taking both adsorption and desorption behavior into consideration, HP20 is recommended as an adsorbent for SPATT monitoring of microcystins in freshwater bodies.
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Intracellular survival and persistence of Chlamydia muridarum is determined by macrophage polarization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Macrophages can display a number of distinct phenotypes, known collectively as polarized macrophages. The best defined of these phenotypes are the classically-activated, interferon gamma (IFN?)/LPS induced (M1) and alternatively-activated, IL-4 induced (M2) macrophages. The goal of this study is to characterize macrophage-Chlamydia interactions in the context of macrophage polarization. Here we use Chlamydia muridarum and murine bone-marrow derived macrophages to show Chlamydia does not induce M2 polarization in macrophages as a survival strategy. Unexpectedly, the infection of macrophages was silent with no upregulation of M1 macrophage-associated genes. We further demonstrate that macrophages polarized prior to infection have a differential capacity to control Chlamydia. M1 macrophages harbor up to 40-fold lower inclusion forming units (IFU) than non-polarized or M2 polarized macrophages. Gene expression analysis showed an increase in 16sRNA in M2 macrophages with no change in M1 macrophages. Suppressed Chlamydia growth in M1 macrophages correlated with the induction of a bacterial gene expression profile typical of persistence as evident by increased Euo expression and decreased Omp1 and Tal expression. Observations of permissive Chlamydia growth in non-polarized and M2 macrophages and persistence in M1 macrophages were supported through electron microscopy. This work supports the importance of IFN? in the innate immune response to Chlamydia. However, demonstration that the M1 macrophages, despite an antimicrobial signature, fail to eliminate intracellular Chlamydia supports the notion that host-pathogen co-evolution has yielded a pathogen that can evade cellular defenses against this pathogen, and persist for prolonged periods of time in the host.
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Nadir CA-125 level as prognosis indicator of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Purpose: The capacity of nadir CA-125 levels to predict the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains controversial. This study aimed to explore whether the nadir CA-125 serum levels could predict the durations of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) from the USA and PRC.Materials and methods: A total of 616 HG-SOC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC, USA) between 1990 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The results of 262 cases from the Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research (JICR, PRC) between 1992 and 2011 were used to validate the MDACC data. The CA-125 immunohistochemistry assay was performed on 280 tissue specimens. The Cox proportional hazards model and the log-rank test were used to assess the associations between the clinicopathological characteristics and duration of survival. RESULTS: The nadir CA-125 level was an independent predictor of OS and PFS (p < 0.01 for both) in the MDACC patients. Lower nadir CA-125 levels (<=10 U/mL) were associated with longer OS and PFS (median: 61.2 and 16.8 months with 95% CI: 52.0--72.4 and 14.0--19.6 months, respectively) than their counterparts with shorter OS and PFS (median: 49.2 and 10.5 months with 95% CI: 41.7--56.7 and 6.9--14.1 months, respectively). The nadir CA-125 levels in JICR patients were similarly independent when predicting the OS and PFS (p < 0.01 for both). Nadir CA-125 levels less than or equal to 10 U/mL were associated with longer OS and PFS (median: 59.9 and 15.5 months with 95% CI: 49.7--70.1 and 10.6--20.4 months, respectively), as compared with those more than 10 U/mL (median: 42.0 and 9.0 months with 95% CI: 34.4--49.7 and 6.6--11.2 months, respectively). Baseline serum CA-125 levels, but not the CA-125 expression in tissues, were associated with the OS and PFS of HG-SOC patients in the MDACC and JICR groups. However, these values were not independent. Nadir CA-125 levels were not associated with the tumor burden based on second-look surgery (p = 0.09). Patients who achieved a pathologic complete response had longer OS and PFS (median: 73.7 and 20.7 months with 95% CI: 63.7--83.7 and 9.5--31.9 months, respectively) than those with residual tumors (median: 34.6 and 10.6 months with 95% CI: 6.9--62.3 and 4.9--16.3 months, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The nadir CA-125 level was an independent predictor of OS and PFS in HG-SOC patients. Further prospective studies are required to clinically optimize the chances for a complete clinical response of HG-SOC cases with higher CA-125 levels (>10 U/mL) at the end of primary treatment.
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Quantitative tract-specific measures of uncinate and cingulum in major depression using diffusion tensor imaging.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Previous findings suggested the role of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus in major depressive disorders (MDD), but the white matter microstructural abnormalities of the fibers connecting these brain structures are not known. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that white matter abnormalities are present in association fibers of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulum bundle (CB) among MDD subjects. A total of 21 MDD subjects aged between 30 and 65 years and 21 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. All subjects were right-handed and without history of diabetes or other cardiac diseases. We extracted quantitative tract-specific measures based on diffusion tensor imaging tractography to examine both diffusivity and geometric properties of the UF and CB. Significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity of the right UF were observed in MDD patients compared with HC (p<0.05), while their geometric characteristics remained relatively unchanged. Among MDD subjects, depression severity had a significant negative correlation with normalized number of fibers (NNF) in the right UF (r=-0.53, p=0.02). We also found significant age effect (oldR) in both groups in the FA measure of the CB. Our study demonstrates novel findings of white matter microstructural abnormalities of the right UF in MDD. In the MDD group, the severity of depression is associated with reduced NNF in the right UF. These findings have implications for both clinical manifestations of depression as well as its pathophysiology.
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Octreotide-modified N-octyl-O, N-carboxymethyl chitosan micelles as potential carriers for targeted antitumor drug delivery.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Octreotide (OCT) was recently found to have high binding affinity to the positive tumor cells of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). In this study, octreotide-Phe-polyethylene glycol-stearic acid was first successfully synthesized and used as a targeting molecule for N-octyl-O, N-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCC). Doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into OCT-modified OCC micelles (DOX-OCC-OCT). The drug-loaded micelles obtained exhibited spherical shape, small particle sizes, and negative zeta potentials. The cytotoxicity of DOX-OCC-OCT micelles against MCF-7 cells (SSTRs expressing) was found to significantly increase with the increased amount of OCT modification, whereas no significant difference was observed against WI-38 cells (no SSTRs expressing). Results of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that DOX-OCC-OCT micelles could remarkably increase the uptake of DOX in MCF-7 cells. All the results indicated that OCC-OCT micelles may be a promising intracellular targeting carrier for efficient delivery of antitumor drugs into tumor cells.
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Proteome interrogation using nanoprobes to identify targets of a cancer-killing molecule.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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We report a generic approach for identification of target proteins of therapeutic molecules using nanoprobes. Nanoprobes verify the integrity of nanoparticle-bound ligands in live cells and pull down target proteins from the cellular proteome, providing very important information on drug targets and mechanisms of action. As an example, target proteins as ?-tubulin and HSP 90 have been identified and validated.
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Sputtered highly ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays and their applications as the electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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For the first time, the TiO2 nanorod arrays have been prepared on ITO substrates at room temperature by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique. These TiO2 nanorods have a preferred orientation along the (220) direction and are perpendicular to the ITO substrate. Both the X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements show that the highly ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays have an anatase crystal structure. The diameter of the nanorod varies from 30 nm to 100 nm and the nanorod length can be varied from several hundred nanometers to several micrometers depending on the deposition time. The TiO2 nanorod arrays with about 3 micrometers length have been used as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Short-circuit photocurrent density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and light-to-electricity conversion efficiency at 100 mW/cm2 light intensity are estimated to be 12.76 mA/cm2, 0.65 V, 0.63 and 5.25%, respectively, for the DSSC made of the TiO2 nanorods.
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Killer artificial antigen-presenting cells deplete alloantigen-specific T cells in a murine model of alloskin transplantation.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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FasL-expressing killer antigen-presenting cells (KAPCs) have the ability to delete antigen-specific T cells and, therefore, could potentially be used for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmunity; however, their cellular nature markedly limits their clinical use. Novel bead-based killer artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs), which are generated by coupling major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens together with the apoptosis-inducing anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto magnetic beads, have recently attracted more attention. KaAPCs have a number of advantages over KAPCs and are able to deplete specific T cells in cocultures. However, it remains unknown whether bead-based KaAPCs can also induce apoptosis of alloreactive or autoreactive T cells and, consequently, generate hyporesponsiveness in vivo. In this study, H-2K(b)/peptide monomers and anti-Fas mAb have been covalently coupled to latex beads and administered intravenously into BALB/c mice (H-2K(d)) that had previously been grafted with skin squares from C57BL/6 mice (H-2K(b)). Alloskin graft survival was prolonged for 6 days. A 60% decrease of H-2K(b) antigen-alloreactive T cells was demonstrated by several measures 2 days after each injection of KaAPCs, but intact immune function, including antitumor activity, was maintained. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that bead-based KaAPCs can selectively deplete antigen-specific T cells without the loss of overall immune responsiveness and, therefore, highlight the therapeutic potential of this novel strategy for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune disorders.
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Extraction and preparative purification of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by high-speed counter-current chromatography.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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A method for extraction and preparative separation of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge was successfully established in this paper. Tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extractant under reflux. The extracts were then purified by high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (6:4:6.5:3.5, v/v) as the two phase solvent system. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase. 8.2mg of dihydrotanshinone I, 5.8 mg of 1,2,15,16-tetrahydrotanshiquinone, 26.3mg of cryptotanshinone, 16.2mg of tanshinone I, 25.6 mg of neo-przewaquinone A, 68.8 mg of tanshinone IIA and 9.3mg of miltirone were obtained from 400mg of extracts from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in one-step HSCCC separation, with the purity of 97. 6%, 95.1%, 99.0%, 99.1%, 93.2%, 99.3% and 98.7%, respectively, as determined by HPLC area normalization method. Their chemical structures were identified by ¹H NMR.
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Dynamic adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in passive sampling relates to pore size distribution of aromatic adsorbent.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology was developed as an effective passive sampling method for dissolved diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in seawater. HP20 and SP700 resins have been reported as preferred adsorption substrates for lipophilic algal toxins and are recommended for use in SPATT testing. However, information on the mechanism of passive adsorption by these polymeric resins is still limited. Described herein is a study on the adsorption of OA and DTX1 toxins extracted from Prorocentrum lima algae by HP20 and SP700 resins. The pore size distribution of the adsorbents was characterized by a nitrogen adsorption method to determine the relationship between adsorption and resin porosity. The Freundlich equation constant showed that the difference in adsorption capacity for OA and DTX1 toxins was not determined by specific surface area, but by the pore size distribution in particular, with micropores playing an especially important role. Additionally, it was found that differences in affinity between OA and DTX1 for aromatic resins were as a result of polarity discrepancies due to DTX1 having an additional methyl moiety.
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In vivo differentiation of magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocytes for cell therapy to repair damaged liver.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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It was unclear whether systemically administered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with magnetic nanoparticles can transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. In the present study, we built a new in vivo murine model for monitoring the transdifferentiation of magnetically labeled green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive MSCs into albumin-positive hepatocytes, under the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced persistent liver damage. We also tracked magnetically labeled MSCs by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo.
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One-pot synthesis of well-defined oligo- butadiynylene-naphthalene diimides.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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A homogeneous series of well-defined oligo-butadiynylene-NDIs containing up to five naphthalene diimides (NDIs) moieties have been efficiently synthesized in one pot by oxidative homocoupling of 1,6-di((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)naphthalene diimides in good yields.
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Characterization of immune responses to capsid protein p24 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and implications for detection.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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To further refine our current nanoparticle-based HIV-1 p24 antigen assay, we investigated immune responses to p24 to identify diagnostically significant immune dominant epitopes (IDEs) in HIV-infected human sera, to address cross-reactivity of anti-p24 antibodies to different subtypes, and to identify new biomarkers that distinguish acute from chronic HIV infection for more accurate incidence estimation. We identified two major linear epitope regions, located in the CypA binding loop and adjacent helices and at the end of the C-terminal domain. Most sera (86%) from acutely HIV-1-infected individuals reacted with multiple peptides, while 60% and 30% of AIDS patient samples reacted with multiple and single peptides, respectively. In contrast, 46% and 43% of chronically HIV-1-infected individuals reacted with one and none of the peptides, respectively, and only 11% reacted with multiple p24 peptides, indicating a progression of immune responses from polyclone-like during acute infection to monoclone-like or a nonresponse to linear epitopes during chronic infection. Anti-p24 antibodies (subtype B) show broad cross-reactivity to different HIV-1 subtypes, and the synergistic action of different combinations of anti-HIV antibodies improves capture and detection of divergent HIV-1 subtypes. Our results indicate that the modified peptide immunoassay is sensitive and specific for the rapid identification of HIV-1 p24 IDEs and for investigation of immune responses to p24 during natural HIV-1 infection. The data provide the foundation for development and refinement of new assays for improved p24 antigen testing as future tools for rapid and accurate diagnosis as part of early intervention strategies and estimations of incidence.
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Secalonic acid A reduced colchicine cytotoxicity through suppression of JNK, p38 MAPKs and calcium influx.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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There are few articles about the cytotoxicity evoked by secalonic acid A (SAA) in some tumor cells. It has not yet been reported whether SAA has any action on neurons of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of SAA against apoptosis of rat cortical neurons induced by colchicine. The protective action of SAA on the cortical neurons treated with colchicine at 1 ?M was examined by Hoechst 33258, LDH release and flow cytometry methods. The results from the above tests indicated that SAA at 3 and 10 ?M significantly prevented colchicine-induced apoptosis of the cortical neurons. Further studies from Western blot and confocal microscopy experiments showed that the activation of JNK, p38 MAPKs and caspase-3 during neuron apoptosis triggered by 1 ?M colchicine could be obviously suppressed by SAA; on the other hand, an increase in the intracellular free Ca(2+) by 1 ?M colchicine in the cortical neuron was blocked evidently by SAA. The above results suggested that SAA could antagonize the cytotoxicity of colchicine in the rat cortical neurons, which may be through inhibition of phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPKs, calcium influx, and the activation of caspase-3.
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Semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography separation of alkaloids from embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by pH-gradient elution.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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A new high-speed counter-current chromatography method for semi-preparative separation and purification of alkaloids from embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn was developed by using pH-gradient elution mode. Diethyl ether was used as the stationary phase of the two-phase solvent system and Na(2)HPO(4)/NaH(2)PO(4) buffer solution with pH values of 7.5 and 7.2 in gradient mode as the mobile phase. Consequently, 33 mg of liensinine, 42 mg of isoliensinine, and 67 mg of neferine were obtained from 200 mg of crude extracts. The purities of them were all over 98% as determined by HPLC area normalization method, and the structures were identified by (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR.
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WITHDRAWN: Capsaicin inhibits beta-adrenergically-activated Na(+) current through endogenous calcineurin in cardiac myocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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Squaramide-catalyzed enantioselective Friedel-Crafts reaction of indoles with imines.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Chiral squaramides are highly enantioselective catalysts for Friedel-Crafts reaction of indoles with N-tosyl imines, affording 3-indolyl methanamine products in 85-96% yields and 84-96% ees.
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DDSolver: an add-in program for modeling and comparison of drug dissolution profiles.
AAPS J
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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In recent years, several mathematical models have been developed for analysis of drug dissolution data, and many different mathematical approaches have been proposed to assess the similarity between two drug dissolution profiles. However, until now, no computer program has been reported for simplifying the calculations involved in the modeling and comparison of dissolution profiles. The purposes of this article are: (1) to describe the development of a software program, called DDSolver, for facilitating the assessment of similarity between drug dissolution data; (2) to establish a model library for fitting dissolution data using a nonlinear optimization method; and (3) to provide a brief review of available approaches for comparing drug dissolution profiles. DDSolver is a freely available program which is capable of performing most existing techniques for comparing drug release data, including exploratory data analysis, univariate ANOVA, ratio test procedures, the difference factor f (1), the similarity factor f (2), the Rescigno indices, the 90% confidence interval (CI) of difference method, the multivariate statistical distance method, the model-dependent method, the bootstrap f (2) method, and Chow and Kis time series method. Sample runs of the program demonstrated that the results were satisfactory, and DDSolver could be served as a useful tool for dissolution data analysis.
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Preparative isolation of flavonoid compounds from Oroxylum indicum by high-speed counter-current chromatography by using ionic liquids as the modifier of two-phase solvent system.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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A preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography method for isolation and purification of flavonoid compounds from Oroxylum indicum was successfully established by using ionic liquids as the modifier of the two-phase solvent system. Two flavonoid compounds including baicalein-7-O-diglucoside and baicalein-7-O-glucoside were purified from the crude extract of O. indicum by using ethyl acetate-water-[C(4)mim][PF(6)] (5:5:0.2, v/v) as two-phase solvent system. 36.4 mg of baicalein-7-O-diglucoside and 60.5 mg of baicalein-7-O-glucoside were obtained from 120 mg of the crude extract. Their purities were 98.7 and 99.1%, respectively, as determined by HPLC area normalization method. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were identified by (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR.
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Infective endocarditis associated with acute renal failure: Repeat renal biopsy and successful recovery.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious disease with a high associated mortality rate, particularly when complicated by acute renal failure (ARF). Although valve surgery and treatment with antibiotic agents are recommended, surgical options and the optimal therapy are not as yet well documented. Here, we report a rare case of IE in a young man with a history of intravenous drug abuse, who presented with high fever, bilateral thoracalgia, lower limb edema and renal dysfunction. After treatment with antibiotics, hemodialysis and anticoagulants, a tricuspid valve replacement surgery was performed on the patient. After surgery, his renal functions deteriorated and progressed to ARF. The first renal biopsy showed type II crescentic glomerulonephritis. After receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis followed by administration of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blockers, the patients serum creatinine level decreased and the urine output increased gradually. In order to identify the renal turnover, we performed a second biopsy and found significant improvement in the pathological changes with endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis and fibrous crescents. Successful recovery of renal function was achieved 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. Therefore, eradication of infection, tricuspid valve replacement and renal substitution therapy may be sufficient in some cases.
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Synthesis and characterization of low-toxic amphiphilic chitosan derivatives and their application as micelle carrier for antitumor drug.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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A new series of amphiphilically modified chitosan molecules with long alkyl chains as hydrophobic moieties and glycol groups as hydrophilic moieties (N-octyl-O-glycol chitosan, OGC) was synthesized for use as drug carriers. The chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and elemental analysis. OGC could easily self-assemble to form nanomicelles in an aqueous environment and exhibited a low critical micellar concentration of 5.3-32.5mg/L. The biocompatibility and low toxicity of OGC as excipient for the dosage forms aimed at i.v. administration were confirmed by hemolysis, acute toxicity and histopathological studies. Furthermore, the possibility of solubilizing paclitaxel (PTX), a water-insoluble antitumor drug, with OGC micelles was also explored. PTX was successfully loaded into OGC micelles by using a simple dialysis process. The drug-loading capacity of OGC and stability of drug-loaded micelles were significantly affected by the degree of substitution of alkyl chains. Moreover, a series of safety studies including hemolysis, hypersensitivity, maximum tolerated dose, acute toxicity, and organ toxicity revealed that the PTX-loaded OGC micelles had advantages over the commercially available injectable preparation of PTX (Taxol((R))), in terms of low toxicity levels and increased tolerated dose. Additionally, cytotoxicity studies showed that the PTX-loaded OGC micelles were comparable to the commercial formulation, but the blank micelles were far less toxic than the Cremophor EL vehicle. These results suggest that OGC is a promising carrier for injectable PTX micelles.
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Pulmonary non-Hodgkins lymphoma developed during long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2010
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Methotrexate is effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some reports have discussed the possible association between methotrexate and lymphoma. Here, we report a case of pulmonary non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) developed after 11 years methotrexate therapy for RA. Biopsy of the pulmonary mass demonstrated a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After withdrawal of methotrexate without any other intervention for 4 weeks, a significant reduction in the size of the lymphoma was observed. The causative relationship between methotrexate and pulmonary lymphoma is suggested by the persistent remission after stopping methotrexate therapy.
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Fluorescent hybrid with electron acceptor methylene viologen units inside the pore walls of mesoporous MCM-48 silica.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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A fluorescent material with methylene viologen units bonded into the pore walls of the mesoporous MCM-48 silica is synthesized using the method of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with bridging groups (PMOs), in which the methylene viologen units are located within the channel walls through the cohydrolysis and cocondensation of dichloride of N,N-bis(triethoxysilylmethyl)-4,4-bipyridinium (VP) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). It is found that the suspension of the hybrid emits fluorescence at ca. 380 and 420 nm, which is attributed to the S(1) state (pi* --> pi) of the viologen and the charge-transfer complex between the bipyridinium units as electron acceptor and accompanying halide (Br(-), Cl(-)) as donor components, respectively. The fluorescent emission intensity increases with increasing the amount of the VP covalently bonded to MCM-48 framework. The fluorescent intensity of VP adsorbed on the surface of the pore channel of MCM-48 was greatly weaker than that of the hybrid MCM-48-VP at the same molar ratio of TEOS to VP. No fluorescence was observed for pure VP. The different fluorescent intensity is ascribed to the fact that restricted degree of the rotation between two pyridine rings is different. It could be prospected that this material is potentially applied in drug delivery and fluorescence probing for medical diagnosis and synchronous therapy.
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Cellular uptake mechanism of molecular umbrella.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2009
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Molecular umbrella provided a promising avenue for the design of the intracellular delivery of hydrophilic therapeutic agents. However, the limited understanding of its cellular uptake would be a roadblock to its effective application. Herein, we investigate the ability and mechanism of cellular entry of a fluorescently labeled diwalled molecular umbrella, which was synthesized from cholic acid, spermine, and 5-carboxyfluorescein, into Hela cells, with the extent of uptake analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. It is found that the as-synthesized diwalled molecular umbrella can greatly facilitate cellular uptake of hydrophilic agent, 5-carboxyfluorescein. In vitro experiments with diffuse marker, endocytic marker, and inhibitors suggested that several distinct uptake pathways (e.g., passive diffuse, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and caveolae/lipid-raft-dependent endocytosis) are involved in the internalization of diwalled molecular umbrella. These results, together with its low toxicity and good biocompatibility, thus demonstrate the suitability of molecular umbrella for application as vectors in drug delivery systems.
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Microwave-assisted fluorous synthesis of a 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-dione library.
J Comb Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2009
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Fluorous displaceable linker-facilitated synthesis of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-dione library has been developed. Perfluorooctanesulfonyl protected 4-hydroxy benzaldehydes were used as the limiting agent for Ugi four-component reactions to form condensed products. Postcondensation reactions of the Ugi products generated 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-dione ring skeleton. Microwave-assisted Suzuki coupling reactions removed the fluorous tag and introduced biaryl functionality to the benzodiazepine ring. The library scaffold has four points of substitution diversities. The fluorous tag facilitated the intermediate purifications using fluorous solid-phase extraction (F-SPE) and had no negative impact on the reactivity of the Ugi reactions and postcondensation reactions.
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The repair of the injured adult rat hippocampus with NT-3-chitosan carriers.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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The injury of the CA1 region of the adult rat hippocampus causes cognitive impairment. In this study, animal models were established by mechanically injuring the CA1 region of the adult rat hippocampus, and into the injured area were implanted chitosan carriers loaded either with or without NT-3. Immunohistochemical and nerve tracer methods were adopted to observe the role of the above-mentioned carriers in repairing the injured brain and to observe the scar formation after the injury, and Morris water maze (MWM) tests were performed to evaluate the recovery degree of the cognitive function. The results showed that NT-3-chitosan carriers stimulated regeneration of a large amount of NF-positive nerve fiber and neuron-like cells into the injured area. The newly regenerated NF-positive nerve fibers in the injured area rebuilt a neural circuit with the contralateral CA1 region via corpus callosum. Comparison of the lesion control rats and the treated rats indicates that the chitosan carriers loaded either with or without NT-3 may significantly improve the cognitive function after the hippocampus injury.
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RUNX3 gene methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cell lines.
OMICS
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many cancer tissues. RUNX3 is an important tumor suppressor gene located on human chromosome 1p36.1, and many tumors do not express it due to methylation of the promoter region of the CpG island. The molecular mechanisms involved in RUNX3 gene expression and epithelial ovarian cancer are not fully understood. This study investigates the relationship between RUNX3 methylation and expression in ovarian cancer. The methylation of the RUNX3 gene promoter region was measured in 32 primary epithelial ovarian cancer samples and corresponding nonmalignant ovarian tissues, 36 benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissues, and 10 normal ovarian tissues by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and RT-PCR. The relationships between RUNX3 methylation status, expression, and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. RUNX3 methylation was further assessed by MSP and RT-PCR before and after 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc) treatment in normal and cancer cell lines. We detected RUNX3 methylation in 53.1% of primary ovarian cancer tumors, 16.7% of benign ovarian tumors, and 28% of nonmalignant tissues surrounding ovarian cancers. No methylation was detected in normal ovarian tissues. No significant correlation between RUNX3 methylation and clinicopathological characteristics was observed. The RT-PCR results found RUNX3 expression in all normal ovarian tissues (10/10) and in most of the unmethylated ovarian cancer tissues (12/15); in contrast, it was not detected in most of the RUNX3-methylated ovarian cancer tissues (16/17). Our data suggest that methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of RUNX3 repression, and that it is significantly correlated with RUNX3 mRNA expression in ovarian cancer tissues (p = 0.006).
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The effect of neurotrophin-3/chitosan carriers on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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In this study, the behavior of neural stem cells from the newborn rat spinal cord was compared at neurosphere level after the addition of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) once or daily, blank chitosan carriers, or NT-3-chitosan carriers respectively. We found that NT-3 enhanced the viability and differentiation of neural stem cells, but as NT-3 has an extremely short half-life at 37 degrees C, in order to maintain the NT-3-mediated proliferation and differentiation effects on neural stem cells, NT-3 needed to be added to the medium every 24 h. However, NT-3-chitosan carriers dramatically increase the differentiation percentage of neural stem cells into neurons, which includes GABAergic and as cholinergic neurons. Although blank chitosan carriers also showed good biocompatibility to the neural stem cells, they induced the differentiation of these cells into neurons at a much lower percentage than the daily addition of NT-3 or the NT-3-chitosan carriers. Our results suggest that NT-3-chitosan carriers may not only maintain the viability of neural stem cells and increase their differentiation percentage into neurons, but also reduce the amount of NT-3 required for the survival and differentiation of these cells. These results may provide an experimental basis for the maximum replacement of dead neurons by neural stem cell transplant after spinal cord injury (SCI).
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[Clinical effect of the use of dental operating microscope and ultrasonic instruments in the management of blocked canals].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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To evaluate the effect of using dental operating microscope and ultrasonic instruments in treating blocked canals.
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Detection of the neurotoxin BMAA within cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater in China.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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The cyanobacterial neurotoxin, beta-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), has been suggested as an important environmental factor for neurodegenerative disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis- Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) in Guam. BMAA was detected within the majority of cyanobacterial isolates surveyed in both free and symbiotic cyanobacteria, living in freshwater as well as marine environments. In this study, we report two methods using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) each coupled with a different type of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column to detect BMAA. A third method using AQC-derivatized BMAA was also used for comparison. Axenic cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Nostoc sp. isolated from Chinese freshwater were analyzed for both free and protein-bound BMAA at the exponential growth stage. Cultures of two strains of M. aeruginosa collected at four growth stages were also analyzed for the presence of BMAA. BMAA was detected in the Nostoc sp. at very low concentrations (<0.07pmoles on column) only when precolumn AQC derivatization was used. No BMAA was detected in the Chinese derived axenic cultures of Microcystis; detection limits for the LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS without precolumn derivatization were 10ng and 2pg BMAA on column, respectively. We suggest that cyanobacteria grown under some culture conditions may be relatively free of BMAA.
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Repair of thoracic spinal cord injury by chitosan tube implantation in adult rats.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common outcome of traffic accidents and trauma with severe consequences. There has been no cure for such a condition. We performed experiments to evaluate the feasibility of implanting a chitosan tube filled with semifluid type I collagen into the site of surgically induced SCI to facilitate functional recovery. After a segment of the spinal cord, 4mm in length and 2/3 of the spinal cord across its width, at the ninth thoracic level of an adult rat was dissected and removed, the biodegradable chitosan tube was implanted into the lesioned site. One year later, we found that axons from the proximal spinal cord regenerated, traversed the dissected area inside the tube and reentered the distal spinal cord, leading to functional restoration of the essentially paralyzed hind limbs. The nerve regeneration and functional recovery were confirmed by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, nerve tracing and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan behavioral evaluation. Such beneficial outcomes were not observed in the control groups, in which either no tube was implanted or the implanted tube had no collagen filling. We conclude that the newly designed tube implant promotes both axon regeneration and functional recovery following SCI. A similar approach may have clinical implications in humans.
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Racial differences in growth patterns of children assessed on the basis of bone age.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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To collect up-to-date data in healthy children to create a digital hand atlas (DHA) that can be used to evaluate, on the basis of the Greulich and Pyle atlas method, racial differences in skeletal growth patterns of Asian, African American, white, and Hispanic children in the United States.
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A new 1,8-naphthalimide-based colorimetric and "turn-on" fluorescent Hg2+ sensor.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
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A new fluorescent molecule 4-(bis(2-(ethylthio)ethyl)amino)-N-n-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide (BTABN) was reported. Its UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra were almost not dependent on the pH, but remarkably and selectively affected by Hg(2+). Upon the addition of Hg(2+) in EtOH/H(2)O (1/2,v/v), the absorption wavelength maxima were blueshifted from 436 nm to 376 nm with a naked-eye observed color change, and the fluorescence was greatly enhanced with a 14 nm blueshift within 1 min. Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cr(3+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+) showed no obvious interferences with the detection. The binding stoichiometry indicates that a 1:1 complex is formed between Hg(2+) and BTABN. The response of the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence spectra to Hg(2+) can be attributed to the joint contribution of the PET and ICT process.
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The expression pattern of classical MHC class I molecules in the development of mouse central nervous system.
Neurochem. Res.
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Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, first identified in the immune system, is also expressed in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS). Although the MHC class I molecules have been found to be expressed in the CNS of different species, a necessary step to elucidate the temporal and spatial expression patterns of MHC class I molecules in the brain development has never been taken. Frozen sections were made from the brains of embryonic and postnatal C57BL/6 J mice, and the expression of H-2D(b) mRNA was examined by in situ hybridization. Immunofluorescence was also performed to define the cell types that express H2-D(b) in P15 mice. At E10.5, the earliest stage we examined, H2-D(b) was expressed in neuroepithelium of the brain vesicles. From E12.5 to P0, H2-D(b) expression was mainly located at cerebral cortex, neuroepithelium of the lateral ventricle, neuroepithelium of aquaeductus and developing cerebellum. From P4 to adult, H2-D(b) mRNA was detected at olfactory bulb, hippocampus, cerebellum and some nerve nuclei. The major cell types expressing H-2D(b) in P15 hippocampus, cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb were neuron. H2-K(b) signal paralleled that of H2-D(b) and the expression levels of the two molecules were comparable throughout the brain. The investigation of the expression pattern of H-2D(b) at both embryonic and postnatal stages is important for further understanding the physiological and pathological roles of H2-D(b) in the developing CNS.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.