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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relationship between CHADS2 score and complex aortic plaques by transesophageal echocardiography in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The CHADS2 score is widely used for risk stratification of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Although the correlation of CHADS2 score with left atrial (LA) abnormality as detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been reported in previous studies, the relationship between CHADS2 score and complex aortic plaque, which is also a significant risk factor for thromboembolism, has not been fully investigated. We assessed aortic plaques by TEE in 150 patients age ? 55 y with NVAF. The prevalence of complex aortic plaques increased along with increases in CHADS2 score (p = 0.001). In a multivariate analysis that included atherosclerotic risk factors and LA abnormality, a CHADS2 score ?2 was independently associated with the presence of complex aortic plaques (odds ratio [OR] 3.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-8.90). A high CHADS2 score is closely associated with the presence of complex aortic plaques, which explains, in part, the increased risk of thromboembolism in NVAF patients with high CHADS2 score.
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Remote ischemic conditioning improves coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with heart failure.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a treatment modality that suppresses inflammation and improves endothelial function, which are factors involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a physiological index of coronary microcirculation and is noninvasively measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE). This study aimed to investigate the effects of RIC on CFR in healthy subjects and patients with HF, through the assessment by TTDE.
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Tolvaptan attenuates left ventricular fibrosis after acute myocardial infarction in rats.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Tolvaptan, a non-peptide V2-receptor antagonist, is a newly developed diuretic agent. Recently, we reported that tolvaptan has diuretic as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions in chronic heart failure. In this study, we investigated whether tolvaptan has a cardioprotective effect in acute heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). After MI induction, rats were randomized into 6 groups as follows: vehicle group, group treated with 15 mg?kg?¹?day?¹ furosemide, 2 groups treated with 3 or 10 mg?kg?¹?day?¹ tolvaptan, and 2 groups treated with 15 mg?kg?¹?day?¹ furosemide combined with 3 or 10 mg?kg?¹?day?¹ tolvaptan. Each agent was administered for 2 weeks, and blood pressure levels and infarct sizes were similar in all MI groups. Lower left ventricular end-systolic volumes and greater improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction were observed in the tolvaptan-treated groups compared with the vehicle group. In contrast, furosemide alone did not improve them. Sirius red staining revealed that tolvaptan significantly repressed MI-induced interstitial fibrosis in the left ventricle. MI-induced mRNA expressions related to cardiac load, inflammation, and fibrosis were significantly attenuated in the combination group. The combination treatment also repressed MI-induced mineralocorticoid receptor expression. Tolvaptan, or combination of furosemide and tolvaptan, may improve cardiac function in acute MI.
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Rapid and accurate assessment of aortic arch atherosclerosis using simultaneous multi-plane imaging by transesophageal echocardiography.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is widely used for the evaluation of aortic arch atherosclerosis which carries an increased risk of ischemic stroke. We investigated the feasibility of simultaneous multi-plane imaging by real-time 3-D TEE for the assessment of aortic arch plaques. In 152 patients, we assessed aortic arch plaques and measured their maximum thickness by both conventional TEE imaging and multi-plane TEE imaging. There was excellent correlation and good agreement between the two methods in the measurement of the maximum thickness of arch plaques (r = 0.95, mean difference, -0.1 ± 0.5 mm). The mean image acquisition time required for aortic arch assessment by multi-plane imaging was significantly shorter than that required for conventional imaging in all patients (p < 0.001), especially those with complex plaques. These findings suggest that simultaneous multi-plane TEE imaging enables rapid and accurate evaluation of arch plaques and is therefore a useful tool for the assessment of aortic arch plaques in the clinical setting.
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Impact of concomitant coronary artery disease on atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic arch in patients with severe aortic stenosis.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) often occurs concurrently in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). However, the influence of concomitant CAD on the presence of atherosclerotic complex plaques in the aortic arch, which is associated with increased stroke risk, has not been fully assessed in patients with severe AS.
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The antifibrotic agent pirfenidone inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[(1)H]-pyridone) is an effective drug for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia that can prevent and reverse tissue fibrosis in several organs. Therefore, we investigated whether pirfenidone has a potential role in preventing angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A cardiac hypertrophic mouse model was created using an Ang II infusion (200 ng kg(-1) min(-1)) in wild-type mice for 2 weeks. Mice were divided into the following three groups: a saline-infused (control) group, an Ang II infusion (vehicle) group and an Ang II infusion+pirfenidone-treated (PFD) group, which received pirfenidone (300 mg kg(-1) per day) by gastric gavage during the Ang II infusion. At 2 weeks, we assessed hemodynamics and cardiac function and investigated tissue fibrosis of the myocardium histologically and genetically. Blood pressure in the vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the control group. Although blood pressure was not different between the vehicle and PFD groups, heart weight was significantly decreased in the PFD group. Echocardiography revealed that left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly increased in the vehicle group vs. the control group. Interestingly, pirfenidone significantly inhibited this effect. Continuous infusion of Ang II increased the perivascular and interstitial tissue fibrosis, and pirfenidone inhibited these fibrotic changes. Pirfenidone also inhibited Ang II-induced hypertrophy. In the vehicle group, the mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide and transforming growth factor-?1 were increased, which was significantly inhibited by pirfenidone. Furthermore, the expression of mineralocorticoid receptors was attenuated by pirfenidone. These results indicate that pirfenidone might be effective as an antifibrotic drug in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy induced by hypertension.
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Utility of echocardiographic evaluation of donor hearts upon the organ procurement for heart transplantation.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Evaluating donor heart as accurately as possible upon the organ procurement would help lead careful post-transplant heart management. Our institution (National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan) has sent a transplant cardiologist upon the organ procurement for evaluating a donor heart ever since our first case of heart transplantation.
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Usefulness of cardiac computed tomography in the diagnosis of prosthetic coronary artery graft with interposition procedure.
Clin Med Insights Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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An 80-year-old Japanese man was admitted with orthopnea and pitting edema of both lower legs. We diagnosed congestive heart failure (CHF) on the basis of a chest X-ray and an echocardiogram. An electrocardiogram showed a heart rate of 120 beats/min with atrial fibrillation rhythm (Af). The patient developed aortic valve failure and destruction of the base of right coronary artery (RCA) due to infectious endocarditis at 71 years of age. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting with an interposed graft with polyester vascular graft to RCA. The patient recovered from CHF after the 6 days of treatment with diuretics and verapamil. We confirmed the patency of coronary arteries and bypass grafts using a 64-slice cardiac computed tomography scan (CT) and diagnosed CHF due to Af. Here we describe the estimation of the prosthetic coronary artery graft patency with the interposition procedure using 64-slice cardiac CT.
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Clinical course and outcome of heart transplant recipients: single center experience at the National Cardiovascular Center in Japan.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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The number of heart transplant (HTx) surgeries in Japan is expected to increase under the Revised Organ Transplant Law. To date, among 69 HTx surgeries performed in Japan, 27 operations (39.1%) were performed at our institution, the National Cardiovascular Center (NCVC), located in Osaka. We have reviewed the outcomes of HTx conducted at NCVC during a 10 year period (May 1999 to January 2009). Among 27 heart transplant recipients at NCVC, the clinical charts of 26 recipients whose post-HTx period exceeded 1 year were retrospectively reviewed and compared to data from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) Registry. The survival rate of our recipients was 96.2% at 10.8 years, which was excellent even compared to the ISHLT Registry. The immunosuppressive regimen at NCVC was equivalent to that of the ISHLT Registry, except for more frequent use of Muromonab-CD3 (26.9% versus 3.3%, P < 0.0001) and an initial CSA-based regimen (65.3% versus 34.4%, P < 0.001). The drug we use for induction therapy has been recently changed from Muromonab-CD3 to Basiliximab. The incidences of post-HTx hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and renal insufficiency were significantly less in patients at NCVC compared to those in the ISHLT Registry, however, the incidence of transplant coronary artery disease (TxCAD) was almost identical. Clinical review of post-HTx outcome at NCVC can provide useful information for Japanese transplant cardiologists who will engage in HTx management.
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Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) in a heart transplant recipient treated by substitution of cyclosporine A with tacrolimus.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is one of the important adverse events following organ transplantation, associated with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We describe a case of 54-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with RPLS within weeks after transplantation. Considering the risk of causing fatal rejection by discontinuation of CNIs, the immunosuppressive regimen of the patient was switched from a cyclosporine A-based regimen to a tacrolimus-based regimen. The patient recovered rapidly from RPLS following the switch to tacrolimus. This case demonstrated that not only discontinuation but also a substitution of CNIs would be a valid treatment option for RPLS in transplant recipients.
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Improved long-term performance of pulsatile extracorporeal left ventricular assist device.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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The majority of heart transplant (HTx) candidates require left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support for more than 2 years before transplantation in Japan. However, the only currently available device is the extracorporeal pulsatile LVAD. The long-term management of extracorporeal LVAD support has improved remarkably over the years. To determine which post-operative management factors are related to the long-term survival of patients on such LVAD, we retrospectively compared the incidence of complications and their management strategies between the initial and recent eras of LVAD use, classified by the year of LVAD surgery.
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Platypnea-orthodeoxia diagnosed by sitting transesophageal echocardiography.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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Platypnea-orthodeoxia is a rare syndrome presenting with dyspnea and cyanosis induced by an upright position and relieved by recumbency. We report a patient with an excessively enlarged aortic root who had critical hypoxia due to a paradoxical shunt through the patent foramen ovale only when seated. The postural changes of the shunt, caused by changes in posture, were dynamically detected by transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. We believe that this syndrome should be considered when patients with aortic root dilatation present with inexplicable hypoxia, and that transesophageal Doppler echocardiography in the sitting position can be useful for detecting platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome.
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Impact of lesion length on functional significance in intermediate coronary lesions.
Clin Cardiol
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Myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is useful in the evaluation of coronary lesion ischemia. However, the impact of lesion length on FFR has not been adequately assessed.
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Detailed observation of arterial healing after stent implantation in swine arteries by using optical coherence tomography.
Osaka City Med J
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Histopathological examination is not suitable for sequential in vivo analysis of arterial healing after stenting because it can be performed only after the animals are killed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides higher resolution than intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). The aim of this study was to compare arterial healing images after stenting on the basis of the findings of histopathological examination, IVUS, and OCT.
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Effects of intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide and nitroglycerin on coronary vasodilation and flow velocity determined using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging in patients with nonischemic heart failure.
Heart Vessels
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Although atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is widely used in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), little is known about its effect on epicardial coronary arteries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables precise measurement of coronary vasodilation and flow velocity. In this study, we examined the changes in epicardial coronary artery size and flow velocity in response to intravenous infusion of ANP or nitroglycerin (NTG) by using 3 T MRI in patients with CHF. The study cohort contained a total of 14 subjects: 8 patients with CHF and 6 healthy volunteers as controls, randomly divided into two groups: the ANP group (0.03 ?g/kg/min) and the NTG group (0.3 ?g/kg/min). Cross-sectional MR angiography and phase-contrast flow velocity of the right coronary artery in the same in-plane slice were obtained at the baseline, during drug infusion, and at two subsequent time points after stopping drug infusion. A significant increase was observed in the coronary cross-sectional area at 15 min after drug infusion in both groups compared with that at baseline; however, a late peak was observed at 15 min after stopping infusion in the ANP group. No significant differences were detected in the flow velocity in both groups. Furthermore, although NTG increased the heart rate, this change was not found in the ANP group. Coronary vasodilation and flow velocity can be measured simultaneously using 3 T MRI. Using this method, we showed that the effects of ANP on the coronary artery vasodilation and flow velocity were not inferior to those of NTG, with no significant alteration in heart rate.
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Tolvaptan improves left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction in rats.
Circ Heart Fail
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Arginine vasopressin, which promotes the reabsorption of renal water is increased in chronic heart failure. Here, we compared the effects of tolvaptan, a newly developed nonpeptide V(2) receptor antagonist, with those of furosemide, a loop diuretic, and a combination of these 2 agents in rats with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI).
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Prognostic value of aortic valve area index in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis.
Am. J. Cardiol.
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Recently, an aortic valve area (AVA) index (AVAI) <0.6 cm(2)/m(2) was proposed as an indicator of severe aortic stenosis. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the prognostic value of the AVAI. We identified 103 consecutive asymptomatic patients (mean age 72 ± 11 years) with severe aortic stenosis, defined by an AVA of <1.0 cm(2), who had not undergone aortic valve replacement on initial evaluation. During follow-up (median 36 ± 27 months), 31 aortic valve replacements and 20 cardiac deaths occurred. Multivariate analysis revealed that an AVAI <0.6 cm(2)/m(2) (hazard ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 6.3; p = 0.03) and peak aortic jet velocity (Vp) >4.0 m/s (hazard ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 5.8; p = 0.02) were associated with cardiac events but that an AVA <0.75 cm(2) was not. The event-free survival of patients with an AVAI of ?0.6 cm(2)/m(2) was better than that for those with an AVAI <0.6 cm(2)/m(2) (86% vs 41% at 3 years, p <0.01). Furthermore, patients with an AVAI of ?0.6 cm(2)/m(2) and Vp of ?4.0 m/s showed an excellent prognosis, but those without these findings had poorer outcomes. In conclusion, AVAI is a powerful predictor of adverse events in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis. Furthermore, the combination of AVAI and Vp provides additional prognostic information. Watchful observations are required for timely aortic valve replacement in patients with an AVAI of <0.6 cm(2)/m(2) or a Vp >4.0 m/s.
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Novel device that produces carbon dioxide mist for myocardial infarction treatment in rats.
Circ. J.
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Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) baths have been used to treat a variety of diseases, but developing an artificial bath of highly concentrated CO(2) is difficult. Here, we tried the efficacy of a novel device instead of a CO(2) bath.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.