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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Paolo Peterlongo, Jenny Chang-Claude, Kirsten B Moysich, Anja Rudolph, Rita K Schmutzler, Jacques Simard, Penny Soucy, Rosalind A Eeles, Douglas F Easton, Ute Hamann, Stefan Wilkening, Bowang Chen, Matti A Rookus, Marjanka K Schmidt, Frederieke H van der Baan, Amanda B Spurdle, Logan C Walker, Felicity Lose, Ana-Teresa Maia, Marco Montagna, Laura Matricardi, Jan Lubiński, Anna Jakubowska, Encarna B Gomez-Garcia, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Robert L Nussbaum, Katherine L Nathanson, Susan M Domchek, Timothy R Rebbeck, Banu K Arun, Beth Y Karlan, Sandra Orsulic, Jenny Lester, Wendy K Chung, Alex Miron, Melissa C Southey, David E Goldgar, Saundra S Buys, Ramunas Janavicius, Cecelia M Dorfling, Elizabeth J van Rensburg, Yuan Chun Ding, Susan L Neuhausen, Thomas V O Hansen, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Bent Ejlertsen, Lars Jønson, Ana Osorio, Cristina Martinez-Bouzas, Javier Benitez, Edye E Conway, Kathleen R Blazer, Jeffrey N Weitzel, Siranoush Manoukian, Bernard Peissel, Daniela Zaffaroni, Giulietta Scuvera, Monica Barile, Filomena Ficarazzi, Frederique Mariette, Stefano Fortuzzi, Alessandra Viel, Giuseppe Giannini, Laura Papi, Aline Martayan, Maria Grazia Tibiletti, Paolo Radice, Athanassios Vratimos, Florentia Fostira, Judy E Garber, Alan Donaldson, Carole Brewer, Claire Foo, D Gareth R Evans, Debra Frost, Diana Eccles, Angela Brady, Jackie Cook, Marc Tischkowitz, Julian Adlard, Julian Barwell, Lisa Walker, Louise Izatt, Lucy E Side, M John Kennedy, Mark T Rogers, Mary E Porteous, Patrick J Morrison, Radka Platte, Rosemarie Davidson, Shirley V Hodgson, Steve Ellis, Trevor Cole, Andrew K Godwin, Kathleen Claes, Tom Van Maerken, Alfons Meindl, Andrea Gehrig, Christian Sutter, Christoph Engel, Dieter Niederacher, Doris Steinemann, Hansjoerg Plendl, Karin Kast, Kerstin Rhiem, Nina Ditsch, Norbert Arnold, Raymonda Varon-Mateeva, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets, Bruno Buecher, Capucine Delnatte, Claude Houdayer, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Francesca Damiola, Isabelle Coupier, Laure Barjhoux, Laurence Venat-Bouvet, Lisa Golmard, Nadia Boutry-Kryza, Olga M Sinilnikova, Olivier Caron, Pascal Pujol, Sylvie Mazoyer, Muriel Belotti, Marion Piedmonte, Michael L Friedlander, Gustavo C Rodriguez, Larry J Copeland, Miguel de la Hoya, Pedro Perez Segura, Heli Nevanlinna, Kristiina Aittomäki, Theo A M van Os, Hanne E J Meijers-Heijboer, Annemarie H Van der Hout, Maaike P G Vreeswijk, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Margreet G E M Ausems, Helena C Van Doorn, J Margriet Collée, Edith Olah, Orland Díez, Ignacio Blanco, Conxi Lazaro, Joan Brunet, Lídia Feliubadaló, Cezary Cybulski, Jacek Gronwald, Katarzyna Durda, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Grzegorz Sukiennicki, Adalgeir Arason, Jocelyne Chiquette, Manuel R Teixeira, Curtis Olswold, Fergus J Couch, Noralane M Lindor, Xianshu Wang, Csilla I Szabo, Kenneth Offit, Marina Corines, Lauren Jacobs, Mark Robson, Liying Zhang, Vijai Joseph, Andreas Berger, Christian F Singer, Christine Rappaport, Daphne Geschwantler Kaulich, Georg Pfeiler, Muy-Kheng M Tea, Catherine M Phelan, Mark H Greene, Phuong L Mai, Gad Rennert, Anna Marie Mulligan, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Irene L Andrulis, Amanda Ewart Toland, Anders Bojesen, Inge Sokilde Pedersen, Mads Thomassen, Uffe Birk Jensen, Yael Laitman, Johanna Rantala, Anna von Wachenfeldt, Hans Ehrencrona, Marie Stenmark Askmalm, Ake Borg, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Lesley McGuffog, Daniel Barrowdale, Sue Healey, Andrew Lee, Paul D P Pharoah, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Antonis C Antoniou, Eitan Friedman.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods: Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results: The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion: There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact: Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies.
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[CDKN2A-mutation in a family with hereditary malignant melanoma.]
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Malignant melanoma (MM) is a frequent form of cancer with increasing incidence. 6-10% of patients with MM report a family history of MM, and in most populations 2% of unselected cases of MM carry a CDKN2A mutation. tvWe present a family with 24 cases of MM in nine persons from several generations, caused by a previously undescribed germ-line intronic mutation in CDKN2A. Through genetic counselling and genetic testing high-risk persons in the family are located and offered regular screening for MM.
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Genome-wide DNA Methylation Analysis of Lung Carcinoma Reveals One Neuroendocrine and Four Adenocarcinoma Epitypes Associated with Patient Outcome.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Lung cancer is the worldwide leading cause of death from cancer. DNA methylation in gene promoter regions is a major mechanism of gene expression regulation that may promote tumorigenesis. However, whether clinically relevant subgroups based on DNA methylation patterns exist in lung cancer remains unclear.
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Mutational analysis of BRCA1/2 in a group of 134 consecutive ovarian cancer patients. Novel and recurrent BRCA1/2 alterations detected by next generation sequencing.
J. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The importance of proper mutational analysis of BRCA1/2 in individuals at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is widely accepted. Standard genetic screening includes targeted analysis of recurrent, population-specific mutations. The purpose of the study was to establish the frequency of germline BRCA1/2 mutations in a group of 134 unrelated patients with primary ovarian cancer. Next generation sequencing analysis revealed a presence of 20 (14.9 %) mutations, where 65 % (n?=?13) were recurrent BRCA1 alterations included in the standard diagnostic panel in northern Poland. However, the remaining seven BRCA1/2 mutations (35 %) would be missed by the standard approach and were detected in unique patients. A substantial proportion (n?=?5/12; 41 %) of mutation-positive individuals with complete family history reported no incidence of breast or ovarian cancer in their relatives. This observation, together with the raising perspectives for personalized therapy targeting BRCA1/2 signaling pathways indicates the necessity of comprehensive genetic screening in all ovarian cancer patients. However, due to the limited sensitivity of the standard genetic screening presented in this study (65 %) an application of next generation sequencing in molecular diagnostics of BRCA1/2 genes should be considered.
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High risk of in-breast tumor recurrence after BRCA1/2-associated breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The purpose of the study was to compare breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and mastectomy (M) in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Women with invasive breast cancer and a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 were included in the study (n = 162). Patients treated with BCT (n = 45) were compared with patients treated with M (n = 118). Endpoints were local recurrence as first recurrence (LR), overall survival (OS), breast cancer death, and distant recurrence. Cumulative incidence was calculated in the presence of competing risks. For calculation of hazard ratios and for multivariable analysis, cause-specific Cox proportional hazards regression was used. Compared to M, BCT was associated with an increased risk of LR in univariable analysis (HR 4.0; 95 % CI 1.6-9.8) and in multivariable analysis adjusting for tumor stage, age, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR 2.9; CI 1.1-7.8). Following M, all local recurrences were seen in the first 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Following BCT, the rate of LR continued to be high also after the first 5 years. The cumulative incidence of LR in the BCT group was 15, 25, and 32 % after 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between BCT and M for OS, breast cancer death, or distant recurrence. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers treated with BCT have a high risk of LR, many of which are new primary breast cancers. This must be thoroughly discussed with the patient and is an example of how rapid treatment-focused genetic testing could influence choice of treatment.
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High risk of tobacco-related cancers in CDKN2A mutation-positive melanoma families.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CDKN2A occur in 5-20% of familial melanoma cases. A single founder mutation, p.Arg112dup, accounts for the majority of CDKN2A mutations in Swedish carriers. In a national program, carriers of p.Arg112dup mutation have been identified. The aim of this study was to assess cancer risks in p.Arg112dup carriers and their first degree relatives (FDRs) and second degree relatives (SDRs).
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Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers.
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Cancer-associated fibroblasts expressing CXCL14 rely upon NOS1-derived nitric oxide signaling for their tumor-supporting properties.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) stimulate tumor growth and metastasis. Signals supporting CAF function are thus emerging as candidate therapeutic targets in the tumor microenvironment. The chemokine CXCL14 is a potent inducer of CAF protumorigenic functions. This study is aimed at learning how the protumoral functions of CXCL14-expressing CAF are maintained. We found that the nitric oxide synthase NOS1 is upregulated in CXCL14-expressing CAF and in fibroblasts stimulated with CXCL14. Induction of Nos1 was associated with oxidative stress and occurred together with activation of NRF2 and HIF1? signaling in CXCL14-expressing CAF. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of NOS1 reduced the growth of CXCL14-expressing fibroblasts along with their ability to promote tumor formation following coinjection with prostate or breast cancer cells. Tumor analysis revealed reduced macrophage infiltration, with NOS1 downregulation in CXCL14-expressing CAF and lymphangiogenesis as a novel component of CXCL14-promoted tumor growth. Collectively, our findings defined key components of a signaling network that maintains the protumoral functions of CXCL14-stimulated CAF, and they identified NOS1 as intervention target for CAF-directed cancer therapy.
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Impact of a paternal origin of germline BRCA1/2 mutations on the age at breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis in a Southern Swedish cohort.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Three studies have reported that BRCA1/2 mutations of paternal origin confer an earlier age at breast cancer diagnosis compared with maternal origin. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental origin of BRCA1/2 mutations on age at breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis. This study included 577 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All BRCA1/2 mutation carriers belonged to families registered between 1993 and 2011 at the Oncogenetic Clinic at Skånes University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to analyze time to breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis. A novel finding was that carriers of BRCA1 mutations of paternal origin were 4 years older at age of ovarian cancer (P = 0.009) compared with those carrying a BRCA1 mutation of maternal origin. BRCA1 carriers with mutations of paternal origin were 4 years younger at breast cancer diagnosis (P = 0.017) compared with those carrying a BRCA1 mutation of maternal origin, which is in agreement with three previous studies. Both findings were adjusted for of year of inclusion, birth date, and oral contraceptive pill use. No associations between parental origin of BRCA2 mutations and time to breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis were found. An attempt to handle a potential selection bias regarding use of oral contraceptives was made using multiple imputations by chained equations. The observed age difference may allow a greater understanding of mechanisms associated with the differences in cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, some of which may depend on paternal origin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The HER2-encoded miR-4728-3p regulates ESR1 through a non-canonical internal seed interaction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Since the early 1980s remarkable progress has been made in understanding the role of the HER2 locus in carcinogenesis, but many details of its regulatory network are still elusive. We recently reported the finding of 367 new human microRNA (miRNA) genes of which one, mir-4728, is encoded in an intron of the HER2 gene. Here, we confirm that the HER2 oncogene is a bi-functional locus encoding the membrane receptor and a functional miRNA gene. We further show that miR-4728-3p has alternative functionalities depending on the region used for interaction with its target; the canonical seed between nucleotides 2-8 or a novel, more internal seed shifted to nucleotides 6-12. Analysis of public data shows that this internal seed region, although rare compared to the far more abundant canonical 2-8 seed interaction, can also direct targeted down-regulation by other miRNAs. Through the internal seed, miR-4728-3p regulates expression of estrogen receptor alpha, an interaction that would have remained undetected if classic rules for miRNA-target interaction had been applied. In summary, we present here an alternative mode of miRNA regulation and demonstrate this dual function of the HER2 locus, linking the two major biomarkers in breast cancer.
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Mutual exclusivity analysis of genetic and epigenetic drivers in melanoma identifies a link between p14 ARF and RAR? signaling.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Melanoma genomes contain thousands of alterations including: mutations, copy number alterations, structural aberrations, and methylation changes. The bulk of this variation is stochastic and functionally neutral, with only a small minority representing "drivers" that contribute to the genesis and maintenance of tumors. Drivers are often directly or inversely correlated across tumors, reflecting the molecular and regulatory signaling pathways in which they operate. Here, a profile of genetic and epigenetic drivers in 110 human melanoma cell lines was generated and searched for non-random distribution patterns. Statistically significant mutual exclusivity was revealed among components of each of the p16(INK4A)-CDK4-RB, RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. In addition, an inverse correlation was observed between promoter hypermethylation of retinoic acid receptor ? (RARB) and CDKN2A alterations affecting p14(ARF) (P < 0.0001), suggesting a functional link between RAR? signaling and the melanoma-suppressive activities of p14(ARF). Mechanistically, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment increased the expression of p14(ARF) in primary human melanocytes and the steady-state levels of p14(ARF) in these cells were shown to be regulated via RAR?. Furthermore, the ability of ATRA to induce senescence is reduced in p14(ARF)-depleted melanocytes, and we provide proof-of-concept that ATRA can induce irreversible growth arrest in melanoma cells with an intact RAR?-p14(ARF) signaling axis, independent of p16(INK4A) and p53 status.
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Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, kataegis, is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.
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Detecting EGFR alterations in clinical specimens-pitfalls and necessities.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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We investigated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status in early stage lung cancer in Southern Sweden, a population for which there are no previous reports on the EGFR mutation frequency. Three hundred fifty small cell lung cancers, adenocarcinomas (AC), squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC), and large cell carcinomas were analyzed using a combination of techniques for the analysis of protein expression, gene copy numbers, and mutations. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with antibodies for the EGFR mutations L858R and del E746-A750 revealed intratumoral heterogeneity and several discrepant cases when compared to mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis. The frequencies of these two mutations, when considering IHC staining with mutation-specific antibodies in a cohort of 298 cases and subsequent confirmation by PCR, were 10 % in AC and <2 % in SqCC. Furthermore, screening by sequencing of EGFR in a cohort of 52 lung AC and squamous carcinomas demonstrated a more diverse mutation spectrum, not covered by the mutation-specific antibodies. High expression of total EGFR protein was correlated to high gene copy numbers but did not reflect the mutational status of the tumors. We believe that the mutation spectra in a Southern Swedish population is too diverse to be covered by the mutation-specific antibodies, and we also raise some other issues regarding the use of the mutation-specific antibodies, for example concerning heterogeneous expression of the mutated protein, optimal antibody dilution, and discrepancies between staining results and PCR.
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Histological specificity of alterations and expression of KIT and KITLG in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Characterization of molecules within important oncogenetic pathways may have future implications for development of therapies and biomarkers in lung cancer. One such target is the tyrosine kinase receptor KIT (c-KIT). We evaluated alterations and expression of KIT and its ligand, KITLG (also known as SCF), in 72 clinical lung tumor specimens of different histologies. Gene copy number, mRNA expression levels, and protein expression were assayed using array-based comparative genomic hybridization, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. For validation, we investigated copy number alterations and mRNA expression in external microarray data sets of 1,600 and 555 primary lung tumors, respectively. Positivity for KIT staining was most common in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) which also showed the highest KIT mRNA expression levels whereas expression was lowest in squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). KIT mRNA expression levels were higher in KIT immunopositive samples, but expression was not affected by KIT copy numbers. Copy number gains of KIT were significantly more frequent in SqCC compared with adenocarcinoma in our own series and in the 1,600-sample data set. Immunopositivity for both KIT and KITLG in the same tumor was rare except in LCNEC. Our results highlight an increased KIT mRNA expression and frequent KIT immunopositivity in LCNEC but point out a poor correlation between KIT copy numbers and expression in SqCC, perhaps reflecting the existence of a protective mechanism against KIT alterations in this subgroup.
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Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer.
Stig E Bojesen, Karen A Pooley, Sharon E Johnatty, Jonathan Beesley, Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan P Tyrer, Stacey L Edwards, Hilda A Pickett, Howard C Shen, Chanel E Smart, Kristine M Hillman, Phuong L Mai, Kate Lawrenson, Michael D Stutz, Yi Lu, Rod Karevan, Nicholas Woods, Rebecca L Johnston, Juliet D French, Xiaoqing Chen, Maren Weischer, Sune F Nielsen, Melanie J Maranian, Maya Ghoussaini, Shahana Ahmed, Caroline Baynes, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Lesley McGuffog, Daniel Barrowdale, Andrew Lee, Sue Healey, Michael Lush, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Françis Bacot, , Ignace Vergote, Sandrina Lambrechts, Evelyn Despierre, Harvey A Risch, Anna González-Neira, Mary Anne Rossing, Guillermo Pita, Jennifer A Doherty, Nuria Alvarez, Melissa C Larson, Brooke L Fridley, Nils Schoof, Jenny Chang-Claude, Mine S Cicek, Julian Peto, Kimberly R Kalli, Annegien Broeks, Sebastian M Armasu, Marjanka K Schmidt, Linde M Braaf, Boris Winterhoff, Heli Nevanlinna, Gottfried E Konecny, Diether Lambrechts, Lisa Rogmann, Pascal Guénel, Attila Teoman, Roger L Milne, Joaquín J García, Angela Cox, Vijayalakshmi Shridhar, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederik Marme, Rebecca Hein, Elinor J Sawyer, Christopher A Haiman, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Irene L Andrulis, Kirsten B Moysich, John L Hopper, Kunle Odunsi, Annika Lindblom, Graham G Giles, Hermann Brenner, Jacques Simard, Galina Lurie, Peter A Fasching, Michael E Carney, Paolo Radice, Lynne R Wilkens, Anthony Swerdlow, Marc T Goodman, Hiltrud Brauch, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Peter Hillemanns, Robert Winqvist, Matthias Dürst, Peter Devilee, Ingo Runnebaum, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Arto Mannermaa, Ralf Bützow, Natalia V Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Liisa M Pelttari, Wei Zheng, Arto Leminen, Hoda Anton-Culver, Clareann H Bunker, Vessela Kristensen, Roberta B Ness, Kenneth Muir, Robert Edwards, Alfons Meindl, Florian Heitz, Keitaro Matsuo, Andreas du Bois, Anna H Wu, Philipp Harter, Soo-Hwang Teo, Ira Schwaab, Xiao-Ou Shu, William Blot, Satoyo Hosono, Daehee Kang, Toru Nakanishi, Mikael Hartman, Yasushi Yatabe, Ute Hamann, Beth Y Karlan, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Susanne Krüger Kjaer, Valerie Gaborieau, Allan Jensen, Diana Eccles, Estrid Høgdall, Chen-Yang Shen, Judith Brown, Yin Ling Woo, Mitul Shah, Mat Adenan Noor Azmi, Robert Luben, Siti Zawiah Omar, Kamila Czene, Robert A Vierkant, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henrik Flyger, Celine Vachon, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Douglas A Levine, Anja Rudolph, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Edwin Iversen, Stefan Nickels, Joellen M Schildkraut, Isabel dos Santos Silva, Daniel W Cramer, Lorna Gibson, Kathryn L Terry, Olivia Fletcher, Allison F Vitonis, C Ellen van der Schoot, Elizabeth M Poole, Frans B L Hogervorst, Shelley S Tworoger, Jianjun Liu, Elisa V Bandera, Jingmei Li, Sara H Olson, Keith Humphreys, Irene Orlow, Carl Blomqvist, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Kristiina Aittomäki, Helga B Salvesen, Taru A Muranen, Elisabeth Wik, Barbara Brouwers, Camilla Krakstad, Els Wauters, Mari K Halle, Hans Wildiers, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Claire Mulot, Katja K Aben, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Anne Mvan Altena, Thérèse Truong, Leon F A G Massuger, Javier Benitez, Tanja Pejovic, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Maureen Hoatlin, M Pilar Zamora, Linda S Cook, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian, Linda E Kelemen, Andreas Schneeweiss, Nhu D Le, Christof Sohn, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Cezary Cybulski, Brian E Henderson, Janusz Menkiszak, Fredrick Schumacher, Nicolas Wentzensen, Loic Le Marchand, Hannah P Yang, Anna Marie Mulligan, Gord Glendon, Svend Aage Engelholm, Julia A Knight, Claus K Høgdall, Carmel Apicella, Martin Gore, Helen Tsimiklis, Honglin Song, Melissa C Southey, Agnes Jager, Ans M Wvan den Ouweland, Robert Brown, John W M Martens, James M Flanagan, Mieke Kriege, James Paul, Sara Margolin, Nadeem Siddiqui, Gianluca Severi, Alice S Whittemore, Laura Baglietto, Valerie McGuire, Christa Stegmaier, Weiva Sieh, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, France Labrèche, Yu-Tang Gao, Mark S Goldberg, Gong Yang, Martine Dumont, John R McLaughlin, Arndt Hartmann, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Catherine M Phelan, Michael P Lux, Jenny Permuth-Wey, Bernard Peissel, Thomas A Sellers, Filomena Ficarazzi, Monica Barile, Argyrios Ziogas, Alan Ashworth, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Michael Jones, Susan J Ramus, Nick Orr, Usha Menon, Celeste L Pearce, Thomas Brüning, Malcolm C Pike, Yon-Dschun Ko, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonine Figueroa, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Stephen J Chanock, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Iwona K Rzepecka, Katri Pylkäs, Mariusz Bidzinski, Saila Kauppila, Antoinette Hollestelle, Caroline Seynaeve, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Katarzyna Durda, Katarzyna Jaworska, Jaana M Hartikainen, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vesa Kataja, Natalia N Antonenkova, Jirong Long, Martha Shrubsole, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Artitaya Lophatananon, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Nina Ditsch, Peter Lichtner, Rita K Schmutzler, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Kazuo Tajima, Chiu-Chen Tseng, Daniel O Stram, David Van Den Berg, Cheng Har Yip, M Kamran Ikram, Yew-Ching Teh, Hui Cai, Wei Lu, Lisa B Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Dong-Young Noh, Keun-Young Yoo, Hui Miao, Philip Tsau-Choong Iau, Yik Ying Teo, James McKay, Charles Shapiro, Foluso Ademuyiwa, George Fountzilas, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Ming-Feng Hou, Catherine S Healey, Craig Luccarini, Susan Peock, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Paolo Peterlongo, Timothy R Rebbeck, Marion Piedmonte, Christian F Singer, Eitan Friedman, Mads Thomassen, Kenneth Offit, Thomas V O Hansen, Susan L Neuhausen, Csilla I Szabo, Ignacio Blanco, Judy Garber, Steven A Narod, Jeffrey N Weitzel, Marco Montagna, Edith Olah, Andrew K Godwin, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, David E Goldgar, Trinidad Caldés, Evgeny N Imyanitov, Laima Tihomirova, Banu K Arun, Ian Campbell, Arjen R Mensenkamp, Christi J van Asperen, Kees E P van Roozendaal, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, J Margriet Collée, Jan C Oosterwijk, Maartje J Hooning, Matti A Rookus, Rob B van der Luijt, Theo A Mvan Os, D Gareth Evans, Debra Frost, Elena Fineberg, Julian Barwell, Lisa Walker, M John Kennedy, Radka Platte, Rosemarie Davidson, Steve D Ellis, Trevor Cole, Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets, Bruno Buecher, Francesca Damiola, Laurence Faivre, Marc Frénay, Olga M Sinilnikova, Olivier Caron, Sophie Giraud, Sylvie Mazoyer, Valérie Bonadona, Virginie Caux-Moncoutier, Aleksandra Toloczko-Grabarek, Jacek Gronwald, Tomasz Byrski, Amanda B Spurdle, Bernardo Bonanni, Daniela Zaffaroni, Giuseppe Giannini, Loris Bernard, Riccardo Dolcetti, Siranoush Manoukian, Norbert Arnold, Christoph Engel, Helmut Deissler, Kerstin Rhiem, Dieter Niederacher, Hansjoerg Plendl, Christian Sutter, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Ake Borg, Beatrice Melin, Johanna Rantala, Maria Soller, Katherine L Nathanson, Susan M Domchek, Gustavo C Rodriguez, Ritu Salani, Daphne Gschwantler Kaulich, Muy-Kheng Tea, Shani Shimon Paluch, Yael Laitman, Anne-Bine Skytte, Torben A Kruse, Uffe Birk Jensen, Mark Robson, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Bent Ejlertsen, Lenka Foretova, Sharon A Savage, Jenny Lester, Penny Soucy, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Curtis Olswold, Julie M Cunningham, Susan Slager, Vernon S Pankratz, Ed Dicks, Sunil R Lakhani, Fergus J Couch, Per Hall, Alvaro N A Monteiro, Simon A Gayther, Paul D P Pharoah, Roger R Reddel, Ellen L Goode, Mark H Greene, Douglas F Easton, Andrew Berchuck, Antonis C Antoniou, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Alison M Dunning.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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TERT-locus SNPs and leukocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the Illumina custom genotyping array iCOGs, we analyzed ?480 SNPs at the TERT locus in breast (n = 103,991), ovarian (n = 39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (n = 11,705) cancer cases and controls. Leukocyte telomere measurements were also available for 53,724 participants. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. The minor allele at the peak 1 SNP rs2736108 associates with longer telomeres (P = 5.8 × 10(-7)), lower risks for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P = 1.0 × 10(-8)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) breast cancers and altered promoter assay signal. The minor allele at the peak 2 SNP rs7705526 associates with longer telomeres (P = 2.3 × 10(-14)), higher risk of low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer (P = 1.3 × 10(-15)) and greater promoter activity. The minor alleles at the peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 increase ER-negative (P = 1.2 × 10(-12)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.6 × 10(-14)) breast and invasive ovarian (P = 1.3 × 10(-11)) cancer risks but not via altered telomere length. The cancer risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690, respectively, increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice variant.
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High expression of ZNF703 independent of amplification indicates worse prognosis in patients with luminal B breast cancer.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Amplification of 8p12-p11 is relatively common in breast cancer and several genes within the region have been suggested to affect breast tumor progression. The aim of the study was to map the amplified 8p12-p11 region in a large set of breast tumors in an effort to identify the genetic driver and to explore its impact on tumor progression and prognosis. Copy number alterations (CNAs) were mapped in 359 tumors, and gene expression data from 577 tumors (359 tumors included) were correlated with CNA, clinical-pathological factors, and protein expression (39 tumors). 8p12-p11 was amplified in 11.4% of tumors. The smallest region of amplification harbored one full-length gene, ZNF703. ZNF703 mRNA expression was significantly higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive than ER-negative tumors (P = 2 × 10(-16)), a reflection of high expression in luminal tumors. Forty-eight percent of tumors with ZNF703 amplification were luminal B tumors in which the best correlation between DNA copy number and mRNA was seen (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)) as well as correlation between mRNA and protein expression (P = 0.02). High ZNF703 mRNA correlated with poor survival in patients with ER-positive luminal B tumors (log rank P = 0.04). Furthermore, high ZNF703 mRNA expression correlated with poor outcome in patients with ZNF703 copy number neutral, ER-positive, luminal B tumors (log rank P = 0.004). The results support ZNF703 as the driver gene of the 8p12 amplification and suggest that independent of amplification, high expression of the gene affects prognosis in luminal B tumors.
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Contralateral breast cancer after radiotherapy among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a WECARE study report.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/BRCA2) mutations are at very high risk of developing breast cancer, including asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). BRCA1/BRCA2 genes help maintain genome stability and assist in DNA repair. We examined whether the risk of CBC associated with radiation treatment was higher among women with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations than among non-carriers.
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A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.
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Distinct gene expression signatures in lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type x.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.
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Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.
David G Cox, Jacques Simard, Daniel Sinnett, Yosr Hamdi, Penny Soucy, Manon Ouimet, Laure Barjhoux, Carole Verny-Pierre, Lesley McGuffog, Sue Healey, Csilla Szabó, Mark H Greene, Phuong L Mai, Irene L Andrulis, , Mads Thomassen, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Maria A Caligo, Eitan Friedman, Yael Laitman, Bella Kaufman, Shani S Paluch, Ake Borg, Per Karlsson, Marie Stenmark Askmalm, Gisela Barbany Bustinza, Katherine L Nathanson, Susan M Domchek, Timothy R Rebbeck, Javier Benitez, Ute Hamann, Matti A Rookus, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Margreet G E M Ausems, Cora M Aalfs, Christi J van Asperen, Peter Devilee, Hans J J P Gille, Susan Peock, Debra Frost, D Gareth Evans, Ros Eeles, Louise Izatt, Julian Adlard, Joan Paterson, Jacqueline Eason, Andrew K Godwin, Marie-Alice Remon, Virginie Moncoutier, Marion Gauthier-Villars, Christine Lasset, Sophie Giraud, Agnès Hardouin, Pascaline Berthet, Hagay Sobol, François Eisinger, Brigitte Bressac de Paillerets, Olivier Caron, Capucine Delnatte, David Goldgar, Alex Miron, Hilmi Ozcelik, Saundra Buys, Melissa C Southey, Mary Beth Terry, Christian F Singer, Anne-Catharina Dressler, Muy-Kheng Tea, Thomas V O Hansen, Oskar Johannsson, Marion Piedmonte, Gustavo C Rodriguez, Jack B Basil, Stephanie Blank, Amanda E Toland, Marco Montagna, Claudine Isaacs, Ignacio Blanco, Simon A Gayther, Kirsten B Moysich, Rita K Schmutzler, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Christoph Engel, Alfons Meindl, Nina Ditsch, Norbert Arnold, Dieter Niederacher, Christian Sutter, Dorothea Gadzicki, Britta Fiebig, Trinidad Caldés, Rachel Laframboise, Heli Nevanlinna, Xiaoqing Chen, Jonathan Beesley, Amanda B Spurdle, Susan L Neuhausen, Yuan C Ding, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Paolo Peterlongo, Siranoush Manoukian, Loris Bernard, Paolo Radice, Douglas F Easton, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Antonis C Antoniou, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Sylvie Mazoyer, Olga M Sinilnikova.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a womans lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription.
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Landscape of somatic allelic imbalances and copy number alterations in HER2-amplified breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified breast cancer represents a clinically well-defined subgroup due to availability of targeted treatment. However, HER2-amplified tumors have been shown to be heterogeneous at the genomic level by genome-wide microarray analyses, pointing towards a need of further investigations for identification of recurrent copy number alterations and delineation of patterns of allelic imbalance.
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CD44 isoforms are heterogeneously expressed in breast cancer and correlate with tumor subtypes and cancer stem cell markers.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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The CD44 cell adhesion molecule is aberrantly expressed in many breast tumors and has been implicated in the metastatic process as well as in the putative cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment. We aimed to investigate potential associations between alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 and CSCs as well as to various breast cancer biomarkers and molecular subtypes.
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Breast tumors from CHEK2 1100delC-mutation carriers: genomic landscape and clinical implications.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) is a moderate penetrance breast cancer risk gene, whose truncating mutation 1100delC increases the risk about twofold. We investigated gene copy-number aberrations and gene-expression profiles that are typical for breast tumors of CHEK2 1100delC-mutation carriers.
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Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2011
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Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.
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Characterisation of amplification patterns and target genes at chromosome 11q13 in CCND1-amplified sporadic and familial breast tumours.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Amplification of chromosomal region 11q13, containing the cell cycle regulatory gene CCND1, is frequently found in breast cancer and other malignancies. It is associated with the favourable oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumour phenotype, but also with poor prognosis and treatment failure. 11q13 spans almost 14 Mb and contains more than 200 genes and is affected by various patterns of copy number gains, suggesting complex mechanisms and selective pressure during tumour progression. In this study, we used 32 k tiling BAC array CGH to analyse 94 CCND1-amplified breast tumours from sporadic, hereditary, and familial breast cancers to fine map chromosome 11q13. A set containing 281 CCND1-non-amplified breast tumours was used for comparisons. We used gene expression data to further validate the functional effect of gene amplification. We identified six core regions covering 11q13.1-q14.1 that were amplified in different combinations. The major core contained CCND1, whereas two cores were found proximal of CCND1 and three distal. The majority of the CCND1-amplified tumours were ER-positive and classified as luminal B. Furthermore, we found that CCND1 amplification is associated with a more aggressive phenotype within histological grade 2 tumours and luminal A subtype tumours. Amplification was equally prevalent in familial and sporadic tumours, but strikingly rare in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated tumours. We conclude that 11q13 includes many potential target genes in addition to CCND1.
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Exploring the link between MORF4L1 and risk of breast cancer.
Griselda Martrat, Christopher M Maxwell, Emiko Tominaga, Montserrat Porta-de-la-Riva, Núria Bonifaci, Laia Gómez-Baldó, Massimo Bogliolo, Conxi Lazaro, Ignacio Blanco, Joan Brunet, Helena Aguilar, Juana Fernández-Rodríguez, Sheila Seal, Anthony Renwick, Nazneen Rahman, Julia Kühl, Kornelia Neveling, Detlev Schindler, María J Ramírez, Maria Castella, Gonzalo Hernández, , Douglas F Easton, Susan Peock, Margaret Cook, Clare T Oliver, Debra Frost, Radka Platte, D Gareth Evans, Fiona Lalloo, Rosalind Eeles, Louise Izatt, Carol Chu, Rosemarie Davidson, Kai-Ren Ong, Jackie Cook, Fiona Douglas, Shirley Hodgson, Carole Brewer, Patrick J Morrison, Mary Porteous, Paolo Peterlongo, Siranoush Manoukian, Bernard Peissel, Daniela Zaffaroni, Gaia Roversi, Monica Barile, Alessandra Viel, Barbara Pasini, Laura Ottini, Anna Laura Putignano, Antonella Savarese, Loris Bernard, Paolo Radice, Sue Healey, Amanda Spurdle, Xiaoqing Chen, Jonathan Beesley, Matti A Rookus, Senno Verhoef, Madeleine A Tilanus-Linthorst, Maaike P Vreeswijk, Christi J Asperen, Danielle Bodmer, Margreet G E M Ausems, Theo A van Os, Marinus J Blok, Hanne E J Meijers-Heijboer, Frans B L Hogervorst, David E Goldgar, Saundra Buys, Esther M John, Alexander Miron, Melissa Southey, Mary B Daly, Katja Harbst, Ake Borg, Johanna Rantala, Gisela Barbany-Bustinza, Hans Ehrencrona, Marie Stenmark-Askmalm, Bella Kaufman, Yael Laitman, Roni Milgrom, Eitan Friedman, Susan M Domchek, Katherine L Nathanson, Timothy R Rebbeck, Oskar Thor Johannsson, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Zachary Fredericksen, Daniel Cuadras, Victor Moreno, Friederike K Pientka, Reinhard Depping, Trinidad Caldés, Ana Osorio, Javier Benitez, Juan Bueren, Tuomas Heikkinen, Heli Nevanlinna, Ute Hamann, Diana Torres, Maria Adelaide Caligo, Andrew K Godwin, Evgeny N Imyanitov, Ramunas Janavicius, Olga M Sinilnikova, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Sylvie Mazoyer, Carole Verny-Pierre, Laurent Castera, Antoine de Pauw, Yves-Jean Bignon, Nancy Uhrhammer, Jean-Philippe Peyrat, Philippe Vennin, Sandra Fert Ferrer, Marie-Agnès Collonge-Rame, Isabelle Mortemousque, Lesley McGuffog, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Olivia M Pereira-Smith, Antonis C Antoniou, Julián Cerón, Kaoru Tominaga, Jordi Surrallés, Miguel Angel Pujana.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein physical interaction screens.
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GOBO: gene expression-based outcome for breast cancer online.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Microarray-based gene expression analysis holds promise of improving prognostication and treatment decisions for breast cancer patients. However, the heterogeneity of breast cancer emphasizes the need for validation of prognostic gene signatures in larger sample sets stratified into relevant subgroups. Here, we describe a multifunctional user-friendly online tool, GOBO (http://co.bmc.lu.se/gobo), allowing a range of different analyses to be performed in an 1881-sample breast tumor data set, and a 51-sample breast cancer cell line set, both generated on Affymetrix U133A microarrays. GOBO supports a wide range of applications including: 1) rapid assessment of gene expression levels in subgroups of breast tumors and cell lines, 2) identification of co-expressed genes for creation of potential metagenes, 3) association with outcome for gene expression levels of single genes, sets of genes, or gene signatures in multiple subgroups of the 1881-sample breast cancer data set. The design and implementation of GOBO facilitate easy incorporation of additional query functions and applications, as well as additional data sets irrespective of tumor type and array platform.
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Cancer predisposing BARD1 mutations in breast-ovarian cancer families.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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The breast cancer susceptibility gene BARD1 (BRCA1-associated RING domain protein, MIM# 601593) acts with BRCA1 in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and also in apoptosis initiation. We screened 109 BRCA1/2 negative high-risk breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from North-Eastern Poland for BARD1 germline mutations using a combination of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. We identified 16 different BARD1 sequence variants, five of which are novel. Three of them were suspected to be pathogenic, including a protein truncating nonsense mutation (c.1690C>T, p.Gln564X), a splice mutation (c.1315-2A>G) resulting in exon 5 skipping, and a silent change (c.1977A>G) which alters several exonic splicing enhancer motifs in exon 10 and results in a transcript lacking exons 2-9. Our findings suggest that BARD1 mutations may be regarded as cancer risk alleles and warrant further investigation to determine their actual contribution to non-BRCA1/2 breast and ovarian cancer families.
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Identification of new microRNAs in paired normal and tumor breast tissue suggests a dual role for the ERBB2/Her2 gene.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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To comprehensively characterize microRNA (miRNA) expression in breast cancer, we performed the first extensive next-generation sequencing expression analysis of this disease. We sequenced small RNA from tumors with paired samples of normal and tumor-adjacent breast tissue. Our results indicate that tumor identity is achieved mainly by variation in the expression levels of a common set of miRNAs rather than by tissue-specific expression. We also report 361 new, well-supported miRNA precursors. Nearly two-thirds of these new genes were detected in other human tissues and 49% of the miRNAs were found associated with Ago2 in MCF7 cells. Ten percent of the new miRNAs are located in regions with high-level genomic amplifications in breast cancer. A new miRNA is encoded within the ERBB2/Her2 gene and amplification of this gene leads to overexpression of the new miRNA, indicating that this potent oncogene and important clinical marker may have two different biological functions. In summary, our work substantially expands the number of known miRNAs and highlights the complexity of small RNA expression in breast cancer.
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Genetic variation at 9p22.2 and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Susan J Ramus, Christiana Kartsonaki, Simon A Gayther, Paul D P Pharoah, Olga M Sinilnikova, Jonathan Beesley, Xiaoqing Chen, Lesley McGuffog, Sue Healey, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Zachary Fredericksen, Paolo Peterlongo, Siranoush Manoukian, Bernard Peissel, Daniela Zaffaroni, Gaia Roversi, Monica Barile, Alessandra Viel, Anna Allavena, Laura Ottini, Laura Papi, Viviana Gismondi, Fabio Capra, Paolo Radice, Mark H Greene, Phuong L Mai, Irene L Andrulis, Gord Glendon, Hilmi Ozcelik, , Mads Thomassen, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Torben A Kruse, Dorthe Crüger, Uffe Birk Jensen, Maria Adelaide Caligo, Hakan Olsson, Ulf Kristoffersson, Annika Lindblom, Brita Arver, Per Karlsson, Marie Stenmark Askmalm, Ake Borg, Susan L Neuhausen, Yuan Chun Ding, Katherine L Nathanson, Susan M Domchek, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Tomasz Huzarski, Tomasz Byrski, Jacek Gronwald, Bohdan Górski, Cezary Cybulski, Tadeusz Dębniak, Ana Osorio, Mercedes Durán, Maria-Isabel Tejada, Javier Benitez, Ute Hamann, Matti A Rookus, Senno Verhoef, Madeleine A Tilanus-Linthorst, Maaike P Vreeswijk, Danielle Bodmer, Margreet G E M Ausems, Theo A van Os, Christi J Asperen, Marinus J Blok, Hanne E J Meijers-Heijboer, Susan Peock, Margaret Cook, Clare Oliver, Debra Frost, Alison M Dunning, D Gareth Evans, Ros Eeles, Gabriella Pichert, Trevor Cole, Shirley Hodgson, Carole Brewer, Patrick J Morrison, Mary Porteous, M John Kennedy, Mark T Rogers, Lucy E Side, Alan Donaldson, Helen Gregory, Andrew Godwin, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Virginie Moncoutier, Laurent Castera, Sylvie Mazoyer, Laure Barjhoux, Valérie Bonadona, Dominique Leroux, Laurence Faivre, Rosette Lidereau, Catherine Noguès, Yves-Jean Bignon, Fabienne Prieur, Marie-Agnès Collonge-Rame, Laurence Venat-Bouvet, Sandra Fert-Ferrer, Alex Miron, Saundra S Buys, John L Hopper, Mary B Daly, Esther M John, Mary Beth Terry, David Goldgar, Thomas V O Hansen, Lars Jønson, Bent Ejlertsen, Bjarni A Agnarsson, Kenneth Offit, Tomas Kirchhoff, Joseph Vijai, Ana V C Dutra-Clarke, Jennifer A Przybylo, Marco Montagna, Cinzia Casella, Evgeny N Imyanitov, Ramunas Janavicius, Ignacio Blanco, Conxi Lazaro, Kirsten B Moysich, Beth Y Karlan, Jenny Gross, Mary S Beattie, Rita Schmutzler, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Alfons Meindl, Ina Ruehl, Britta Fiebig, Christian Sutter, Norbert Arnold, Helmut Deissler, Raymonda Varon-Mateeva, Karin Kast, Dieter Niederacher, Dorothea Gadzicki, Trinidad Caldés, Miguel de la Hoya, Heli Nevanlinna, Kristiina Aittomäki, Jacques Simard, Penny Soucy, Amanda B Spurdle, Helene Holland, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Douglas F Easton, Antonis C Antoniou.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2.
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Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction.
Antonis C Antoniou, Jonathan Beesley, Lesley McGuffog, Olga M Sinilnikova, Sue Healey, Susan L Neuhausen, Yuan Chun Ding, Timothy R Rebbeck, Jeffrey N Weitzel, Henry T Lynch, Claudine Isaacs, Patricia A Ganz, Gail Tomlinson, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Noralane M Lindor, Vernon S Pankratz, Paolo Radice, Siranoush Manoukian, Bernard Peissel, Daniela Zaffaroni, Monica Barile, Alessandra Viel, Anna Allavena, Valentina Dall'Olio, Paolo Peterlongo, Csilla I Szabo, Michal Zikán, Kathleen Claes, Bruce Poppe, Lenka Foretova, Phuong L Mai, Mark H Greene, Gad Rennert, Flavio Lejbkowicz, Gord Glendon, Hilmi Ozcelik, Irene L Andrulis, , Mads Thomassen, Anne-Marie Gerdes, Lone Sunde, Dorthe Crüger, Uffe Birk Jensen, Maria Caligo, Eitan Friedman, Bella Kaufman, Yael Laitman, Roni Milgrom, Maya Dubrovsky, Shimrit Cohen, Ake Borg, Helena Jernström, Annika Lindblom, Johanna Rantala, Marie Stenmark-Askmalm, Beatrice Melin, Kate Nathanson, Susan Domchek, Ania Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Tomasz Huzarski, Ana Osorio, Adriana Lasa, Mercedes Durán, Maria-Isabel Tejada, Javier Godino, Javier Benitez, Ute Hamann, Mieke Kriege, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Rob B van der Luijt, Christi J van Asperen, Peter Devilee, E J Meijers-Heijboer, Marinus J Blok, Cora M Aalfs, Frans Hogervorst, Matti Rookus, Margaret Cook, Clare Oliver, Debra Frost, Don Conroy, D Gareth Evans, Fiona Lalloo, Gabriella Pichert, Rosemarie Davidson, Trevor Cole, Jackie Cook, Joan Paterson, Shirley Hodgson, Patrick J Morrison, Mary E Porteous, Lisa Walker, M John Kennedy, Huw Dorkins, Susan Peock, Andrew K Godwin, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Antoine de Pauw, Sylvie Mazoyer, Valérie Bonadona, Christine Lasset, Hélène Dreyfus, Dominique Leroux, Agnès Hardouin, Pascaline Berthet, Laurence Faivre, Catherine Loustalot, Tetsuro Noguchi, Hagay Sobol, Etienne Rouleau, Catherine Noguès, Marc Frénay, Laurence Venat-Bouvet, John L Hopper, Mary B Daly, Mary B Terry, Esther M John, Saundra S Buys, Yosuf Yassin, Alexander Miron, David Goldgar, Christian F Singer, Anne Catharina Dressler, Daphne Gschwantler-Kaulich, Georg Pfeiler, Thomas V O Hansen, Lars Jønson, Bjarni A Agnarsson, Tomas Kirchhoff, Kenneth Offit, Vincent Devlin, Ana Dutra-Clarke, Marion Piedmonte, Gustavo C Rodriguez, Katie Wakeley, John F Boggess, Jack Basil, Peter E Schwartz, Stephanie V Blank, Amanda Ewart Toland, Marco Montagna, Cinzia Casella, Evgeny Imyanitov, Laima Tihomirova, Ignacio Blanco, Conxi Lazaro, Susan J Ramus, Lara Sucheston, Beth Y Karlan, Jenny Gross, Rita Schmutzler, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Christoph Engel, Alfons Meindl, Magdalena Lochmann, Norbert Arnold, Simone Heidemann, Raymonda Varon-Mateeva, Dieter Niederacher, Christian Sutter, Helmut Deissler, Dorothea Gadzicki, Sabine Preisler-Adams, Karin Kast, Ines Schönbuchner, Trinidad Caldés, Miguel de la Hoya, Kristiina Aittomäki, Heli Nevanlinna, Jacques Simard, Amanda B Spurdle, Helene Holland, Xiaoqing Chen, Radka Platte, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Douglas F Easton.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10(-11) - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers.
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A BRCA2 mutation incorrectly mapped in the original BRCA2 reference sequence, is a common West Danish founder mutation disrupting mRNA splicing.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Inherited mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancer. The authors have identified a mutation in BRCA2, 7845+1G>A (c.7617+1G>A), not previously regarded as deleterious because of incorrect mapping of the splice junction in the originally published genomic reference sequence. This reference sequence is generally used in many laboratories and it maps the mutation 16 base pairs inside intron 15. However, according to the recent reference sequences the mutation is located in the consensus donor splice sequence. By reverse transcriptase analysis, loss of exon 15 in the final transcript interrupting the open reading frame was demonstrated. Furthermore, the mutation segregates with a cancer phenotype in 18 Danish families. By genetic analysis of more than 3,500 Danish breast/ovarian cancer risk families, the mutation was identified as the most common BRCA2 mutation in West Denmark, while it is rare in Central and East Denmark and not identified in South Sweden. Haplotype analysis using dense SNP arrays indicated a common founder of the mutation approximately 1,500 years ago.
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High-resolution genomic profiling of male breast cancer reveals differences hidden behind the similarities with female breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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Male breast cancer (MBC) is extremely rare and poorly characterized on the molecular level. Using high-resolution genomic data, we aimed to characterize MBC by genomic imbalances and to compare it with female breast cancer (FBC), and further to investigate whether the genomic profiles hold any prognostic information. Fifty-six fresh frozen MBC tumors were analyzed using high-resolution tiling BAC arrays. Significant regions in common between cases were assessed using Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) analysis. A publicly available genomic data set of 359 FBC tumors was used for reference purposes. The data revealed a broad pattern of aberrations, confirming that MBC is a heterogeneous tumor type. Genomic gains were more common in MBC than in FBC and often involved whole chromosome arms, while losses of genomic material were less frequent. The most common aberrations were similar between the genders, but high-level amplifications were more common in FBC. We identified two genomic subgroups among MBCs; male-complex and male-simple. The male-complex subgroup displayed striking similarities with the previously reported luminal-complex FBC subgroup, while the male-simple subgroup seems to represent a new subgroup of breast cancer occurring only in men. There are many similarities between FBC and MBC with respect to genomic imbalances, but there are also distinct differences as revealed by high-resolution genomic profiling. MBC can be divided into two comprehensive genomic subgroups, which may be of prognostic value. The male-simple subgroup appears notably different from any genomic subgroup so far defined in FBC.
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Multiple metastases from cutaneous malignant melanoma patients may display heterogeneous genomic and epigenomic patterns.
Melanoma Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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Disseminated melanoma is an aggressive disease with fatal outcome. Better understanding of the underlying biology is needed to find effective treatment. We applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, gene expression and CpG island methylation analysis of primary tumors and multiple metastases from five melanoma patients with the aim of analyzing the molecular patterns of melanoma progression. Epigenetic profiling showed that the multiple metastases after a single primary melanoma share similar methylation patterns for many genes, although differences in methylation between the lesions were evident for several genes, example, PTEN, TFAP2C, and RARB. In addition, DNA copy number and global gene expression profiles of tumors from individual patients were highly similar, confirming common origin of metastases. Some of the identified genomic aberrations, for example, gain of chromosome 6p and loss of chromosomes 6q and 10, persisted during progression, indicating early changes highly important for melanoma development. Homozygous deletions at 3p26.1 and 6q23.2-q23.3 appeared in two consecutive metastases originating from the same primary tumor, respectively, in a mutually exclusive manner that provides evidence for two genetically different subclones. However, in another case, the similarity of the copy number aberrations in subsequent metastatic lesions suggests sequential metastatic development through the clonal evolution. These data are further corroborated by a switch in CDH1 and CDH2 expression between metastases from the same patient. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for different models of metastatic progression in melanoma.
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Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers as a control group. Unsupervised cluster analysis identified two distinct subgroups related to genetic complexity. Sporadic and HBOC associated tumors had complex genetic profiles with an average 41% of the genome altered, whereas the mismatch repair defective tumors had stable genetic profiles, with an average 18% of the genome altered. Losses of 4q34, 13q12-q32 and 19p13 were overrepresented in the HBOC subset. Discriminating genes within these regions include BRCA2, FOXO1A and RB1. Gains on chromosomes 17 and 19 characterized the HNPCC tumors, but target genes herein are unknown. The results indicate that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer.
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Zoom-in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to detect germline rearrangements in cancer susceptibility genes.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Disease predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements, including deletions or duplications that are challenging, to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Such rearrangements range from single exons up to hundreds of kilobases of sequence in size. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has evolved as a powerful technique to detect copy number alterations on a genome-wide scale. However, the conventional genome-wide approach of aCGH still provides only limited information about copy number status for individual exons. Custom-designed aCGH arrays focused on only a few target regions (zoom-in aCGH) may circumvent this drawback. Benefits of zoom-in aCGH include the possibility to target almost any region in the genome, and an unbiased coverage of exonic and intronic sequence facilitating convenient design of primers for sequence determination of the breakpoints. Furthermore, zoom-in aCGH can be streamlined for a particular application, for example, focusing on breast cancer susceptibility genes, with increased capacity using multiformat design.
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Common genetic variants and modification of penetrance of BRCA2-associated breast cancer.
Mia M Gaudet, Tomas Kirchhoff, Todd Green, Joseph Vijai, Joshua M Korn, Candace Guiducci, Ayellet V Segrè, Kate McGee, Lesley McGuffog, Christiana Kartsonaki, Jonathan Morrison, Sue Healey, Olga M Sinilnikova, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Sylvie Mazoyer, Marion Gauthier-Villars, Hagay Sobol, Michel Longy, Marc Frénay, GEMO Study Collaborators, Frans B L Hogervorst, Matti A Rookus, J Margriet Collée, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Kees E P van Roozendaal, , Marion Piedmonte, Wendy Rubinstein, Stacy Nerenstone, Linda Van Le, Stephanie V Blank, Trinidad Caldés, Miguel de la Hoya, Heli Nevanlinna, Kristiina Aittomäki, Conxi Lazaro, Ignacio Blanco, Adalgeir Arason, Oskar T Johannsson, Rosa B Barkardottir, Peter Devilee, Olofunmilayo I Olopade, Susan L Neuhausen, Xianshu Wang, Zachary S Fredericksen, Paolo Peterlongo, Siranoush Manoukian, Monica Barile, Alessandra Viel, Paolo Radice, Catherine M Phelan, Steven Narod, Gad Rennert, Flavio Lejbkowicz, Anath Flugelman, Irene L Andrulis, Gord Glendon, Hilmi Ozcelik, Amanda E Toland, Marco Montagna, Emma D'Andrea, Eitan Friedman, Yael Laitman, Ake Borg, Mary Beattie, Susan J Ramus, Susan M Domchek, Katherine L Nathanson, Tim Rebbeck, Amanda B Spurdle, Xiaoqing Chen, Helene Holland, Esther M John, John L Hopper, Saundra S Buys, Mary B Daly, Melissa C Southey, Mary Beth Terry, Nadine Tung, Thomas V Overeem Hansen, Finn C Nielsen, Mark H Greene, Mark I Greene, Phuong L Mai, Ana Osorio, Mercedes Durán, Raquel Andrés, Javier Benitez, Jeffrey N Weitzel, Judy Garber, Ute Hamann, Susan Peock, Margaret Cook, Clare Oliver, Debra Frost, Radka Platte, D Gareth Evans, Fiona Lalloo, Ros Eeles, Louise Izatt, Lisa Walker, Jacqueline Eason, Julian Barwell, Andrew K Godwin, Rita K Schmutzler, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Stefanie Engert, Norbert Arnold, Dorothea Gadzicki, Michael Dean, Bert Gold, Robert J Klein, Fergus J Couch, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Douglas F Easton, Mark J Daly, Antonis C Antoniou, David M Altshuler, Kenneth Offit.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years) affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (?) was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10(-5) and 39 SNPs had p-values<10(-4). These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499) and chromosome 10 (rs16917302). The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.86, ) and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.85, ). FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.39, ). These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer.
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Swedish CDKN2A mutation carriers do not present the atypical mole syndrome phenotype.
Melanoma Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Phenotypic characteristics were examined in melanoma-prone southern Swedish CDKN2A (p16-113insArg/p14ARF-128insSer) mutation families, in relation to the CDKN2A genotype, nevi, clinically atypical nevi (CAN) and melanoma. Individuals from eight melanoma-prone families, with index patients carrying the CDKN2A mutation, were offered skin examinations and genotyping (CDKN2A and MC1R). Ninety-three individuals above 18 years of age participated; 29 invasive melanomas in 16 patients were recorded, all in the 38 verified CDKN2A mutation carriers. Median age at diagnosis was 36 years. Several MC1R variants were observed. A significant correlation to CAN (P=0.01) and red hair colour (P=0.02) could be confirmed in melanoma patients. A positive mutation status (CDKN2A) was correlated to one or more CAN (P=0.007) but neither to blue eyes, red hair colour, heavy freckling nor high number of nevi. For mutation carriers, median total naevus count was 24 and interquartile range was 12-47 (mean 31); whereas for the whole cohort, median total naevus count was 12 and interquartile range was 5-25 (mean 22). No participant fulfilled the atypical mole syndrome phenotype criteria. Melanomas were diagnosed only in mutation carriers, and melanoma diagnosis was statistically correlated to the presence of one or more CAN and red hair colour, supporting the possible synergistic effect of a MC1R mutation on increased risk of melanoma in patients with a CDKN2A mutation. Family history, with verified tumour diagnoses, remains an important clinical tool for finding mutation carriers for referral to clinical geneticists and simultaneous presence of CAN in probable mutation carriers might strengthen this indication. The atypical mole syndrome phenotype was, however, not verified in the studied families and total naevus counts were low.
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Molecular subtypes of breast cancer are associated with characteristic DNA methylation patterns.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Five different molecular subtypes of breast cancer have been identified through gene expression profiling. Each subtype has a characteristic expression pattern suggested to partly depend on cellular origin. We aimed to investigate whether the molecular subtypes also display distinct methylation profiles.
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Genomic subtypes of breast cancer identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization display distinct molecular and clinical characteristics.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Breast cancer is a profoundly heterogeneous disease with respect to biologic and clinical behavior. Gene-expression profiling has been used to dissect this complexity and to stratify tumors into intrinsic gene-expression subtypes, associated with distinct biology, patient outcome, and genomic alterations. Additionally, breast tumors occurring in individuals with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations typically fall into distinct subtypes.
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Genome-wide search for breast cancer linkage in large Icelandic non-BRCA1/2 families.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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A significant proportion of high-risk breast cancer families are not explained by mutations in known genes. Recent genome-wide searches (GWS) have not revealed any single major locus reminiscent of BRCA1 and BRCA2, indicating that still unidentified genes may explain relatively few families each or interact in a way obscure to linkage analyses. This has drawn attention to possible benefits of studying populations where genetic heterogeneity might be reduced. We thus performed a GWS for linkage on nine Icelandic multiple-case non-BRCA1/2 families of desirable size for mapping highly penetrant loci. To follow up suggestive loci, an additional 13 families from other Nordic countries were genotyped for selected markers.
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Gene expression profiling-based identification of molecular subtypes in stage IV melanomas with different clinical outcome.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing worldwide in fair-skinned populations. Melanomas respond poorly to systemic therapy, and metastatic melanomas inevitably become fatal. Although spontaneous regression, likely due to immune defense activation, rarely occurs, we lack a biological rationale and predictive markers in selecting patients for immune therapy.
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International network of cancer genome projects.
, Thomas J Hudson, Warwick Anderson, Axel Artez, Anna D Barker, Cindy Bell, Rosa R Bernabé, M K Bhan, Fabien Calvo, Iiro Eerola, Daniela S Gerhard, Alan Guttmacher, Mark Guyer, Fiona M Hemsley, Jennifer L Jennings, David Kerr, Peter Klatt, Patrik Kolar, Jun Kusada, David P Lane, Frank Laplace, Lu Youyong, Gerd Nettekoven, Brad Ozenberger, Jane Peterson, T S Rao, Jacques Remacle, Alan J Schafer, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Michael R Stratton, Joseph G Vockley, Koichi Watanabe, Huanming Yang, Matthew M F Yuen, Bartha M Knoppers, Martin Bobrow, Anne Cambon-Thomsen, Lynn G Dressler, Stephanie O M Dyke, Yann Joly, Kazuto Kato, Karen L Kennedy, Pilar Nicolás, Michael J Parker, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Carlos M Romeo-Casabona, Kenna M Shaw, Susan Wallace, Georgia L Wiesner, Nikolajs Zeps, Peter Lichter, Andrew V Biankin, Christian Chabannon, Lynda Chin, Bruno Clément, Enrique De Alava, Françoise Degos, Martin L Ferguson, Peter Geary, D Neil Hayes, Amber L Johns, Arek Kasprzyk, Hidewaki Nakagawa, Robert Penny, Miguel A Piris, Rajiv Sarin, Aldo Scarpa, Marc van de Vijver, P Andrew Futreal, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Mònica Bayés, David D L Botwell, Peter J Campbell, Xavier Estivill, Sean M Grimmond, Ivo Gut, Martin Hirst, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Partha Majumder, Marco Marra, John D McPherson, Zemin Ning, Xose S Puente, Yijun Ruan, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Harold Swerdlow, Victor E Velculescu, Richard K Wilson, Hong H Xue, Liu Yang, Paul T Spellman, Gary D Bader, Paul C Boutros, Paul Flicek, Gad Getz, Roderic Guigo, Guangwu Guo, David Haussler, Simon Heath, Tim J Hubbard, Tao Jiang, Steven M Jones, Qibin Li, Nuria López-Bigas, Ruibang Luo, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, B F Francis Ouellette, John V Pearson, Víctor Quesada, Benjamin J Raphael, Chris Sander, Terence P Speed, Lincoln D Stein, Joshua M Stuart, Jon W Teague, Yasushi Totoki, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Alfonso Valencia, David A Wheeler, Honglong Wu, Shancen Zhao, Guangyu Zhou, Mark Lathrop, Gilles Thomas, Teruhiko Yoshida, Myles Axton, Chris Gunter, Linda J Miller, Junjun Zhang, Syed A Haider, Jianxin Wang, Christina K Yung, Anthony Cros, Anthony Cross, Yong Liang, Saravanamuttu Gnaneshan, Jonathan Guberman, Jack Hsu, Don R C Chalmers, Karl W Hasel, Terry S H Kaan, William W Lowrance, Tohru Masui, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Catherine Vergely, David D L Bowtell, Nicole Cloonan, Anna deFazio, James R Eshleman, Dariush Etemadmoghadam, Brooke B Gardiner, Brooke A Gardiner, James G Kench, Robert L Sutherland, Margaret A Tempero, Nicola J Waddell, Peter J Wilson, Steve Gallinger, Ming-Sound Tsao, Patricia A Shaw, Gloria M Petersen, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Ronald A DePinho, Sarah Thayer, Kamran Shazand, Timothy Beck, Michelle Sam, Lee Timms, Vanessa Ballin, Youyong Lu, Jiafu Ji, Xiuqing Zhang, Feng Chen, Xueda Hu, Qi Yang, Geng Tian, Lianhai Zhang, Xiaofang Xing, Xianghong Li, Zhenggang Zhu, Yingyan Yu, Jun Yu, Jörg Tost, Paul Brennan, Ivana Holcatova, David Zaridze, Alvis Brazma, Lars Egevard, Egor Prokhortchouk, Rosamonde Elizabeth Banks, Mathias Uhlén, Juris Viksna, Fredrik Ponten, Konstantin Skryabin, Ewan Birney, Ake Borg, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Carlos Caldas, John A Foekens, Sancha Martin, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Andrea L Richardson, Christos Sotiriou, Giles Thoms, Laura van't Veer, Daniel Birnbaum, Hélène Blanché, Pascal Boucher, Sandrine Boyault, Jocelyne D Masson-Jacquemier, Iris Pauporté, Xavier Pivot, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Eric Tabone, Charles Theillet, Isabelle Treilleux, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Thomas Decaens, Dominique Franco, Marta Gut, Didier Samuel, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Roland Eils, Benedikt Brors, Jan O Korbel, Andrey Korshunov, Pablo Landgraf, Hans Lehrach, Stefan Pfister, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Guido Reifenberger, Michael D Taylor, Christof von Kalle, Partha P Majumder, Paolo Pederzoli, Rita A Lawlor, Massimo Delledonne, Alberto Bardelli, Thomas Gress, David Klimstra, Giuseppe Zamboni, Yusuke Nakamura, Satoru Miyano, Akihiro Fujimoto, Elias Campo, Silvia de Sanjosé, Emili Montserrat, Marcos Gonzalez-Díaz, Pedro Jares, Heinz Himmelbauer, Heinz Himmelbaue, Sílvia Beà, Samuel Aparicio, Douglas F Easton, Francis S Collins, Carolyn C Compton, Eric S Lander, Wylie Burke, Anthony R Green, Stanley R Hamilton, Olli P Kallioniemi, Timothy J Ley, Edison T Liu, Brandon J Wainwright.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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Population-based study of the risk of second primary contralateral breast cancer associated with carrying a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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Women with breast cancer diagnosed early in life comprise a substantial portion of those tested for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations; however, little information is available on the subsequent risks of contralateral breast cancer in mutation carriers. This study assessed the risk of subsequent contralateral breast cancer associated with carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.
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Identification of subtypes in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2--positive breast cancer reveals a gene signature prognostic of outcome.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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PURPOSE Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification or protein overexpression (HER2 positivity) defines a clinically challenging subgroup of patients with breast cancer (BC) with variable prognosis and response to therapy. We aimed to investigate the heterogeneous biologic appearance and clinical behavior of HER2-positive tumors using molecular profiling. PATIENTS AND METHODS Hierarchical clustering of gene expression data from 58 HER2-amplified tumors of various stage, histologic grade, and estrogen receptor (ER) status was used to construct a HER2-derived prognostic predictor that was further evaluated in several large independent BC data sets. RESULTS Unsupervised analysis identified three subtypes of HER2-positive tumors with mixed stage, histologic grade, and ER status. One subtype had a significantly worse clinical outcome. A prognostic predictor was created based on differentially expressed genes between the subtype with worse outcome and the other subtypes. The predictor was able to define patient groups with better and worse outcome in HER2-positive BC across multiple independent BC data sets and identify a sizable HER2-positive group with long disease-free survival and low mortality. Significant correlation to prognosis was also observed in basal-like, ER-negative, lymph node-positive, and high-grade tumors, irrespective of HER2 status. The predictor included genes associated with immune response, tumor invasion, and metastasis. CONCLUSION The HER2-derived prognostic predictor provides further insight into the heterogeneous biology of HER2-positive tumors and may become useful for improved selection of patients who need additional treatment with new drugs targeting the HER2 pathway.
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High-resolution genomic and expression analyses of copy number alterations in HER2-amplified breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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HER2 gene amplification and protein overexpression (HER2+) define a clinically challenging subgroup of breast cancer with variable prognosis and response to therapy. Although gene expression profiling has identified an ERBB2 molecular subtype of breast cancer, it is clear that HER2+ tumors reside in all molecular subtypes and represent a genomically and biologically heterogeneous group, needed to be further characterized in large sample sets.
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Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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We aimed to characterize the genomic profiles of adenocarcinomas in the gastroesophageal junction in relation to cancers in the esophagus and the stomach. Profiles of gains/losses as well as gene expression profiles were obtained from 27 gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas by means of 32k high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization and 27k oligo gene expression arrays, and putative target genes were validated in an extended series. Adenocarcinomas in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction showed strong similarities with the most common gains at 20q13, 8q24, 1q21-23, 5p15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains/losses and gene expression profiles show strong similarity between cancers in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction with frequent upregulation of CDK6 and EGFR, whereas gastric cancer displays distinct genetic changes. These data suggest that molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies can be applied to adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction alike.
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Characterization of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations and variants of unknown clinical significance in unilateral and bilateral breast cancer: the WECARE study.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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BRCA1 and BRCA2 screening in women at high-risk of breast cancer results in the identification of both unambiguously defined deleterious mutations and sequence variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS). We examined a population-based sample of young women with contralateral breast cancer (CBC, n=705) or unilateral breast cancer (UBC, n=1398). We identified 470 unique sequence variants, of which 113 were deleterious mutations. The remaining 357 VUS comprised 185 unique missense changes, 60% were observed only once, while 3% occurred with a frequency of >10%. Deleterious mutations occurred three times more often in women with CBC (15.3%) than in women with UBC (5.2%), whereas combined, VUS were observed in similar frequencies in women with CBC and UBC. A protein alignment algorithm defined 16 rare VUS, occurring at highly conserved residues and/or conferring a considerable biochemical difference, the majority located in the BRCA2 DNA-binding domain. We confirm a multiplicity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 VUS that occur at a wide range of allele frequencies. Although some VUS inflict chemical differences at conserved residues, suggesting a deleterious effect, the majority are not associated with an increased risk of CBC.
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Adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers in a population-based study of risk of contralateral breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Given the greatly elevated risks of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) observed in breast cancer patients who carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, it is critical to determine the effectiveness of standard adjuvant therapies in preventing CBC in mutation carriers. The WECARE study is a matched, case-control study of 708 women with CBC as cases and 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) as controls, including 181 BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. Interviews and medical record reviews provided detailed information on risk factors and breast cancer therapy. All study participants were screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) to detect genetic variants in the coding and flanking regions of the genes. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the risk of CBC associated with chemotherapy and tamoxifen in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. Chemotherapy was associated with lower CBC risk both in non-carriers (RR = 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.7]) and carriers (RR = 0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-1.0]; P value = 0.04). Tamoxifen was associated with a reduced CBC risk in non-carriers (RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.6-1.0]; P value = 0.03). We observed a similar but non-significant reduction associated with tamoxifen in mutation carriers (RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.3-1.8]). The tests of heterogeneity comparing carriers to non-carriers did not provide evidence for a difference in the associations with chemotherapy (P value = 0.51) nor with tamoxifen (P value = 0.15). Overall, we did not observe a difference in the relative risk reduction associated with adjuvant treatment between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. However, given the higher absolute CBC risk in mutation carriers, the potentially greater impact of adjuvant therapy in reducing CBC risk among mutation carriers should be considered when developing treatment plans for these patients.
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Reproductive factors and risk of contralateral breast cancer by BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status: results from the WECARE study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Reproductive factors, such as early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and nulliparity are known risk factors for breast cancer. Previously, we reported these factors to be associated with risk of developing contralateral breast cancer (CBC). In this study, we evaluated the association between these factors and CBC risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation carriers and non-carriers.
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Oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones and risk of contralateral breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and noncarriers: the WECARE Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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The potential effects of oral contraceptive (OC) and postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use are not well understood among BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) deleterious mutation carriers with a history of breast cancer. We investigated the association between OC and PMH use and risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in the WECARE (Womens Environment, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology) Study. The WECARE Study is a population-based case-control study of 705 women with asynchronous CBC and 1,398 women with unilateral breast cancer, including 181 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Risk-factor information was assessed by telephone interview. Mutation status was measured using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography followed by direct sequencing in all participants. Outcomes, treatment, and tumor characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Ever use of OCs was not associated with risk among noncarriers (RR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.66-1.15) or BRCA2 carriers (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.21-3.13). BRCA1 carriers who used OCs had a nonsignificant greater risk than nonusers (RR = 2.38; 95% CI = 0.72-7.83). Total duration of OC use and at least 5 years of use before age 30 were associated with a nonsignificant increased risk among mutation carriers but not among noncarriers. Few women had ever used PMH and we found no significant associations between lifetime use and CBC risk among carriers and noncarriers. In conclusion, the association between OC/PMH use and risk of CBC does not differ significantly between carriers and noncarriers; however, because carriers have a higher baseline risk of second primaries, even a potential small increase in risk as a result of OC use may be clinically relevant.
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The non-coding RNA of the multidrug resistance-linked vault particle encodes multiple regulatory small RNAs.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Vault particles are conserved organelles implicated in multidrug resistance and intracellular transport. They contain three different proteins and non-coding vault RNAs (vRNAs). Here we show that human vRNAs produce several small RNAs (svRNAs) by mechanisms different from those in the canonical microRNA (miRNA) pathway. At least one of these svRNAs, svRNAb, associates with Argonaute proteins to guide sequence-specific cleavage and regulate gene expression similarly to miRNAs. We demonstrate that svRNAb downregulates CYP3A4, a key enzyme in drug metabolism. Our findings expand the repertoire of small regulatory RNAs and assign, for the first time, a function to vRNAs that may help explain the association between vault particles and drug resistance.
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Analysis of a set of missense, frameshift, and in-frame deletion variants of BRCA1.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Germline mutations that inactivate BRCA1 are responsible for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. One possible outcome of genetic testing for BRCA1 is the finding of a genetic variant of uncertain significance for which there is no information regarding its cancer association. This outcome leads to problems in risk assessment, counseling and preventive care. The purpose of the present study was to functionally evaluate seven unclassified variants of BRCA1 including a genomic deletion that leads to the in-frame loss of exons 16/17 (Delta exons 16/17) in the mRNA, an insertion that leads to a frameshift and an extended carboxy-terminus (5673insC), and five missense variants (K1487R, S1613C, M1652I, Q1826H and V1833M). We analyzed the variants using a functional assay based on the transcription activation property of BRCA1 combined with supervised learning computational models. Functional analysis indicated that variants S1613C, Q1826H, and M1652I are likely to be neutral, whereas variants V1833M, Delta exons 16/17, and 5673insC are likely to represent deleterious variants. In agreement with the functional analysis, the results of the computational analysis also indicated that the latter three variants are likely to be deleterious. Taken together, a combined approach of functional and bioinformatics analysis, plus structural modeling, can be utilized to obtain valuable information pertaining to the effect of a rare variant on the structure and function of BRCA1. Such information can, in turn, aid in the classification of BRCA1 variants for which there is a lack of genetic information needed to provide reliable risk assessment.
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Indistinguishable genomic profiles and shared prognostic markers in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and leiomyosarcoma: different sides of a single coin?
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) diagnostics and prognostics are challenging, particularly in highly malignant and pleomorphic subtypes such as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). We applied 32K BAC arrays and gene expression profiling to 18 extremity soft tissue LMS and 31 extremity soft tissue UPS with the aim of identifying molecular subtype signatures and genomic prognostic markers. Both the gains/losses and gene expression signatures revealed striking similarities between UPS and LMS, which were indistinguishable using unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis and significance analysis for microarrays. Gene expression analysis revealed just nine genes, among them tropomyosin beta, which were differentially expressed. Loss of 4q31 (encompassing the SMAD1 locus), loss of 18q22, and tumor necrosis were identified as independent predictors of metastasis in multivariate stepwise Cox regression analysis. Combined analysis applying loss of 4q31 and 18q22 and the presence of necrosis improved the area under receiver operating characteristic curve for metastasis prediction from 0.64 to 0.86. The extensive genetic similarities between extremity soft tissue UPS and LMS suggest a shared lineage of these STS subtypes and the new and independent genetic prognosticators identified hold promise for refined prognostic determination in high-grade, genetically complex STS.
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CXCL14 is an autocrine growth factor for fibroblasts and acts as a multi-modal stimulator of prostate tumor growth.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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This study explored the role of secreted fibroblast-derived factors in prostate cancer growth. Analyses of matched normal and tumor tissue revealed up-regulation of CXCL14 in cancer-associated fibroblasts of a majority of prostate cancer. Fibroblasts over-expressing CXCL14 promoted the growth of prostate cancer xenografts, and increased tumor angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that autocrine CXCL14-stimulation of fibroblasts stimulate migration and ERK-dependent proliferation of fibroblasts. CXCL14-stimulation of monocyte migration was also demonstrated. Furthermore, CXCL14-producing fibroblasts, but not recombinant CXCL14, enhanced in vitro proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and in vivo angiogenesis. These studies thus identify CXCL14 as a novel autocrine stimulator of fibroblast growth and migration, with multi-modal tumor-stimulatory activities. In more general terms, our findings suggest autocrine stimulation of fibroblasts as a previously unrecognized mechanism for chemokine-mediated stimulation of tumor growth, and suggest a novel mechanism whereby cancer-associated fibroblasts achieve their pro-tumorigenic phenotype.
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Comparison of cisplatin sensitivity and the 18F fluoro-2-deoxy 2 glucose uptake with proliferation parameters and gene expression in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines of the head and neck.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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The survival of patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer is still poor, with 5-year survival rates of 24-35%. The identification of prognostic and predictive markers at the molecular and cellular level could make it possible to find new therapeutic targets and provide "taylor made" treatments. Established cell lines of human squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are valuable models for identifying such markers.The aim of this study was to establish and characterize a series of cell lines and to compare the cisplatin sensitivity and 18F fluoro-2 deoxy 2 glucose (18F-FDG) uptake of these cell lines with other cellular characteristics, such as proliferation parameters and TP53 and CCND1 status.
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Genetic profiling differentiates second primary tumors from metastases in adult metachronous soft tissue sarcoma.
Sarcoma
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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Purpose. Patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are at increased risk of second primary malignancies, including a second STS, but distinction between metastases and a second primary STS is difficult. Patients and Methods. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was applied to 30 multiple STS of the extremities and the trunk wall from 13 patients. Different histotypes were present with malignant fibrous histiocytomas/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas being the predominant subtype. Results. aCGH profiling revealed genetic complexity with multiple gains and losses in all tumors. In an unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis, similar genomic profiles and close clustering between the first and subsequent STS were identified in 5 cases, suggesting metastatic disease, whereas the tumors from the remaining 8 patients did not cluster and showed only weak pairwise correlation, suggesting development of second primary STS. Discussion. The similarities and dissimilarities identified in the first and second STS suggest that genetic profiles can be used to distinguish soft tissue metastases from second primary STS. The demonstration of genetically different soft tissue sarcomas in the same patient suggests independent tumor origin and serves as a reminder to consider development of second primary STS, which has prognostic and therapeutic implications.
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MiRNA expression in urothelial carcinomas: important roles of miR-10a, miR-222, miR-125b, miR-7 and miR-452 for tumor stage and metastasis, and frequent homozygous losses of miR-31.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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We analyzed 34 cases of urothelial carcinomas by miRNA, mRNA and genomic profiling. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using expression information for 300 miRNAs produced 3 major clusters of tumors corresponding to Ta, T1 and T2-T3 tumors, respectively. A subsequent SAM analysis identified 51 miRNAs that discriminated the 3 pathological subtypes. A score based on the expression levels of the 51 miRNAs, identified muscle invasive tumors with high precision and sensitivity. MiRNAs showing high expression in muscle invasive tumors included miR-222 and miR-125b and in Ta tumors miR-10a. A miRNA signature for FGFR3 mutated cases was also identified with miR-7 as an important member. MiR-31, located in 9p21, was found to be homozygously deleted in 3 cases and miR-452 and miR-452* were shown to be over expressed in node positive tumors. In addition, these latter miRNAs were shown to be excellent prognostic markers for death by disease as outcome. The presented data shows that pathological subtypes of urothelial carcinoma show distinct miRNA gene expression signatures.
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BRCA1 R1699Q variant displaying ambiguous functional abrogation confers intermediate breast and ovarian cancer risk.
J. Med. Genet.
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Clinical classification of rare sequence changes identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for appropriate genetic counselling of individuals carrying these variants. We previously showed that variant BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln in the BRCA1 transcriptional transactivation domain demonstrated equivocal results from a series of functional assays, and proposed that this variant may confer low to moderate risk of cancer.
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The gene expression landscape of breast cancer is shaped by tumor protein p53 status and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Breast Cancer Res.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Gene expression data derived from clinical cancer specimens provide an opportunity to characterize cancer-specific transcriptional programs. Here, we present an analysis delineating a correlation-based gene expression landscape of breast cancer that identifies modules with strong associations to breast cancer-specific and general tumor biology. METHODS: Modules of highly connected genes were extracted from a gene co-expression network that was constructed based on Pearson correlation, and module activities were then calculated using a pathway activity score. Functional annotations of modules were experimentally validated with an siRNA cell spot microarray system using the KPL-4 breast cancer cell line, and by using gene expression data from functional studies. Modules were derived using gene expression data representing 1,608 breast cancer samples and validated in data sets representing 971 independent breast cancer samples as well as 1,231 samples from other cancer forms. RESULTS: The initial co-expression network analysis resulted in the characterization of eight tightly regulated gene modules. Cell cycle genes were divided into two transcriptional programs, and experimental validation using an siRNA screen showed different functional roles for these programs during proliferation. The division of the two programs was found to act as a marker for tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene status in luminal breast cancer, with the two programs being separated only in luminal tumors with functional p53 (encoded by TP53). Moreover, a module containing fibroblast and stroma-related genes was highly expressed in fibroblasts, but was also up-regulated by overexpression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors such as transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and Snail in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. Strikingly, the stroma transcriptional program related to less malignant tumors for luminal disease and aggressive lymph node positive disease among basal-like tumors. CONCLUSIONS: We have derived a robust gene expression landscape of breast cancer that reflects known subtypes as well as heterogeneity within these subtypes. By applying the modules to TP53-mutated samples we shed light on the biological consequences of non-functional p53 in otherwise low-proliferating luminal breast cancer. Furthermore, as in the case of the stroma module, we show that the biological and clinical interpretation of a set of co-regulated genes is subtype-dependent.
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Global H3K27 trimethylation and EZH2 abundance in breast tumor subtypes.
Mol Oncol
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Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and its core member enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) mediate the epigenetic gene silencing mark: trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3). H3K27me3 is characteristic of the chromatin at genes involved in developmental regulation in undifferentiated cells. Overexpression of EZH2 has been found in several cancer types such as breast, prostate, melanoma and bladder cancer. Moreover, overexpression is associated with highly proliferative and aggressive types of breast and prostate tumors. We have analyzed the abundance of EZH2 and H3K27me3 using immunohistochemistry in two large and well-characterized breast tumor data sets encompassing more than 400 tumors. The results have been analyzed in relation to the molecular subtypes of breast tumors (basal-like, luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched and normal-like), as well as in subtypes defined by clinical markers (triple negative, ER+/HER2-/Ki67low, ER+/HER2-/Ki67high and HER2+), and were validated in representative breast cancer cell lines by western blot. We found significantly different expression of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 across all subtypes with high abundance of EZH2 in basal-like, triple negative and HER2-enriched tumors, and high H3K27me3 in luminal A, HER2-enriched and normal-like tumors. Intriguingly, the two markers show an inverse correlation, particularly for the basal-like and triple negative tumors. Consequently, high expression of EZH2 was associated with poor distant disease-free survival whereas high expression of H3K27me3 was associated with better survival. Additionally, none of 182 breast tumors was found to carry a previously described EZH2 mutation affecting Tyr641. Our observation that increased expression of EZH2 does not necessarily correlate with increased abundance of H3K27me3 supports the idea that EZH2 can have effects beyond epigenetic silencing of target genes in breast cancer.
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The retinoblastoma gene undergoes rearrangements in BRCA1-deficient basal-like breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
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Breast tumors from BRCA1 germ line mutation carriers typically exhibit features of the basal-like molecular subtype. However, the specific genes recurrently mutated as a consequence of BRCA1 dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we used gene expression profiling to molecularly subtype 577 breast tumors, including 73 breast tumors from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Focusing on the RB1 locus, we analyzed 33 BRCA1-mutated, 36 BRCA2-mutated, and 48 non-BRCA1/2-mutated breast tumors using a custom-designed high-density oligomicroarray covering the RB1 gene. We found a strong association between the basal-like subtype and BRCA1-mutated breast tumors and the luminal B subtype and BRCA2-mutated breast tumors. RB1 was identified as a major target for genomic disruption in tumors arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in sporadic tumors with BRCA1 promoter methylation but rarely in other breast cancers. Homozygous deletions, intragenic breaks, or microdeletions were found in 33% of BRCA1-mutant tumors, 36% of BRCA1 promoter-methylated basal-like tumors, 13% of non-BRCA1-deficient basal-like tumors, and 3% of BRCA2-mutated tumors. In conclusion, RB1 was frequently inactivated by gross gene disruption in BRCA1 hereditary breast cancer and BRCA1-methylated sporadic basal-like breast cancer but rarely in BRCA2 hereditary breast cancer and non-BRCA1-deficient sporadic breast cancers. Together, our findings show the existence of genetic heterogeneity within the basal-like breast cancer subtype that is based upon BRCA1 status.
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Molecular profiling reveals low- and high-grade forms of primary melanoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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For primary melanomas, tumor thickness, mitotic rate, and ulceration are well-laid cornerstones of prognostication. However, a molecular exposition of melanoma aggressiveness is critically missing. We recently uncovered a four-class structure in metastatic melanoma, which predicts outcome and informs biology. This raises the possibility that a molecular structure exists even in the early stages of melanoma and that molecular determinants could underlie histophenotype and eventual patient outcome.
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Prevalence of germline TP53 mutations and history of Li-Fraumeni syndrome in families with childhood adrenocortical tumors, choroid plexus tumors, and rhabdomyosarcoma: a population-based survey.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
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Whether childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs), choroid plexus tumors (CPTs), and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are early manifestation of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of germline TP53 mutations and family history in a population-based series of patients.
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Mutational processes molding the genomes of 21 breast cancers.
Cell
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All cancers carry somatic mutations. The patterns of mutation in cancer genomes reflect the DNA damage and repair processes to which cancer cells and their precursors have been exposed. To explore these mechanisms further, we generated catalogs of somatic mutation from 21 breast cancers and applied mathematical methods to extract mutational signatures of the underlying processes. Multiple distinct single- and double-nucleotide substitution signatures were discernible. Cancers with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations exhibited a characteristic combination of substitution mutation signatures and a distinctive profile of deletions. Complex relationships between somatic mutation prevalence and transcription were detected. A remarkable phenomenon of localized hypermutation, termed "kataegis," was observed. Regions of kataegis differed between cancers but usually colocalized with somatic rearrangements. Base substitutions in these regions were almost exclusively of cytosine at TpC dinucleotides. The mechanisms underlying most of these mutational signatures are unknown. However, a role for the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases is proposed.
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The life history of 21 breast cancers.
Cell
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Cancer evolves dynamically as clonal expansions supersede one another driven by shifting selective pressures, mutational processes, and disrupted cancer genes. These processes mark the genome, such that a cancers life history is encrypted in the somatic mutations present. We developed algorithms to decipher this narrative and applied them to 21 breast cancers. Mutational processes evolve across a cancers lifespan, with many emerging late but contributing extensive genetic variation. Subclonal diversification is prominent, and most mutations are found in just a fraction of tumor cells. Every tumor has a dominant subclonal lineage, representing more than 50% of tumor cells. Minimal expansion of these subclones occurs until many hundreds to thousands of mutations have accumulated, implying the existence of long-lived, quiescent cell lineages capable of substantial proliferation upon acquisition of enabling genomic changes. Expansion of the dominant subclone to an appreciable mass may therefore represent the final rate-limiting step in a breast cancers development, triggering diagnosis.
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Amplification and overexpression of the ABCC3 (MRP3) gene in primary breast cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) of active transporters comprises a group of proteins that which facilitate efflux of anticancer drugs from cancer cells. We focused on the gene amplification and protein expression of ABCC3 (also known as MRP3) in breast cancer cell lines and clinical tumor samples. Fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization, using an ABCC3-specific probe, was used to analyze 11 breast cancer cell lines and 112 clinical tumor samples. The results of ABCC3 were correlated with the amplification status of HER2 and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), which are located close to ABCC3 at 17q12-q21. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess ABCC3 protein overexpression. Of the cell lines studied 6 HER2-positive lines and 1 HER2-negative line exhibited amplification of ABCC3. In the HER-2-negative clinical tumor samples, only 4/55 (7.3%) exhibited ABCC3 amplification. In the HER2-positive tumors, ABCC3 was amplified in 16/57 tumors (28.1%, P=0.0059). TOP2A did not exhibit any consistent coamplification pattern. ABCC3 (MRP3) protein overexpression was more common in tumors with gene amplification (P=0.069). In silico analysis of 804 breast cancers with matched gene expression and copy number microarray data revealed significant differences ABCC3 across the molecular subtypes. Specifically, increased ABCC3 mRNA and gene copy numbers were most prominent in HER2 amplified and/or HER2-enriched classified tumors. Moreover, differential ABCC3 mRNA levels were found within the HER-2 amplified subset when stratified by the estrogen receptor status. We conclude that ABCC3 is frequently amplified and overexpressed in HER2-positive breast cancer, and something that warrants further studies correlating the results with therapeutic outcome.
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Association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and survival in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.
JAMA
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Approximately 10% of women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) carry deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. A recent article suggested that BRCA2-related EOC was associated with an improved prognosis, but the effect of BRCA1 remains unclear.
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