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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rac1 GTPase silencing counteracts microgravity-induced effects on osteoblastic cells.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Bone cells exposed to real microgravity display alterations of their cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, two major mechanosensitive structures. These structures are controlled by small GTPases of the Ras homology (Rho) family. We investigated the effects of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 modulation of osteoblastic cells under microgravity conditions. Human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells silenced for RhoGTPases were cultured in the automated Biobox bioreactor (European Space Agency) aboard the Foton M3 satellite and compared to replicate ground-based controls. The cells were fixed after 69 h of microgravity exposure for postflight analysis of focal contacts, F-actin polymerization, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and matrix targeting. We found that RhoA silencing did not affect sensitivity to microgravity but that Rac1 and, to a lesser extent, Cdc42 abrogation was particularly efficient in counteracting the spaceflight-related reduction of the number of focal contacts [-50% in silenced, scrambled (SiScr) controls vs. -15% for SiRac1], the number of F-actin fibers (-60% in SiScr controls vs. -10% for SiRac1), and the depletion of matrix-bound VEGF (-40% in SiScr controls vs. -8% for SiRac1). Collectively, these data point out the role of the VEGF/Rho GTPase axis in mechanosensing and validate Rac1-mediated signaling pathways as potential targets for counteracting microgravity effects.-Guignandon, A., Faure, C., Neutelings, T., Rattner, A., Mineur, P., Linossier, M.-T., Laroche, N., Lambert, C., Deroanne, C., Nusgens, B., Demets, R., Colige, A., Vico, L. Rac1 GTPase silencing counteracts microgravity-induced effects on osteoblastic cells.
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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-111 (VEGF-111) and tendon healing: preliminary results in a rat model of tendon injury.
Muscles Ligaments Tendons J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis-resistant splice variant of this family, was recently identified. This study aimed at evaluating whether VEGF-111 could have a therapeutic interest in tendon pathologies. Surgical section of one Achilles tendon of rats was performed before a local injection of either saline or VEGF-111. After 5, 15 and 30 days, the Achilles tendons of 10 rats of both groups were sampled and submitted to a biomechanical tensile test. The force necessary to induce tendon rupture was greater for tendons of the VEGF-111 group (p<0.05) while the section areas of the tendons were similar. The mechanical stress was similar at 5 and 15 days in the both groups but was improved for the VEGF-111 group at day 30 (p <0.001). No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of collagen III, tenomodulin and MMP-9. In conclusion, we observed that a local injection of VEGF-111 improves the early phases of the healing process of rat tendons after a surgical section. Further confirmatory experimentations are needed to consolidate our results.
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18F-FDG uptake assessed by PET/CT in abdominal aortic aneurysms is associated with cellular and molecular alterations prefacing wall deterioration and rupture.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) leads to a significant morbidity and mortality in aging populations, and its prediction would be most beneficial to public health. Spots positive for uptake of (18)F-FDG detected by PET are found in 12% of AAA patients (PET+), who are most often symptomatic and at high rupture risk. Comparing the (18)F-FDG-positive site with a negative site from the same aneurysm and with samples collected from AAA patients with no (18)F-FDG uptake should allow the discrimination of biologic alterations that would help in identifying markers predictive of rupture.
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Tgf?-Smad and MAPK signaling mediate scleraxis and proteoglycan expression in heart valves.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Mature heart valves are complex structures consisting of three highly organized extracellular matrix layers primarily composed of collagens, proteoglycans and elastin. Collectively, these diverse matrix components provide all the necessary biomechanical properties for valve function throughout life. In contrast to healthy valves, myxomatous valve disease is the most common cause of mitral valve prolapse in the human population and is characterized by an abnormal abundance of proteoglycans within the valve tri-laminar structure. Despite the clinical significance, the etiology of this phenotype is not known. Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor that we previously showed to be required for establishing heart valve structure during remodeling stages of valvulogenesis. In this study, we report that remodeling heart valves from Scx null mice express decreased levels of proteoglycans, particularly chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), while overexpression in embryonic avian valve precursor cells and adult porcine valve interstitial cells increases CSPGs. Using these systems we further identify that Scx is positively regulated by canonical Tgf?2 signaling during this process and this is attenuated by MAPK activity. Finally, we show that Scx is increased in myxomatous valves from human patients and mouse models, and overexpression in human mitral valve interstitial cells modestly increases proteoglycan expression consistent with myxomatous mitral valve phenotypes. Together, these studies identify an important role for Scx in regulating proteoglycans in embryonic and mature valve cells and suggest that imbalanced regulation could influence myxomatous pathogenesis.
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Isoform 111 of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF111) improves angiogenesis of ovarian tissue xenotransplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Cryopreservation of cortex ovarian tissue before anticancer therapy is a promising technique for fertility preservation mainly in children and young women. Ischemia in the early stage after ovarian graft causes massive follicle loss by apoptosis. VEGF111 is a recently described vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoform that does not bind to the extracellular matrix, diffuses extensively, and is resistant to proteolysis. These properties confer a significantly higher angiogenic potential to VEGF111 in comparison with the other VEGF isoforms.
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Effects of mild cold shock (25°C) followed by warming up at 37°C on the cellular stress response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Temperature variations in cells, tissues and organs may occur in a number of circumstances. We report here that reducing temperature of cells in culture to 25°C for 5 days followed by a rewarming to 37°C affects cell biology and induces a cellular stress response. Cell proliferation was almost arrested during mild hypothermia and not restored upon returning to 37°C. The expression of cold shock genes, CIRBP and RBM3, was increased at 25°C and returned to basal level upon rewarming while that of heat shock protein HSP70 was inversely regulated. An activation of pro-apoptotic pathways was evidenced by FACS analysis and increased Bax/Bcl2 and BclX(S/L) ratios. Concomitant increased expression of the autophagosome-associated protein LC3II and AKT phosphorylation suggested a simultaneous activation of autophagy and pro-survival pathways. However, a large proportion of cells were dying 24 hours after rewarming. The occurrence of DNA damage was evidenced by the increased phosphorylation of p53 and H2AX, a hallmark of DNA breaks. The latter process, as well as apoptosis, was strongly reduced by the radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, indicating a causal relationship between ROS, DNA damage and cell death during mild cold shock and rewarming. These data bring new insights into the potential deleterious effects of mild hypothermia and rewarming used in various research and therapeutical fields.
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Metallothionein-dependent up-regulation of TGF-?2 participates in the remodelling of the myxomatous mitral valve.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Although an excessive extracellular matrix remodelling has been well described in myxomatous mitral valve (MMV), the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Our goal was to identify dysregulated genes in human MMV and then to evaluate their functional role in the progression of the disease.
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Development of a chitosan nanofibrillar scaffold for skin repair and regeneration.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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The final goal of the present study was the development of a 3-D chitosan dressing that would shorten the healing time of skin wounds by stimulating migration, invasion, and proliferation of the relevant cutaneous resident cells. Three-dimensional chitosan nanofibrillar scaffolds produced by electrospinning were compared with evaporated films and freeze-dried sponges for their biological properties. The nanofibrillar structure strongly improved cell adhesion and proliferation in vitro. When implanted in mice, the nanofibrillar scaffold was colonized by mesenchymal cells and blood vessels. Accumulation of collagen fibrils was also observed. In contrast, sponges induced a foreign body granuloma. When used as a dressing covering full-thickness skin wounds in mice, chitosan nanofibrils induced a faster regeneration of both the epidermis and dermis compartments. Altogether our data illustrate the critical importance of the nanofibrillar structure of chitosan devices for their full biocompatibility and demonstrate the significant beneficial effect of chitosan as a wound-healing biomaterial.
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RhoGDI?-dependent balance between RhoA and RhoC is a key regulator of cancer cell tumorigenesis.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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RhoGTPases are key signaling molecules regulating main cellular functions such as migration, proliferation, survival, and gene expression through interactions with various effectors. Within the RhoA-related subclass, RhoA and RhoC contribute to several steps of tumor growth, and the regulation of their expression affects cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate their respective contributions to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype by using models of reduced or forced expression. The silencing of RhoC, but not of RhoA, increased the expression of genes encoding tumor suppressors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 (NAG-1), and decreased migration and the anchorage-independent growth in vitro. In vivo, RhoC small interfering RNA (siRhoC) impaired tumor growth. Of interest, the simultaneous knockdown of RhoC and NAG-1 repressed most of the siRhoC-related effects, demonstrating the central role of NAG-1. In addition of being induced by RhoC silencing, NAG-1 was also largely up-regulated in cells overexpressing RhoA. The silencing of RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor ? (RhoGDI?) and the overexpression of a RhoA mutant unable to bind RhoGDI? suggested that the effect of RhoC silencing is indirect and results from the up-regulation of the RhoA level through competition for RhoGDI?. This study demonstrates the dynamic balance inside the RhoGTPase network and illustrates its biological relevance in cancer progression.
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Human papillomavirus entry into NK cells requires CD16 expression and triggers cytotoxic activity and cytokine secretion.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections account for more than 50% of infection-linked cancers in women worldwide. The immune system controls, at least partially, viral infection and around 90% of HPV-infected women clear the virus within two years. However, it remains unclear which immune cells are implicated in this process and no study has evaluated the direct interaction between HPVs and NK cells, a key player in host resistance to viruses and tumors. We demonstrated an NK-cell infiltration in HPV-associated preneoplastic cervical lesions. Since HPVs cannot grow in vitro, virus-like particles (VLPs) were used as a model for studying the NK-cell response against the virus. Interestingly, NK cells displayed higher cytotoxic activity and cytokine production (TNF-? and IFN-?) in the presence of HPV-VLPs. Using flow cytometry and microscopy, we observed that NK-cell stimulation was linked to rapid VLP entry into these cells by macropinocytosis. Using CD16(+) and CD16(-) NK-cell lines and a CD16-blocking antibody, we demonstrated that CD16 is necessary for HPV-VLP internalization, as well as for degranulation and cytokine production. Thus, we show for the first time that NK cells interact with HPVs and can participate in the immune response against HPV-induced lesions.
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MicroRNA-21 exhibits antiangiogenic function by targeting RhoB expression in endothelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The recent discovery of the involvement of these RNAs in the control of angiogenesis renders them very attractive in the development of new approaches for restoring the angiogenic balance. Whereas miRNA-21 has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in endothelial cells, the potential function of this miRNA in angiogenesis has never been investigated.
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MicroRNAs profiling in murine models of acute and chronic asthma: a relationship with mRNAs targets.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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miRNAs are now recognized as key regulator elements in gene expression. Although they have been associated with a number of human diseases, their implication in acute and chronic asthma and their association with lung remodelling have never been thoroughly investigated.
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Alternative splicing: a promising target for pharmaceutical inhibition of pathological angiogenesis?
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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In eukaryotes, genes consist in coding sequences (exons) interspersed with non-coding ones (introns). The regulation of alternative inclusion/exclusion of exons, or part of exons, during the maturation of the pre-mRNA into mRNA (alternative splicing) allows a dramatic increase of the protein versus the gene repertoire. In a number of cases, alternative splicing decision generates proteins with distinct, sometimes opposite, functions from a given gene. Angiogenesis is the process of vascularisation in physiological conditions and a series of pathologies, including cancer where it favours tumour progression and dissemination of metastasis. In this issue, we discuss some key examples showing how alternative splicing may induce a switch from anti-angiogenic to pro-angiogenic functions and reciprocally. For some of these splicing events, the molecular mechanisms that trigger alternative splicing toward one or the other direction start to be elucidated. The emergence of strategies enabling to regulate alternative splicing opens new routes for anti-angiogenic therapies.
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Transcriptional profiling after lipid raft disruption in keratinocytes identifies critical mediators of atopic dermatitis pathways.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich cell signaling platforms, and their physiological role can be explored by cholesterol depletion. To characterize transcriptional changes ongoing after lipid raft disruption in epidermal keratinocytes, a cell type that synthesizes its cholesterol in situ, we performed whole-genome expression profiling. Microarray results show that over 3,000 genes are differentially regulated. In particular, IL-8, urokinase-like plasminogen activator receptor, and metalloproteinases are highly upregulated after cholesterol extraction. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR validation and protein release measurements demonstrate the physiological relevance of microarray data. Major enriched terms and functions, determined by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, identify cholesterol biosynthesis as a major function, illustrating the specificity of keratinocyte response toward cholesterol depletion. Moreover, the inflammatory skin disorder atopic dermatitis (AD) is identified as the disease most closely associated with the profile of lipid raft-disrupted keratinocytes. This finding is confirmed in skin of AD patients, in whom transcript levels of major lipid raft target genes are similarly regulated in lesional atopic skin, compared with non-lesional and normal skin. Thus, lipid raft disruption evokes typical features of AD, thereby suggesting that lipid raft organization and signaling could be perturbed in atopic keratinocytes.
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Role of the netrin-like domain of procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 in the control of metalloproteinase activity.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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The netrin-like (NTR) domain is a feature of several extracellular proteins, most notably the N-terminal domain of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), where it functions as a strong inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases and some other members of the metzincin superfamily. The presence of a C-terminal NTR domain in procollagen C-proteinase enhancers (PCPEs), proteins that stimulate the activity of astacin-like tolloid proteinases, raises the possibility that this might also have inhibitory activity. Here we show that both long and short forms of the PCPE-1 NTR domain, the latter beginning at the N-terminal cysteine known to be critical for TIMP activity, show no inhibition, at micromolar concentrations, of several members of the metzincin superfamily, including matrix metalloproteinase-2, bone morphogenetic protein-1 (a tolloid proteinase), and different ADAMTS (a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) proteinases from the adamalysin family. In contrast, we report that the NTR domain within PCPE-1 leads to superstimulation of bone morphogenetic protein-1 activity in the presence of heparin and heparan sulfate. These observations point to a new mechanism whereby binding to cell surface-associated or extracellular heparin-like sulfated glycosaminoglycans might provide a means to accelerate procollagen processing in specific cellular and extracellular microenvironments.
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Histological and transcriptional study of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in uninvolved skin, acute pinpoint lesions and established psoriasis plaques: an approach of vascular development chronology in psoriasis.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Dysregulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis could participate in psoriasis pathogenesis. Analysis of nascent psoriasis lesions should help at identifying early vascular anomalies.
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Development of a procedure to simultaneously isolate RNA, DNA, and proteins for [corrected] characterizing cells invading or cultured on chitosan scaffolds.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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For many years, chitosan and its derivatives have been considered to be promising biomaterials for tissue engineering and repair. However, information regarding their biological effect on cell phenotype is usually limited to evaluation of cell proliferation and survival, overlooking proteomic and transcriptomic analysis. This is largely related to the lack of efficient and quantitative procedures for protein and nucleic acid purification from cells cultured on, or inside, chitosan scaffold. Here we describe an ultracentrifugation procedure enabling the simultaneous and quantitative recovery of high quality RNA, DNA and proteins from cells growing in close contact of biomaterial matrices containing chitosan.
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New asthma biomarkers: lessons from murine models of acute and chronic asthma.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Many patients suffering from asthma are not fully controlled by currently available treatments, and some of them display an airway remodeling leading to exaggerated lung function decline. The aim of the present study was to unveil new mediators in asthma to better understand pathophysiology and propose or validate new potential therapeutic targets. A mouse model of asthma mimicking acute or chronic asthma disease was used to select genes undergoing a modulation in both acute and chronic conditions. Mice were exposed to ovalbumin or PBS for 1, 5, and 10 wk [short-, intermediate-, and long-term model (ST, IT, and LT)], and gene expression in the lung was studied using an Affymetrix 430 2.0 genome-wide microarray and further confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for selected targets. We report that 598, 1,406, and 117 genes were upregulated and 490, 153, 321 downregulated at ST, IT, and LT, respectively. Genes related to mucous secretion displayed a progressively amplified expression during the allergen exposure protocol, whereas genes corresponding to growth and differentiation factors, matrix metalloproteinases, and collagens were mainly upregulated at IT. By contrast, genes related to cell division were upregulated at ST and IT and were downregulated at LT. In this study, besides confirming that Arg1, Slc26a4, Ear11, and Mmp12 genes are highly modulated throughout the asthma pathology, we show for the first time that Agr2, Scin, and Cd209e genes are overexpressed throughout the allergen exposure and might therefore be considered as suitable new potential targets for the treatment of asthma.
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Matrix metalloproteinase 12 silencing: a therapeutic approach to treat pathological lung tissue remodeling?
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Among the large matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) family, MMP-12, also referred to as macrophage elastase, plays a significant role in chronic pulmonary pathologies characterized by an intense tissue remodeling such as asthma and COPD. This review will summarize knowledge about MMP-12 structure, functions and mechanisms of activation and regulation, including potential MMP-12 modulation by microRNA. As MMP-12 is involved in many tissue remodeling diseases, efforts have been made to develop specific synthetic inhibitors. However, at this time, very few chemical inhibitors have proved to be efficient and specific to a particular MMP. The relevance of silencing MMP-12 by RNA interference is highlighted. The specificity of this approach using siRNA or shRNA and the strategies to deliver these molecules in the lung are discussed.
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Emerging pathogenic mechanisms in human myxomatous mitral valve: lessons from past and novel data.
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
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Myxomatous mitral valve is one of the most common heart valves diseases in human and has been well characterized at a functional and morphological level. Diseased valves are thickened as a result of extracellular matrix remodeling and proteoglycans accumulation accompanied by the disruption of the stratified structures of the leaflets.
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New prospects in the roles of the C-terminal domains of VEGF-A and their cooperation for ligand binding, cellular signaling and vessels formation.
Angiogenesis
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VEGF-A is a crucial growth factor for blood vessel homeostasis and pathological angiogenesis. Due to alternative splicing of its pre-mRNA, VEGF-A is produced under several isoforms characterized by the combination of their C-terminal domains, which determines their respective structure, availability and affinity for co-receptors. As controversies still exist about the specific roles of these exon-encoded domains, we systematically compared the properties of eight natural and artificial variants containing the domains encoded by exons 1-4 and various combinations of the domains encoded by exons 5, 7 and 8a or 8b. All the variants (VEGF111a, VEGF111b, VEGF121a, VEGF121b, VEGF155a, VEGF155b, VEGF165a, VEGF165b) have a similar affinity for VEGF-R2, as determined by Surface plasmon resonance analyses. They strongly differ however in terms of binding to neuropilin-1 and heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Data indicate that the 6 amino acids encoded by exon 8a must be present and cooperate with those of exons 5 or 7 for efficient binding, which was confirmed in cell culture models. We further showed that VEGF165b has inhibitory effects in vitro, as previously reported, but that the shortest VEGF variant possessing also the 6 amino acids encoded by exon 8b (VEGF111b) is remarkably proangiogenic, demonstrating the critical importance of domain interactions for defining the VEGF properties. The number, size and localization of newly formed blood vessels in a model of tumour angiogenesis strongly depend also on the C-terminal domain composition, suggesting that association of several VEGF isoforms may be more efficient for treating ischemic diseases than the use of any single variant.
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Effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the healing of Achilles tendons of rats.
Wound Repair Regen
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Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors involved in the tissular healing process. The aim of the study was to determine if an injection of PRP could improve the healing of sectioned Achilles tendons of rats. After surgery, rats received an injection of PRP (n?=?60) or a physiological solution (n?=?60) in situ. After 5, 15, and 30 days, 20 rats of both groups were euthanized and 15 collected tendons were submitted to a biomechanical test using cryo-jaws before performing transcriptomic analyses. Histological and biochemical analyses were performed on the five remaining tendons in each group. Tendons in the PRP group were more resistant to rupture at 15 and 30 days. The mechanical stress was significantly increased in tendons of the PRP group at day 30. Histological analysis showed a precocious deposition of fibrillar collagen at day 5 confirmed by a biochemical measurement. The expression of tenomodulin was significantly higher at day 5. The messenger RNA levels of type III collagen, matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 9, were similar in the two groups at all time points, whereas type I collagen was significantly increased at day 30 in the PRP group. In conclusion, an injection of PRP in sectioned rat Achilles tendon influences the early phase of tendon healing and results in an ultimately stronger mechanical resistance.
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Eccentric training improves tendon biomechanical properties: a rat model.
J. Orthop. Res.
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The treatment of choice for tendinopathies is eccentric reeducation. Although the clinical results appear favorable, the biomechanical changes to the tissue are not yet clear. Even if the mechanotransduction theory is commonly accepted, the physiology of tendons is not clearly understood. We aimed to better define the biomechanical and histological changes that affect healthy tendon after eccentric and concentric training. This study compared the effects of two methods of training (eccentric [E] training and concentric [C] training) with untrained (U) rats. The animals were trained over a period of 5 weeks. The tricipital, patellar, and Achilles tendons were removed, measured and a tensile test until failure was performed. A histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin and Massons trichrome stains) was also realized. There was a significant increase in the rupture force of the patellar and tricipital tendons between the U and E groups. The tricipital tendons in the control group presented a significantly smaller cross-sectional area than the E- and C-trained groups, but none was constated between E and C groups. No significant difference was observed for the mechanical stress between the three groups for all three tendons. Histological studies demonstrated the development of a greater number of blood vessels and a larger quantity of collagen in the E group. The mechanical properties of tendons in rats improve after specific training, especially following eccentric training. Our results partly explained how mechanical loading, especially in eccentric mode, could improve the healing of tendon.
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The angiogenesis suppressor gene AKAP12 is under the epigenetic control of HDAC7 in endothelial cells.
Angiogenesis
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of 18 enzymes that deacetylate lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins and to a large extent govern the process of angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that specific inhibition of HDAC7 blocks angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood and hence preclude any meaningful development of suitable therapeutic modalities. The goal of the present study was to further the understanding of HDAC7 epigenetic control of angiogenesis in human endothelial cells using the proteomic approach. The underlying problem was approached through siRNA-mediated gene-expression silencing of HDAC7 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). To this end, HUVEC proteins were extracted and proteomically analyzed. The emphasis was placed on up-regulated proteins, as these may represent potential direct epigenetic targets of HDAC7. Among several proteins, A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) was the most reproducibly up-regulated protein following HDAC7 depletion. This overexpression of AKAP12 was responsible for the inhibition of migration and tube formation in HDAC7-depleted HUVEC. Mechanistically, H3 histones associated with AKAP12 promoter were acetylated following the removal of HDAC7, leading to an increase in its mRNA and protein levels. AKAP12 is responsible for protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Phosphorylated STAT3 increasingly binds to the chromatin and AKAP12 promoter and is necessary for maintaining the elevated levels of AKAP12 following HDAC7 knockdown. We demonstrated for the first time that AKAP12 tumor/angiogenesis suppressor gene is an epigenetic target of HDAC7, whose elevated levels lead to a negative regulation of HUVEC migration and inhibit formation of tube-like structures.
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Rho proteins crosstalk via RhoGDIalpha: At random or hierarchically ordered?
Commun Integr Biol
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The small GTPases of the Rho family are key signaling molecules regulating a plethora of biological pathways. They can exert diverse, sometimes opposite, contributions to specific cellular processes explaining why their regulation and their crosstalk must be finely tuned. Several mechanisms driving crosstalk between Rho GTPases have been described in the literature. They implicate proteins regulating their activity or common downstream effectors. Among the proteins regulating Rho GTPases cycling, RhoGDIs were viewed until very recently as passive inhibitors. Here, we will focus on recent data supporting a role for RhoGDIalpha in the crosstalk between RhoGTPases and present our results suggesting that "preferential" RhoGDIalpha-mediated crosstalk takes place between closely related Rho GTPases.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.