Aims and background. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is one of the serine-threonine protein kinases and plays an important regulatory role in cell growth. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and 4E binding protein (4EBP) are the downstream proteins of mTOR signaling pathway and are the most efficient speed regulator of eukaryotic mRNA translation. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical significance of mTOR, eIF4E and 4EBPs expression in invasive ductal carcinoma. Methods. Fresh biopsy specimens of invasive ductal carcinoma tissues and normal breast tissues were collected from 45 patients with breast cancer. The expressions of mTOR, eIF4E and 4EBPs in specimens were detected by an immunohistochemical SP method, and the relationship of mTOR, eIF4E and 4EBPS expressions and of their expressions with tumor metastasis were analyzed. Results. Expressions of mTOR, eIF4E and 4EBPs in invasive ductal carcinoma were significantly higher than in normal breast tissue (P <0.05). mTOR expression was positively correlated with eIF4E and 4EBP expression in invasive ductal carcinoma (P <0.05). The positive rates of mTOR, eIF4E and 4EBPs in patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than in patients without lymph node metastasis (P <0.05). Conclusions. Increased expressions of mTOR and eIF4E in invasive ductal carcinoma may be correlated with the occurrence and metastasis of breast cancer.
While the model organism Escherichia coli has been the subject of intense study for decades, the full complement of its RNAs is only now being examined. Here we describe a survey of the E. coli transcriptome carried out using a differential RNA-seq approach, which can distinguish between primary and processed transcripts, and an automated transcriptional start site (TSS) prediction algorithm. With the criteria of expression in at least one of three growth conditions examined, we predict 14,868 TSS candidates, including 5,574 internal to annotated genes (iTSS) and 5,495 TSS corresponding to potential antisense RNAs (asRNAs). We examined expression of 14 candidate asRNAs by northern analysis using RNA from wild-type E. coli and from strains defective for ribonucleases III and E, two RNases reported to be involved in asRNA processing. Interestingly, nine asRNAs detected as distinct bands by northern analysis were differentially affected by the rnc and rne mutations. We also compared our asRNA candidates with previously published asRNA annotations from RNA-seq data, and discuss the challenges associated with these cross-comparisons. Our global transcriptional start site map represents a valuable resource for identifying transcription start sites, promoters, and novel transcripts in E. coli and is easily accessible, together with the cDNA coverage plots, in an online genome browser.
Several hereditary syndromes characterized by defective DNA repair are associated with high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To explore whether common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes affect risk and prognosis of CRC, we evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in XPG, XPC, and WRN gene and susceptibility of CRC, and clinical outcomes in a population-based case-control study. A total of 890 CRC cases and 910 controls recruited into the study provided a biologic sample. Individuals with variant genotypes of XPC Ala499Val appeared to be associated with the increased risk of CRC. WRN Cys1367Arg variants carriers showed an increased susceptibility for CRC. More importantly, the risk of CRC increased further in a combined analysis of multiple polymorphisms. Furthermore, stratified analyses revealed that XPG Arg1104His polymorphism was associated with tumor differentiation of CRC patients (P?=?0.043). Log-rank test and adjusted multivariate Cox regression analysis verified that XPG Arg1104His variants were associated with a longer disease-free survival (DFS) [CG genotype: adjusted HR (95 % confidence interval (CI))?=?0.163 (0.107-0.248), P?0.001; CC genotype: adjusted HR (95 % CI)?=?0.333 (0.235-0.470), P?0.001; CG/CC genotype: adjusted HR (95 % CI)?=?0.333 (0.235-0.470)] in patients with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (N?=?718). Moreover, XPC Ala499Val CT genotype showed a significant impact on DFS [CC genotype: adjusted HR (95 % CI)?=?0.691 (0.528-0.904), P?=?0.007; CT/CC genotype: adjusted HR (95 % CI)?=?0.602 (0.389-0.934), P?=?0.024]. However, no correlation was found between WRN Cys1367Arg polymorphism and prognosis in CRC patients. Our findings will add to the literature on the impact of genetic variation in DNA repair genes involved in susceptibility for CRC and therapeutic outcomes in response to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in CFTR, a plasma-membrane-localized anion channel. The most common mutation in CFTR, deletion of phenylalanine at residue 508 (?F508), causes misfolding of CFTR resulting in little or no protein at the plasma membrane. The CFTR corrector VX-809 shows promise for treating CF patients homozygous for ?F508. Here, we demonstrate the significance of protein-protein interactions in enhancing the stability of the ?F508 CFTR mutant channel protein at the plasma membrane. We determined that VX-809 prolongs the stability of ?F508 CFTR at the plasma membrane. Using competition-based assays, we demonstrated that ?F508 CFTR interacts poorly with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) compared to wild-type CFTR, and VX-809 significantly increased this binding affinity. We conclude that stabilized CFTR-NHERF1 interaction is a determinant of the functional efficiency of rescued ?F508 CFTR. Our results demonstrate the importance of macromolecular-complex formation in stabilizing rescued mutant CFTR at the plasma membrane and suggest this to be foundational for the development of a new generation of effective CFTR-corrector-based therapeutics.
Prior experimental and epidemiologic data support a link between exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (<2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and development of insulin resistance/Type II diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to investigate whether inhalational exposure of concentrated PM2.5 in a genetically susceptible animal model would result in abnormalities in energy metabolism and exacerbation of peripheral glycemic control.
Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes. However, direct detection of IR is complicated. In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in non-obese people, we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.
GSK3? genotypes may interact with major depressive disorder (MDD) and may have a role in determining regional gray matter volume differences from healthy comparison subjects. However, any associations of GSK3? genotypes with MDD related to abnormal functional brain activity have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, resting state functional brain networks were constructed by thresholding partial correlation matrices of 90 regions. Differences in the network features of GSK3?-rs6438552 genotypes were tested, and a 2×2 analysis of variance was performed to identify the main effects of genotypes, disease status, and their interactions in MDD. Compared with CC carriers, T+ carriers with MDD showed increased nodal centralities in many brain regions-mainly the limbic system, thalamus and parts of the parietal, temporal, occipital, and frontal regions. Decreased nodal centralities predominantly occurred in the sensorimotor area and parts of the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes. Significant interactions between genotypes and disease status were found in the left thalamus, left superior occipital gyrus, and left inferior parietal lobe. Only altered nodal centrality in the left angular gyrus was negatively correlated with scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Our results suggest the GSK3? genotypic effect of rs6438552 and its interaction with disease status may contribute to the altered topological organization of resting state functional brain networks in MDD patients.
Prior experimental and epidemiologic data support a link between exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (<2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and development of insulin resistance/Type II diabetes mellitus (Type II DM). We investigated the role of hypothalamic inflammation in PM2.5-mediated diabetes development.
Glutamine is an essential amino acid for malignant tumor cells. Glutaminase that metabolizes glutamine reaches a maximum expression in tumors immediately before the maximum proliferation rate. Tumor cells grow at different rates during the day. We postulated that the activity of glutaminase in tumor cells is subject to the regulation of circadian clock gene. We measured glutaminase by western blot analysis and circadian clock gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the liver and tumor cells at six equispaced time points of the day in individual mice of a 12/12 h light/dark schedule. The results showed that the tumor-bearing mice, under normal diurnal conditions, are circadianly entrained, as reflected by the normal host locomotor activity rhythms and rhythmic liver clock gene expression. The tumors within these mice are also circadianly organized, as reflected by circadian clock gene (Bmal1) expression. What is most remarkable is that kidney-type glutaminase also showed circadian rhythms in the same pattern with tumor circadian clock gene expression in liver cancer xenograft model, indicating that conditionally inhibiting glutaminase activity may provide a new target for cancer therapy.
The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) remains the most widely used scale for screening female sexual dysfunction (FSD), and the Chinese Version of the FSFI (CVFSFI) has been validated, but cutoff scores for the CVFSFI to distinguish between cases and noncases have not been developed, so the real prevalence of FSD in China is unknown.
The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis. Previous studies have indicated that the acquisition of certain properties by activated HSCs is highly dependent on the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, direct evidence showing that the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is responsible for HSC activation is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cytoskeletal reorganization during HSC activation and to clarify the underlying mechanism. HSC-T6 cells were treated either with the F-actin stabilizer jasplakinolide (Jas) or the depolymerizer cytochalasin D (Cyto D). The actin cytoskeleton was evaluated via assessment of stress fiber formation. Furthermore, the activation properties of HSCs, including proliferation, adhesion, migration and the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen 1, were investigated in vitro. The results showed that Jas and Cyto D affected the actin distribution in HSC-T6 cells. Treatment with Jas resulted in thick actin bundles and a patchy appearance in the cytoplasm in HSC-T6 cells. In parallel, polymerization of actin microfilaments induced by Jas upregulated the expression of ?-SMA and collagen 1, and also enhanced the migration and adhesion properties of HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, the activation of HSC-T6 cells induced by the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was associated with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton is associated with HSC activation and that the p38 MAPK pathway is involved in this process. The inhibition of F-actin reorganization may thus be a potential key factor or molecular target for the control of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical and radiographic features, and antibiotic responses of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infections in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China.
Giant cell tumors (GCTs) mainly occur in metaphyses of long bones and are generally considered histologically benign; however, GCTs may be locally aggressive with a high rate of local recurrence and exhibit the potential for distant metastasis. Primary GCT of the clivus is extremely rare and is easily misdiagnosed and, thus, treatment remains controversial. The present report describes the case of a 22-year-old male with GCT located in the skull base originating from the clivus, with the involvement of multiple cranial nerves, which was successfully treated with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery following adjuvant radiotherapy and intravenous bisphosphonate administration. The patient remains symptom free at two years of follow-up. This report contributes to the limited literature regarding GCTs of the skull.
Fertile hybrids were produced with genetic material transferred from Th. intermedium into a wheat background and supply a source of genetic variation to wheat improvement. Both symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybrids have been obtained from the combination of wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Two wheat protoplast populations, one derived from embryogenic calli and the other from a non-regenerable, rapidly dividing cell line, were fused with Th. intermedium protoplasts which had been (or not been) pre-irradiated with UV. Among the 124 regenerated calli, 64 could be categorized as being of hybrid origin on the basis of plant morphology, peroxidase isozyme, RAPD DNA profiling and karyological analysis. Numerous green plantlets were regenerated from 13 calli recovered from either the symmetric hybrid (no UV pre-treatment) or the asymmetric one (30 s UV irradiation). One of these hybrid plants proved to be vigorous and self-fertile. The regenerants were all closer in phenotype to wheat than to Th. intermedium. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis showed that the chromosomes in the hybrids were largely intact wheat ones, although a few Th. intermedium chromosome fragments had been incorporated within them.
To investigate the relationship between lipid profiles [including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] and a mild decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal serum lipid levels.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection is considered as one of the significant causes of human cervical cancer. The expression of the viral oncogenes like E6 and E7 play an important role in the development of the cancer. MiR-122 has been reported to exhibit a strong relationship with hepatitis viruses and take part in several tumor development, while the effects of miR-122 on HPV infection and the HPV viral oncogenes expression still remain unexplored. In this study, using RNAhybrid software, the potential binding sites between miR-122 and HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were identified. Over and loss of miR-122 function showed that miR-122 could directly bind with HPV16 E6 mRNA and significantly inhibit its expression in SiHa cells, which was further confirmed by constructing the miR-122-E6-mu to eliminate the miR-122 binding effects with E6. The increase of the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and its classical effective molecules and the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT1) protein indicated that miR-122 might enhance type I interferon in cervical carcinoma cells, which explained the significant reduction of HPV16 E7 and E6*I mRNA expression. This might be due to the binding between miR-122 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) mRNA, which is the suppressor of interferon signaling pathway. Moreover, it was identified that the miR-122 binding position was nt359-nt375 in SOCS1 mRNA. Taken together, this study indicated that HPV16 could be effectively inhibited by miR-122 through both direct binding with E6 mRNA and promoting SOCS1-dependent IFN signaling pathway. Thus, miR-122 may serve as a new therapeutic option for inhibiting HPV infection.
Carvedilol is a uniquely effective drug for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with heart failure. This activity is in part because of its ability to inhibit store-overload-induced calcium release (SOICR) through the RyR2 channel. We describe the synthesis, characterization, and bioassay of ca. 100 compounds based on the carvedilol motif to identify features that correlate with and optimize SOICR inhibition. A single-cell bioassay was employed on the basis of the RyR2-R4496C mutant HEK-293 cell line in which calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum through the defective channel was measured. IC50 values for SOICR inhibition were thus obtained. The compounds investigated contained modifications to the three principal subunits of carvedilol, including the carbazole and catechol moieties, as well as the linker chain containing the ?-amino alcohol functionality. The SAR results indicate that significant alterations are tolerated in each of the three subunits.
In the paper, biochar preparation from cotton stalk and bamboo sawdust by carbonization process was addressed. The physical and chemical properties and combustion characteristics of the biochar prepared using a tubular fixed bed were investigated. The combustion character index (S), the ignition temperature (Ti) and burnout temperature (Tf) were used to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the biochars. The results indicate that the yield and the volatile yield of the biochar decrease and the fixed carbon yield increases with the increase of the carbonization temperature. The ignition temperature and burnout temperature of the biochar increase and the value of S decreases when the carbonization temperature increases. The biochar produced from cotton stalk shows better combustion characteristics than the bamboo sawdust biochar does. Compared with commercial barbecue charcoal, the cotton stalk biochar produced under 600°C can be utilized as barbecue charcoal.
Plant height is an important agronomic trait. Dramatic increase in wheat yield during the "green revolution" is mainly due to the widespread utilization of the Reduced height (Rht)-1 gene. We analyzed the natural allelic variations of three homoeologous loci Rht-A1, Rht-B1, and Rht-D1 in Chinese wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) micro-core collections and the Rht-B1/D1 genotypes in over 1,500 bred cultivars and germplasms using a modified EcoTILLING. We identified six new Rht-A1 allelic variations (Rht-A1b-g), eight new Rht-B1 allelic variations (Rht-B1h-o), and six new Rht-D1 allelic variations (Rht-D1e-j). These allelic variations contain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or small insertions and deletions in the coding or uncoding regions, involving two frame-shift mutations and 15 missenses. Of which, Rht-D1e and Rht-D1h resulted in the loss of interactions of GID1-DELLA-GID2, Rht-B1i could increase plant height. We found that the Rht-B1h contains the same SNPs and 197 bp fragment insertion as reported in Rht-B1c. Further detection of Rht-B1h in Tibet wheat germplasms and wheat relatives indicated that Rht-B1c may originate from Rht-B1h. These results suggest rich genetic diversity at the Rht-1 loci and provide new resources for wheat breeding.
The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1-IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-?/? expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-?. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.
miR-21 and miR-155 have been implicated in the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer, but the results are controversial. To resolve this issue, we performed a meta-analysis on miR-21 and miR-155 and non-small-cell lung cancer prognosis and lymphoid metastasis.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of microembolic signals (MES) on post?stroke neurological deficits, stroke recurrence and survival in patients with acute cerebral infarction (CI). Patients with acute CI were enrolled consecutively and classified etiologically into the following 4 subtypes using the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification: i) Cardioembolism (CE); ii) large?artery atherosclerosis (LA); iii) small?vessel disease (SVD); and iv) stroke of other etiology, including other and undetermined etiologies. The MES of cerebral arteries were monitored by transcranial doppler (TCD), carotid atherosclerotic lesions were detected by color Doppler sonography and extracranial and intracranial magnetic resonance angiography were performed. Next, the severity of neurological deficits was evaluated using National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. Cases of stroke recurrence and post?stroke mortality were recorded. A total of 135 patients were recruited, including 33 with CE, 49 with LA, 24 with SVD and 29 with stroke of other etiology. A significant difference in the incidence of MES was identified between the 4 subtypes (P=0.025). The occurrence of positive MES was found to markedly correlate with a history of coronary heart disease (P<0.001) and antithrombotic treatment (P=0.045) and increased levels low density lipoprotein (P=0.036). Compared with patients with negative MES, no significant changes in NIHSS scores were found in patients with positive MES on days 1 and 7 following admission. The incidence of recurrent stoke and post?stroke mortality was elevated 3 months from the onset of CI. In conclusion, a significant difference in the occurrence of MES was identified between subtypes of patients with acute CI. The incidence of recurrent stroke and mortality was increased among patients with positive MES 3 months from onset.
The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein is an RNA silencing suppressor protein that can also play direct and indirect roles in symptom induction. Previous work has shown that a hybrid virus, FRad35(2b) -CMV (renamed here as CMV-FRad2b-Pro), generated by replacement of the 2b gene of strain Fny-CMV with that from Rad35-CMV, displays markedly lower pathogenicity than Fny-CMV on Nicotiana species. However, the replacement of proline with leucine at position 55 of the 2b protein of CMV-FRad2b-Pro (protein Rad2b-Pro) created a virus (CMV-FRad2b-Leu) that induced severe symptoms. Infection of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in the expression of DICER-like (DCL) endoribonucleases 2 and 4, which mediate antiviral RNA silencing, as well as of dcl3 and dcl2/3/4 triple-mutant plants, indicated that Rad2b-Pro was a weaker RNA silencing suppressor than the protein Rad2b-Leu. This was confirmed in Nicotiana benthamiana using agroinfiltration assays, showing that, compared with either Rad2b-Leu or the Fny2b protein, Rad2b-Pro was ineffective at inhibiting local or systemic silencing of expression of a green fluorescent protein reporter gene. Transgenic expression of Rad2b-Leu, but not of Rad2b-Pro, in Arabidopsis induced symptom-like phenotypes and rescued the accumulation of the 2b-deletion mutant Fny-CMV?2b. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation indicated that, in?planta, Rad2b-Leu, but not Rad2b-Pro, self-interacts. Thus, self-interaction is crucial to the ability of the 2b protein to suppress silencing and induce a symptom-like phenotype, and is dependent on the properties of the residue at position 55.
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened.
Alkenal double bond reductases (DBRs) catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of the ?,?-unsaturated double bond of many secondary metabolites. Two alkenal double bond reductase genes PaDBR1 and PaDBR2 were isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum. Recombinant PaDBR2 protein had a higher catalytic activity than PaDBR1 with respect to the reduction of the double bond present in hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. The residue at position 56 appeared to be responsible for this difference in enzyme activity. The functionality of a C56 to Y56 mutation in PaDBR1 was similar to that of PaDBR2. Further site-directed mutagenesis and structural modeling suggested that the phenol ring stacking between this residue and the substrate was an important determinant of catalytic efficiency.
The sweetness of a compound is of large interest for the food additive industry. In this work, 2 quantitative models were built to predict the logSw (the logarithm of sweetness) of 320 unique compounds with a molecular weight from 132 to 1287 and a sweetness from 22 to 22500000. The whole dataset was randomly split into a training set including 214 compounds and a test set including 106 compounds, represented by 12 selected molecular descriptors. Then, logSw was predicted using a multilinear regression (MLR) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM). For the test set, the correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.88 were obtained by MLR and SVM, respectively. The descriptors found in our quantitative structure-activity relationship models are prone to a structural interpretation and support the AH/B System model proposed by Shallenberger and Acree.
The Tuirejieduling granule is a compound preparation made from four kinds of Chinese medicines. It is effective for anti-inflammation, antivirus, defervescence and anti-bacterium; however, its quality control standards have remained unknown.
The ability to identify carcinogenic compounds is of fundamental importance to the safe application of chemicals. In this study, we generated an array of in silico models allowing the classification of compounds into carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents based on a data set of 852 noncongeneric chemicals collected from the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDBAS). Twenty-four molecular descriptors were selected by Pearson correlation, F-score, and stepwise regression analysis. These descriptors cover a range of physicochemical properties, including electrophilicity, geometry, molecular weight, size, and solubility. The descriptor mutagenic showed the highest correlation coefficient with carcinogenicity. On the basis of these descriptors, a support vector machine-based (SVM) classification model was developed and fine-tuned by a 10-fold cross-validation approach. Both the SVM model (Model A1) and the best model from the 10-fold cross-validation (Model B3) runs gave good results on the test set with prediction accuracy over 80%, sensitivity over 76%, and specificity over 82%. In addition, extended connectivity fingerprints (ECFPs) and the Toxtree software were used to analyze the functional groups and substructures linked to carcinogenicity. It was found that the results of both methods are in good agreement.
Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathogenesis of inhaled air pollutant-mediated metabolic disease. Inflammation in the adipose tissues niches are widely believed to exert important effects on organ dysfunction. Recent data from both human and animal models suggest a role for inflammation and oxidative stress in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that inhalational exposure to concentrated ambient fine particulates (CAPs) and ozone (O3) exaggerates inflammation and oxidative stress in EAT and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT).
Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) (EC 188.8.131.52) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. It catalyzes cinnamyl aldehydes as substrates to form corresponding alcohols, the last step in monolignol biosynthesis. Almost all CAD members of land plants could be divided into three classes according to the phylogenetic analysis, together with gene structure and function. In the present investigation, two cDNAs encoding CADs were obtained from a Chinese liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum thallus library and were designated as PaCAD1 and PaCAD2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 belonged to Class II. Full length cDNAs were heterologously expressed in E. coli and the recombinant PaCAD proteins displayed high activity levels using p-coumaryl, caffeyl, coniferyl, 5-hydroxyconiferyl and sinapyl aldehydes as substrates to form corresponding alcohols. The enzyme kinetics results showed that PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 used coniferyl aldehyde as the favourite substrate and showed high catalytic efficiency towards p-coumaryl aldehyde but lowest catalytic efficiency towards 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In accord with the higher lignin content in the thallus than in the callus, the expression level of PaCAD2 was also higher in thallus than in the callus. The expression of PaCAD1 and PaCAD2 was induced by Methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) treatment. This suggested that these two PaCADs played twin roles in lignin biosynthesis and the defencedefence of abiotic stress in P. appendiculatum. This is the first time that the CADs in liverworts have been functionally characterized.
Epidemiologic and experimental studies support an association between fine ambient particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) exposure and insulin resistance (IR). A role for innate immune cell activation has been suggested in the pathogenesis of these effects.
The PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-based interactions play important roles in regulating the expression and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Several PDZ domain-containing proteins (PDZ proteins for short) have been identified as directly or indirectly interacting with the C terminus of CFTR. To better understand the regulation of CFTR processing, we conducted a genetic screen and identified MAST205 (a microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase with a molecular mass of 205 kDa) as a new CFTR regulator. We found that overexpression of MAST205 increased the expression of CFTR and augmented CFTR-mediated fluid transport in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of MAST205 inhibited CFTR function. The PDZ motif of CFTR is required for the regulatory role of MAST205 in CFTR expression and function. We further demonstrated that MAST205 and the CFTR-associated ligand competed for binding to CFTR, which facilitated the processing of CFTR and consequently up-regulated the expression and function of CFTR at the plasma membrane. More importantly, we found that MAST205 could facilitate the processing of F508del-CFTR mutant and augment its quantity and channel function at the plasma membrane. Taken together, our data suggest that MAST205 plays an important role in regulating CFTR expression and function. Our findings have important clinical implications for treating CFTR-associated diseases such as cystic fibrosis and secretory diarrheas.
Preciseness of cellular behavior depends upon how an extracellular cue mobilizes a correct orchestra of cellular messengers and effector proteins spatially and temporally. This concept, termed compartmentalization of cellular signaling, is now known to form the molecular basis of many aspects of cellular behavior in health and disease. The cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate are ubiquitous cellular messengers that can be compartmentalized in three ways: first, by their physical containment; second, by formation of multiple protein signaling complexes; and third, by their selective depletion. Compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide signaling is a very prevalent response among all cell types. In order to understand how it becomes relevant to cellular behavior, it is important to know how it is executed in cells to regulate physiological responses and, also, how its execution or dysregulation can lead to a pathophysiological condition, which forms the scope of the presented review.
It has been reported that the Borna disease virus (BDV) encoded phosphoprotein (P protein) can inhibit the activity of Traf family member-associated NF-kappaB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1), thus preventing the induction of type I interferon (IFN). However, the effects of microRNA on the regulation of BDV infection and the hosts immune response have not been characterized. miR-155 was predicted to be complementary to the BDV P mRNA by RNAhybrid software. Here, we showed that miR-155 was down-regulated in BDV persistently infected human oligodendroglial (OL/BDV) cells and that the BDV P protein, but not the X protein, directly inhibited miR-155 expression in cells. When miR-155 was over-expressed, the inhibition of type I IFNs by BDV in cells was reversed, and the expression of type I IFNs was increased. When miR-155 expression was specifically blocked, cellular IFN expression and the induction of IFN by poly I:C treatment were suppressed. Furthermore, miR-155 promoted type I IFN production by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3. Mutations in the nt1138-nt1158 region of SOCS3 abandoned the impact of miR-155 on the expression of SOCS3-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The levels of BDV P mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in OL/BDV cells when miR-155 was over-expressed; however, miR-155-mutation did not affect the expression of BDV P-EGFP. Thus, BDV persistent infection inhibited the expression of type I IFNs through the suppression of miR-155, and miR-155 played an important immune regulatory role in BDV persistent infection.
Plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (PfG6PD) has been considered as a potential target for severe forms of anti-malaria therapy. In this study, several classification models were built to distinguish active and weakly active PfG6PD inhibitors by support vector machine method. Each molecule was initially represented by 1,044 molecular descriptors calculated by ADRIANA.Code. Correlation analysis and attribute selection methods in Weka were used to get the best reduced set of molecular descriptors, respectively. The best model (Model 2w) gave a prediction accuracy (Q) of 93.88 % and a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.88 on the test set. Some properties such as [Formula: see text] atom charge, [Formula: see text] atom charge, and lone pair electronegativity-related descriptors are important for the interaction between the PfG6PD and the inhibitor.
Two quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models for predicting 95 compounds inhibiting Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase2 (ACAT2) were developed. The whole data set was randomly split into a training set including 72 compounds and a test set including 23 compounds. The molecules were represented by 11 descriptors calculated by software ADRIANA.Code. Then the inhibitory activity of ACAT2 inhibitors was predicted using multilinear regression (MLR) analysis and support vector machine (SVM) method, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the models for the test sets were 0.90 for MLR model, and 0.91 for SVM model. Y-randomization was employed to ensure the robustness of the SVM model. The atom charge and electronegativity related descriptors were important for the interaction between the inhibitors and ACAT2.
Viruses often have strategies for preventing host cell apoptosis, which antagonizes viral replication. Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus that establishes a non-cytolytic persistent infection. Although BDV suppresses type I Interferon (IFN) through (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1) associated BDV P protein, it is still unclear how BDV can survive in the host cell and establish a persistent infection. Recently, it has been recognized that mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway is a crucial component of the innate immune response. In this work we show that BDV X protein colocalizes and interacts with MAVS in the mitochondria to block programmed cell death. BDV X protein-mediated inhibition of apoptosis was independent of type I IFN production and NF-?B activity. The reduction of BDV X expression with RNA interference (RNAi) or the mutation of BDV X enhanced MAVS-induced cell death. Collectively, our data provide novel insights into how BDV X protein inhibits antiviral-associated programmed cell death, through its action of MAVS function.
MiR-122 is a liver-speci?c miRNA. Recent studies demonstrated that the interferon (IFN) therapy efficacy is poor in the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with lower miR-122 abundance in the livers. The hepatocarcinoma patients also have low miR-122 levels in their livers. We previously found that the IFN expression was reduced when miR-122 was knocked down in human oligodendrocytes. The mechanism is unclear. In this study, the miR-122-abundant cell Huh7 was used to explore the regulatory mechanism of miR-122 on type I IFN expression. We found that miR-122 significantly increased the type I IFN expression in Huh7 cells, while knocking down miR-122 decreased the type I IFN expression. By screening potential miR-122 targets among the negative regulators in IFN signaling pathways, we found that there were putative miR-122 targets in the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) mRNA. Over-expressing miR-122 decreased the SOCS1 expression by 50.55% in Huh7 cells, while knocking down miR-122 increased SOCS1 expression by 62.56%. Using a green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fused SOCS1-expressing plasmid, the SOCS1-EGFP fluorescence intensity and protein were lower in miR-122 mimic-treated cells than those in mock-miRNA-treated cells, while miR-122 knockdown significantly increased the SOCS1-EGFP fluorescence intensity and protein expression. Mutations in the nt359-nt375 region abandoned the impact of miR-122 on SOCS1-EGFP expression. Taken together, SOCS1 is a target of miR-122. MiR-122 can regulate the type I IFN expression through modulating the SOCS1 expression.
In this study, four computational quantitative structure-activity relationship models were built to predict the biological activity of HIV-1 integrase strand transfer (ST) inhibitors. 551 Inhibitors whose bioactivities were detected by radiolabeling method were collected. The molecules were represented with 20 selected MOE descriptors. All inhibitors were divided into a training set and a test set with two methods: (1) by a Kohonens self-organizing map (SOM); (2) by a random selection. For every training set and test set, a multilinear regression (MLR) analysis and a support vector machine (SVM) were used to establish models, respectively. For the test set divided by SOM, the correlation coefficients (rs) were over 0.91, and for the test set split randomly, the rs were over 0.86.
The RNA chaperone protein Hfq is required for the function of all small RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate mRNA stability or translation by limited base pairing in Escherichia coli. While there have been numerous in vitro studies to characterize Hfq activity and the importance of specific residues, there has been only limited characterization of Hfq mutants in vivo. Here, we use a set of reporters as well as co-immunoprecipitation to examine 14 Hfq mutants expressed from the E. coli chromosome. The majority of the proximal face residues, as expected, were important for the function of sRNAs. The failure of sRNAs to regulate target mRNAs in these mutants can be explained by reduced sRNA accumulation. Two of the proximal mutants, D9A and F39A, acted differently from the others in that they had mixed effects on different sRNA/mRNA pairs and, in the case of F39A, showed differential sRNA accumulation. Mutations of charged residues at the rim of Hfq interfered with positive regulation and gave mixed effects for negative regulation. Some, but not all, sRNAs accumulated to lower levels in rim mutants, suggesting qualitative differences in how individual sRNAs are affected by Hfq. The distal face mutants were expected to disrupt binding of ARN motifs found in mRNAs. They were more defective for positive regulation than negative regulation at low mRNA expression, but the defects could be suppressed by higher levels of mRNA expression. We discuss the implications of these observations for Hfq binding to RNA and mechanisms of action.
To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0-300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60-160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40-160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N application at 150 kg·hm(-2), was beneficial to increase the protein yield and Glu/Gli in grains which improve the quality of wheat.
Studies have shown that chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, PM?.?) pollution induces insulin resistance through alterations in inflammatory pathways. It is critical to study how the immune system responds to this stimulant, which has been linked to cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, but few studies have been focused on such involvement of both neutrophils and monocytes in a timely manner. We hypothesized that the neutrophil was involved in the inflammatory response to air pollution.
The yellow mustard plant in Northern Shaanxi is a precious germplasm, and the yellow seed trait is controlled by a single recessive gene. In this report, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques were used to identify markers linked to the brown seed locus in an F(2) population consisting of 1258 plants. After screening 256 AFLP primer combinations and 456 pairs of SSR primers, we found 14 AFLP and 2 SSR markers that were closely linked to the brown seed locus. Among these markers, the SSR marker CB1022 showed codominant inheritance. By integrating markers previously found to be linked to the brown seed locus into the genetic map of the F(2) population, 23 markers were linked to the brown seed locus. The two closest markers, EA02MC08 and P03MC08, were located on either side of the brown seed locus at a distance of 0.3 and 0.5 cM, respectively. To use the markers for the breeding of yellow-seeded mustard plants, two AFLP markers (EA06MC11 and EA08MC13) were converted into sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, SC1 and SC2, with the latter as the codominant marker. The two SSR markers were subsequently mapped to the A9/N9 linkage group of Brassica napus L. by comparing common SSR markers with the published genetic map of B. napus. A BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of seven markers showed good colinearity with those of Arabidopsis chromosome 3 and that the homolog of the brown seed locus might exist between At3g14120 and At3g29615 on this same chromosome. To develop closer markers, we could make use of the sequence information of this region to design primers for future studies. Regardless, the close markers obtained in the present study will lay a solid foundation for cloning the yellow seed gene using a map-based cloning strategy.
In the title compound, C(10)H(8)N(2)·C(4)H(8)N(2)O(2), both the dimethyl-glyoxime and the 4,4-bipyridine mol-ecules have crystallographic C(i) symmetry. The mol-ecules stack along the a-axis direction with a dihedral angle of 20.4?(8)° between their planes. In the crystal, the components are linked by O-H?N hydrogen bonds into alternating chains along  and [1[Formula: see text]0].
In the title complex, [Sn(C(2)H(2)ClO(2))(2)(C(7)H(6)F)(2)], the Sn(IV) atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and forms a strongly distorted trans-octa-hedral geometry. The equatorial plane is defined by two chelating chloro-acetate ligands with asymmetrical Sn-O bond lengths, while the axial positions are occupied by the C atoms of two 2-fluoro-benzyl groups. In the crystal, infinite chains in the  direction are formed through inter-molecular Sn?O inter-actions [Sn?O separation = 3.682?(3)?Å].
Porous Cu-NiO nanocomposites were successfully prepared by calcination of the Cu-Ni(OH)(2) precursor at 400 °C for 2 h. During the process of calcination, Ar was used to deaerate O(2). The structure and morphology of Cu-NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using porous Cu-NiO nanocomposites, a simple non-enzymatic amperometric sensor has been fabricated (Cu-NiO/GCE) and evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and typical amperometric method. When applied to detect glucose by the amperometric method, Cu-NiO/GCE produced an ultrahigh sensitivity of 171.8 ?A mM(-1), with a low detection limit of 0.5 ?M (S/N = 3). Whats more, interference from common co-existing species, such as UA, AA, and fructose can be avoided at the sensor. Results in this study imply that porous Cu-NiO nanocomposites are promising nanomaterials for the enzyme-free determination of glucose.
We have previously shown that chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter, PM?.?) pollution in conjunction with high-fat diet induces insulin resistance through alterations in inflammatory pathways. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PM?.? exposure over a substantive duration of a rodents lifespan and focused on the impact of long-term exposure on adipose structure and function. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to PM?.? or filtered air (FA) (6 h/day, 5 days/week) for duration of 10 months in Columbus, OH. At the end of the exposure, PM?.?-exposed mice demonstrated insulin resistance (IR) and a decrease in glucose tolerance compared with the FA-exposed group. Although there were no significant differences in circulating cytokines between PM?.?- and FA-exposed groups, circulating adiponectin and leptin were significantly decreased in PM?.?-exposed group. PM?.? exposure also led to inflammatory response and oxidative stress as evidenced by increase of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. Additionally, PM?.? exposure decreased mitochondrial count in visceral adipose and mitochondrial size in interscapular adipose depots, which were associated with reduction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression and downregulation of brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles. These findings suggest that long-term ambient PM?.? exposure induces impaired glucose tolerance, IR, inflammation, and mitochondrial alteration, and thus, it is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes.
Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for oil content has been previously analyzed in a SG-DH population from a cross between a Chinese cultivar and a European cultivar of Brassica napus. Eight QTL with additive and epistatic effects, and with environmental interactions were evaluated. Here we present an integrated linkage map of this population predominantly based on informative markers derived from Brassica sequences, including 249 orthologous A. thaliana genes, where nearly half (112) are acyl lipid metabolism related genes. Comparative genomic analysis between B. napus and A. thaliana revealed 33 colinearity regions. Each of the conserved A. thaliana segments is present two to six times in the B. napus genome. Approximately half of the mapped lipid-related orthologous gene loci (76/137) were assigned in these conserved colinearity regions. QTL analysis for seed oil content was performed using the new map and phenotypic data from 11 different field trials. Nine significant QTL were identified on linkage groups A1, A5, A7, A9, C2, C3, C6 and C8, together explaining 57.79% of the total phenotypic variation. A total of 14 lipid related candidate gene loci were located in the confidence intervals of six of these QTL, of which ten were assigned in the conserved colinearity regions and felled in the most frequently overlapped QTL intervals. The information obtained from this study demonstrates the potential role of the suggested candidate genes in rapeseed kernel oil accumulation.
Modulator compounds intended to overcome disease-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) show significant promise in clinical testing for cystic fibrosis. However, the mechanism(s) of action underlying these compounds are not fully understood. Activation of CFTR ion transport requires PKA-regulated phosphorylation of the regulatory domain (R-D) and dimerization of the nucleotide binding domains. Using a newly developed assay, we evaluated nine compounds including both CFTR potentatiators and activators discovered via various high-throughput screening strategies to acutely augment CFTR activity. We found considerable differences in the effects on R-D phosphorylation. Some (including UC(CF)-152) stimulated robust phosphorylation, and others had little effect (e.g., VRT-532 and VX-770). We then compared CFTR activation by UC(CF)-152 and VRT-532 in Ussing chamber studies using two epithelial models, CFBE41o(-) and Fischer rat thyroid cells, expressing various CFTR forms. UC(CF)-152 activated wild-type-, G551D-, and rescued F508del-CFTR currents but did not potentiate cAMP-mediated CFTR activation. In contrast, VRT-532 moderately activated CFTR short-circuit current and strongly potentiated forskolin-mediated current. Combined with the result that UC(CF)-152, but not VRT-532 or VX-770, acts by increasing CFTR R-D phosphorylation, these findings indicate that potentiation of endogenous cAMP-mediated activation of mutant CFTR is not due to a pathway involving augmented R-D phosphorylation. This study presents an assay useful to distinguish preclinical compounds by a crucial mechanism underlying CFTR activation, delineates two types of compound able to acutely augment CFTR activity (e.g., activators and potentiators), and demonstrates that a number of different mechanisms can be successfully employed to activate mutant CFTR.
The synthesis and characterization of a novel class of structurally well-defined nanotubes from ?-cyclodextrin are described. These new hosts were formed using disulfide linkages that substitute all the primary hydroxyl groups of a ?-cyclodextrin. A deep and rigid hydrophobic channel with a size of more than 1.5 nm is found in the molecules. Because of their unique geometry and the potential biodegradability of the disulfide bond, this class of molecules could find broad applications in biology and other areas of research.
Natural resveratrol is widely used in medicine, food, and cosmetic because of its pharmacological properties. Due to its low content in plants, this study was conducted to increase the yield of resveratrol by microorganism transformation. Fungi Aspergillus niger AN-2436 was employed in biotransformation to produce resveratrol from polydatin, and genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize the fermentation conditions. A transformation ratio of higher than 95% was achieved in the following conditions: culture temperature of 30.3 °C, inoculum size of 20% (v/v), rotating speed of 147 rpm, and cultivation time of 36 h. Compared with the polydatin absorbance under the experimental conditions obtained by single-factor, orthogonal experiments and average absorbance, the GA provides the optimum experimental conditions, under which the largest transformation rate was achieved. The final transformation product obtained was identified as resveratrol, and it was proved by high-performance liquid chromatography, infrared, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the major ABC transporters and involved in many essential processes such as lipid and steroid transport across cell membranes but also in the uptake of drugs such as HIV protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Despite its importance, reliable models predicting substrates of P-gp are scarce. In this study, we have built several computational models to predict whether or not a compound is a P-gp substrate, based on the largest data set yet published, employing 332 distinct structures. Each molecule is represented by ADRIANA.Code, MOE, and ECFP_4 fingerprint descriptors. The models are computed using a support vector machine based on a training set which includes 131 substrates and 81 nonsubstrates that were evaluated by 5-, 10-fold, and leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation. The best model gives a Matthews Correlation Coefficient of 0.73 and a prediction accuracy of 0.88 on the test set. Examination of the model based on ECFP_4 fingerprints revealed several substructures which could have significance in separating substrates and nonsubstrates of P-gp, such as the nitrile and sulfoxide functional groups which have a higher frequency in nonsubstrates than in substrates. In addition structural isomerism in sugars was found to result in remarkable differences regarding the likelihood of a compound to be a substrate for P-gp.
Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially lethal syndrome resulting in leakage of myocyte intracellular contents into the plasma. Some drugs, such as lipid-lowering drugs and antihistamines, can cause rhabdomyolysis. In this work, a dataset containing 186 chemical compounds causing rhabdomyolysis and 117 drugs not causing rhabdomyolysis was collected. The dataset was split into a training set (containing 230 compounds) and a test set (containing 73 compounds). A Kohonens self-organizing map (SOM) and a support vector machine (SVM) were applied to develop classification models to differentiate compounds causing and not causing rhabdomyolysis. Using the SOM method, classification accuracies of 93.3% for the training set and 84.5% for the test set were achieved; using the SVM method, classification accuracies of 95.2% for the training set and 84.9% for the test set were achieved. In addition, the extended connectivity fingerprints (ECFP_4) for all the molecules were calculated and analyzed to find the important features of molecules relating to rhabdomyolysis.
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a tannic acid-based medical food, Cesinex(®), in the treatment of diarrhea and to investigate the mechanisms underlying its antidiarrheal effect.
Prior studies have demonstrated a link between air pollution and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model.
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) has been implicated in the growth and metastasis of various types of human cancer, but the role of HDGF expression in prostate cancer or breast cancer has not been documented. To assess the role of HDGF in the proliferation, migration and invasion by prostate and breast cancer cells, HDGF expression in DU145 and MCF7 cells was knocked down using siRNA, and the effect of such knockdown was assessed by MTS and [3H]-thymidine incorporation Transwell assays. Moreover, we identified differentially expressed genes that might mediate the HDGF-induced cellular effects. Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of HDGF expression significantly reduces the proliferation of both DU145 and MCF7 cells. However, down-regulation of HDGF expression in DU145 inhibited cell migration and invasion, but in MCF7 cells it stimulated cell migration and invasion. This differential effect might result from the differential induction of PIK3R1 or SERPINE1 in the two cell lines upon HDGF-siRNA treatment. In conclusion, HDGF may participate in the pathogenesis of prostate and breast cancer by promoting cell growth and it may be a therapeutic target for these cancers.
A high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with adipose inflammation, which contributes to key components of metabolic syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance. The increased visceral adipose tissue mass associated with obesity is the result of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. To investigate the effects of exercise on HFD-induced metabolic disorders, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SED (sedentary)-ND (normal diet), EX (exercise)-ND, SED-HFD, and EX-HFD. Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill at 15 m/min, 40 min/day, and 5 day/wk for 8 wk. Exercise resulted in a decrease in abdominal fat contents and inflammation, improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and enhancement of vascular constriction and relaxation responses. Exercise with or without HFD increased putative brown adipocyte progenitor cells in brown adipose tissue compared with groups with the same diet, with an increase in brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in brown and white adipose tissue. Exercise training enhanced in vitro differentiation of the preadipocytes from brown adipose depots into brown adipocytes and enhanced the expression of uncoupling protein 1. These findings suggest that exercise ameliorates high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders and vascular dysfunction, and increases adipose progenitor cell population in brown adipose tissue, which might thereby contribute to enhanced functional brown adipose.
Several QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) models for predicting the inhibitory activity of 117 Aurora-A kinase inhibitors were developed. The whole dataset was split into a training set and a test set based on two different methods, (1) by a random selection; and (2) on the basis of a Kohonens self-organizing map (SOM). Then the inhibitory activity of 117 Aurora-A kinase inhibitors was predicted using multilinear regression (MLR) analysis and support vector machine (SVM) methods, respectively. For the two MLR models and the two SVM models, for the test sets, the correlation coefficients of over 0.92 were achieved.
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, the pvdQ gene has been shown to have at least two functions. It encodes the acylase enzyme and hydrolyzes 3-oxo-C12-HSL, the key signaling molecule of quorum sensing system. In addition, pvdQ is involved in swarming motility. It is required for up-regulated during swarming motility, which is triggered by high cell densities. As high-density bacterial populations also display elevated antibiotic resistance, studies have demonstrated that swarm-cell differentiation in P. aeruginosa promotes increased resistance to various antibiotics. PvdQ acts as a signal during swarm-cell differentiation, and thus may play a role in P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study is to examine whether pvdQ was involved in modifying antibiotic susceptibility during swarming conditions, and to investigate the mechanism by which this occurred. We constructed the PAO1pMEpvdQ strain, which overproduced PvdQ. PAO1pMEpvdQ promotes swarming motility, while PAO1?pvdQ abolishes swarming motility. In addition, both PAO1 and PAO1pMEpvdQ acquired resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, polymyxin B, and gentamicin, though PAO1pMEpvdQ exhibited a two to eightfold increase in antibiotic resistance compared to PAO1. These results indicate that pvdQ plays an important role in elevating antibiotic resistance via swarm-cell differentiation and possibly other mechanisms as well. We analyzed outer membrane permeability. Our data also suggest that pvdQ decreases P. aeruginosa outer membrane permeability, thereby elevating antibiotic resistance under swarming conditions. Our results suggest new approaches for reducing P. aeruginosa resistance.
Carvedilol is one of the most effective beta blockers for preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias in heart failure, but the mechanisms underlying its favorable antiarrhythmic benefits remain unclear. Spontaneous Ca(2+) waves, also called store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR), evoke ventricular tachyarrhythmias in individuals with heart failure. Here we show that carvedilol is the only beta blocker tested that effectively suppresses SOICR by directly reducing the open duration of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2). This unique anti-SOICR activity of carvedilol, combined with its beta-blocking activity, probably contributes to its favorable antiarrhythmic effect. To enable optimal titration of carvedilols actions as a beta blocker and as a suppressor of SOICR separately, we developed a new SOICR-inhibiting, minimally beta-blocking carvedilol analog, VK-II-86. VK-II-86 prevented stress-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in RyR2-mutant mice and did so more effectively when combined with either of the selective beta blockers metoprolol or bisoprolol. Combining SOICR inhibition with optimal beta blockade has the potential to provide antiarrhythmic therapy that can be tailored to individual patients.
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