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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Affordable Care Act and Long-Term Care: Marginal Advancement on the Status Quo.
Home Health Care Serv Q
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the sufficiency of the Long-Term Services and Supports (LTSS) provisions contained within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Beyond the ambitious but fatally flawed Community Living Assistance Services and Supports, the ACA's LTSS changes represent only marginal advances over the status quo. Moreover, the impact of the ACA's strategies varies with the extent to which the federal and state governments opt to invest in them, through funding, implementing, and enforcing the modest changes enacted. The ACA's LTSS provisions, while welcome, are unlikely to result in the major changes necessary to meet both current and future demand for care.
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The Protective Effects of Religiosity on Depression: A 2-Year Prospective Study.
Gerontologist
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Approximately 20% of older adults are diagnosed with depression in the United States. Extant research suggests that engagement in religious activity, or religiosity, may serve as a protective factor against depression. This prospective study examines whether religiosity protects against depression and/or aids in recovery.
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Effect of Serelaxin on Mode of Death in Acute Heart Failure: Results From the RELAX-AHF Study.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Little is known about mode of death after acute heart failure (AHF) hospitalization. In the RELAX-AHF (Efficacy and Safety of Relaxin for the Treatment of Acute Heart Failure) study, serelaxin, the recombinant form of human relaxin-2, reduced post-discharge mortality at 180 days in selected patients with AHF.
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Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease: Insight from a wireless implantable hemodynamic monitor.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with left heart disease (World Health Organization [WHO] Group II) has previously been linked with significant morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no approved therapies or hemodynamic monitoring systems to improve outcomes in WHO Group II PH.
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Allotransplantation for patients age ?40 years with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL.
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PA32540 (a coordinated-delivery tablet of enteric-coated aspirin 325 mg and immediate-release omeprazole 40 mg) versus enteric-coated aspirin 325 mg alone in subjects at risk for aspirin-associated gastric ulcers: results of two 6-month, phase 3 studies.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Discontinuations and/or interruptions in aspirin therapy for secondary cardioprotection due to upper gastrointestinal (UGI) complications or symptoms have been shown to increase the risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. PA32540 is a coordinated-delivery, combination tablet consisting of enteric-coated aspirin (EC-ASA) 325 mg and immediate-release (IR) omeprazole 40 mg.
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Advance care planning knowledge and documentation in a hospitalized cancer population.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent)
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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To have a better understanding of our patients knowledge of advance directive planning and execution, as well as communication with their oncologists regarding their wishes, we conducted a survey on our inpatient hematology-oncology services. A total of 68 unique hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of cancer completed surveys. Surveys were given to all oncology patients regardless of their reason for admission. Overall, 29% of the patients reported having had a discussion with their oncologist regarding their wishes if they became seriously ill or near death. Of those who did have this conversation, the majority said that they, rather than their physician, initiated it. Although the vast majority of patients (97%) knew what a living will was, only 54% had one in place. Twenty patients had a discussion with their oncologist, and 14 of them (70%) had a living will. This percentage was higher than in the group that did not have a conversation with their physician (48%; 23 of 48 patients), but the difference was not statistically significant. Most cancer patients admitted to an inpatient oncology unit either did not have or did not recall having a discussion with their oncologist regarding end-of-life issues. This study gives us a baseline of information in evaluating future interventions directed to improve the quality of patient-physician communication regarding end-of-life planning.
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Effect of Postremission Therapy before Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The impact of pretransplant (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT]) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post-HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received a reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or umbilical cord blood donor from 2000 to 2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine postremission consolidation. Three-year survival rates were 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29% to 43%) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (95% CI, 37% to 47%) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (P = .16). Disease-free survival was 34% (95% CI, 27% to 41%) and 41% (95% CI, 35% to 46%; P = .15), respectively. Three-year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (95% CI, 30% to 44%) and 38% (95% CI, 33% to 43%), respectively (P = .80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, disease-free survival, and survival. Before reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant treatment-related mortality and is reasonable if required.
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Association of low body temperature and poor outcomes in patients admitted with worsening heart failure: a substudy of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Risk stratification in patients admitted with worsening heart failure (HF) is essential for tailoring therapy and counselling. Risk models are available but rarely used, in part because many require laboratory and imaging results that are not routinely available. Body temperature is associated with prognosis in other illnesses, and we hypothesized that low body temperature would be associated with worse outcomes in patients admitted with worsening HF.
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Reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with primary myelofibrosis: a cohort analysis from the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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We evaluated outcomes and associated prognostic factors in 233 patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for primary myelofibrosis (MF) using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). The median age at RIC HCT was 55 yr. Donors were a matched sibling donor (MSD) in 34% of RIC HCTs, an HLA well-matched unrelated donor (URD) in 45%, and a partially matched/mismatched URD in 21%. Risk stratification according to the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) was 12% low, 49% intermediate-1, 37% intermediate-2, and 1% high. The probability of survival at 5 yr was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40% to 53%). In a multivariate analysis, donor type was the sole independent factor associated with survival. Adjusted probabilities of survival at 5-yr were 56% (95% CI, 44% to 67%) for MSD, 48% (95% CI, 37% to 58%) for well-matched URD, and 34% (95% CI, 21% to 47%) for partially matched/mismatched URD (P = .002). The relative risk (RR) for NRM was 3.92 (P = .006) for well-matched URD and 9.37 (P < .0001) for partially matched/mismatched URD. Trends toward increased NRM (RR, 1.7; P = .07) and inferior survival (RR, 1.37; P = .10) were observed in DIPSS intermediate-2/high-risk patients compared with DIPSS low/intermediate-1 risk patients. Our data indicate that RIC HCT is a potentially curative option for patients with MF, and that donor type is the most important factor influencing survival in these patients.
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Providing personalized prognostic information for adult leukemia survivors.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Prediction of subsequent leukemia-free survival (LFS) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in adults with acute leukemia who survived at least 1 year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is difficult. We analyzed 3339 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 1434 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received myeloablative conditioning and related or unrelated stem cells from 1990 to 2005. Most clinical factors predictive of LFS in 1-year survivors were no longer significant after 2 or more years. For acute myeloid leukemia, only disease status (beyond first complete remission) remained a significant adverse risk factor for LFS 2 or more years after transplantation. For lymphoblastic leukemia, only extensive chronic GVHD remained a significant adverse predictor of LFS in the second and subsequent years. For patients surviving for 1 year without disease relapse or extensive chronic GVHD, the risk of developing extensive chronic GVHD in the next year was 4% if no risk factors were present and higher if noncyclosporine-based GVHD prophylaxis, an HLA-mismatched donor, or peripheral blood stem cells were used. Estimates for subsequent LFS and extensive chronic GVHD can be derived for individual patients or populations using an online calculator (http://www.cibmtr.org/LeukemiaCalculators). This prognostic information is more relevant for survivors than estimates provided before transplantation.
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Association of cardiac events with coronary artery disease detected by 64-slice or greater coronary CT angiography: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The value of ?64-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA) to determine odds of cardiac death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) needs further clarification.
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Cardiovascular safety of varenicline: patient-level meta-analysis of randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trials.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Varenicline is a pharmacological aid for smoking cessation. To explore the CV safety of varenicline, we investigated the incidence of CV events in varenicline-treated subjects across all phase 2-4 randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of ?12-week treatment duration conducted in smokers aged ?18 years and sponsored by the drug manufacturer. This manuscript reports a subject-level meta-analysis of time to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; defined as CV-related death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) and time to MACE+ (defined as MACE plus worsening or any procedure for peripheral vascular disease, hospitalization for angina, or performance of coronary revascularization). All events were adjudicated by an independent adjudication committee, blind to treatment assignment. Events were assessed during treatment and up to 30 days after the last treatment dose. The primary analytical method was a stratified logrank time-to-event analysis; secondary analyses were meta-analyses of incidence rate ratios and rate differences. Overall, 7002 subjects were included (varenicline: 4190; placebo: 2812) from 15 studies. MACE were reported by 13 varenicline subjects (0.31%) and 6 placebo subjects (0.21%) [hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-4.82; P = 0.15; risk difference, 0.006 events per subject-year; 95% CI: -0.003, 0.015, P = 0.19]. MACE+ were reported by 26 varenicline subjects (0.62%) and 12 placebo subjects (0.43%) (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI: 0.91-3.34, P = 0.10; risk difference, 0.010; 95% CI: -0.002, 0.022, P = 0.11). This subject-level meta-analysis of MACE or MACE+ up to 30 days posttreatment in placebo-controlled clinical trials of varenicline found a trend toward increased incidence of these events in varenicline-treated patients that did not reach statistical significance. The overall number of events was low and the absolute risk of CV events with varenicline was small.
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Model for the cost-efficient delivery of continuous quality cancer care: a hospital and private-practice collaboration.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent)
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Cancer care is expensive due to the high costs of treatment and preventable utilization of resources. Government, employer groups, and insurers are seeking cancer care delivery models that promote both cost-efficiency and quality care. Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas (BUMC), a large tertiary care hospital, in collaboration with Texas Oncology, a large private oncology practice, established two independent centers that function cooperatively within the Baylor Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center, the Oncology Evaluation and Treatment Center (OETC) and Infusion Center, to deliver urgent care and infusions after hours to oncology patients. Quality measures based on evidence-based care and cost-efficiency measures were implemented within these centers. Ability to meet predetermined goals for these measures will be a guide for implementing continuous quality and cost-efficiency interventions. During the first two quarters of operations, 2023 patients received care in the OETC (n = 423) and Infusion Center (n = 1600). The average time spent in the OETC was 48% less than the time spent in the BUMC emergency department (ED). Eighty-nine percent of the cancer center patients who received urgent care at BUMC were referred to the OETC for this care, instead of the BUMC ED. The hospital admission rate in the OETC was 59% lower than it was in the BUMC ED, a high-volume level I trauma center. The addition of the OETC and Infusion Center to the cancer center holds promise for providing continuous quality cancer care that is cost-efficient.
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Expanding Access to Gerontological Education via Distance Learning: The Management of Aging Services Masters Program at UMass Boston.
Gerontol Geriatr Educ
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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This article describes the online Management of Aging Services Masters Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston and reports on a recent Program review. The Program has experienced rapid growth, evolving from seven matriculating students in 2003 to 108 in 2012. It has graduated 125 students and boasts a 78% completion rate. The authors describe the Program and report on faculty and student perceptions of performance. The Program demonstrates sound pedagogical practice for online education, incorporating techniques to foster community and encourage students and faculty interaction. Distance learning holds considerable promise for expanding access to gerontological education to reach future aging services professionals.
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First report on the use of a thinner (125)I radioactive seed within 20-gauge needles for permanent radioactive seed prostate brachytherapy: evaluation of postimplant dosimetry and acute toxicity.
Brachytherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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To compare postoperative dosimetry and acute toxicity of new 0.5-mm (125)I seeds in 20-gauge (20G) diameter prostate brachytherapy (PB) needles with standard 0.8-mm seeds in 18G needles.
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Association between bilirubin and mode of death in severe systolic heart failure.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The bilirubin level has been associated with worse outcomes, but it has not been studied as a predictor for the mode of death in patients with systolic heart failure. The Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Evaluation Study (PRAISE) cohort (including New York Heart Association class IIIB-IV patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <30%, n = 1,135) was analyzed, divided by bilirubin level: ?0.6 mg/dl, group 1; >0.6 to 1.2 mg/dl, group 2; and >1.2 mg/dl, group 3. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association of bilirubin with the risk of sudden or pump failure death. Total bilirubin was entered as a base 2 log-transformed variable (log2 bilirubin), indicating doubling of the bilirubin level corresponding to each increase in variable value. The higher bilirubin groups had a lower ejection fraction (range 19% to 21%), sodium (range 138 to 139 mmol/L), and systolic blood pressure (range 111 to 120 mm Hg), a greater heart rate (range 79 to 81 beats/min), and greater diuretic dosages (range 86 to 110 furosemide-equivalent total daily dose in mg). The overall survival rates declined with increasing bilirubin (24.3, 31.3, and 44.3 deaths per 100 person-years, respectively, for groups 1, 2, and 3). Although a positive relation was seen between log2 bilirubin and both pump failure risk and sudden death risk, the relation in multivariate modeling was significant only for pump failure mortality (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.82, p = 0.0004), not for sudden death mortality (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.49, p = 0.08). In conclusion, an increasing bilirubin level was significantly associated with the risk of pump failure death but not for sudden death in patients with severe systolic heart failure.
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Outcome of lower-intensity allogeneic transplantation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma after autologous transplantation failure.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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We studied the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after lower-intensity conditioning regimens (reduced-intensity conditioning and nonmyeloablative) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who relapsed after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nonrelapse mortality, lymphoma progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were analyzed in 263 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. All 263 patients had relapsed after a previous autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and then had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a related (n = 26) or unrelated (n = 237) donor after reduced-intensity conditioning (n = 128) or nonmyeloablative (n = 135) and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1996 and 2006. The median follow-up of survivors was 68 months (range, 3-111 months). Three-year nonrelapse mortality was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-50%). Lymphoma progression/relapse at 3 years was 35% (95% CI, 29%-41%). Three-year probabilities of PFS and overall survival were 21% (95% CI, 16%-27%) and 32% (95% CI, 27%-38%), respectively. Superior Karnofsky Performance Score, longer interval between transplantations, total body irradiation-based conditioning regimen, and lymphoma remission at transplantation were correlated with improved PFS. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after lower-intensity conditioning is associated with significant nonrelapse mortality but can result in long-term PFS. We describe a quantitative risk model based on pretransplantation risk factors to identify those patients likely to benefit from this approach.
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Classifying cytogenetics in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in complete remission undergoing allogeneic transplantation: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
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Variation in health blog features and elements by gender, occupation, and perspective.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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This study explores whether there are gender and occupational differences in the health blogosphere and whether there are differences by blogger perspective. Data were derived from content analysis of 951 health blogs identified between June 2007 and May 2008. Results indicate that male, physician bloggers were more likely to have blogs that feature a SiteMeter, sponsorship, and advertising, which also were more prevalent among those blogging from a professional perspective. Women, bloggers in non-health-related employment, and patient/consumer and caregiver bloggers were more likely to blog about disease and disability; men, bloggers in health-related employment, and professional bloggers were more likely to blog about provider experiences, health research/news, and health policy, business, law, and technology. Because the Internet is becoming a primary source of health information, establishing normative guidelines regarding information quality, patient privacy, and conflicts of interest is essential. Future research should build on these findings using national surveys of health bloggers and textual analysis of blog content.
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Implementing small group health insurance reform: the HEALTHpact plan of Rhode Island.
Med Care Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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This study analyzes administrative impediments to enrollment in HEALTHpact, a high-deductible plan with premiums capped at 10% of the average Rhode Island wage. HEALTHpact includes an opportunity for enrollees to reduce their deductibles from $5,000 ($10,000 for a family) to $750 ($1,500 for a family) if they engage in prespecified wellness behaviors. A stakeholder panel was convened to develop guidelines for insurers, which, in turn, were required to develop products satisfying those guidelines. Implementation was examined using stakeholder interviews and archival documents. Results indicate that since no funds were allocated for education and monitoring, there was little opportunity to promote "bottom up" demand or to oversee insurers. They also indicate that both insurers and brokers adopted strategies that inhibited take-up. Providing the resources necessary for effective government oversight and outreach will be critical to small group market reform nationally. So too will be promoting broker and insurer buy-in.
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Caregiver burden, health utilities, and institutional service use in Alzheimers disease.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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This study examined the moderating effect of caregiver burden on the relationship between the health status of Alzheimers disease (AD) patients and their use of institutional services (i.e., hospitalization, nursing home, and residential care).
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Body mass index and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction: results from the Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (I-PRESERVE) trial.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Obesity is a major risk factor for incident heart failure (HF). Paradoxically, in HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFREF), a high body mass index (BMI) appears to be beneficial. Approximately 50% of HF patients have a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF). However, there are few data regarding the relationship between BMI and outcomes in HFPEF.
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Mode of death and hospitalization from the Second Follow-up Serial Infusions of Nesiritide (FUSION II) trial and comparison of clinical events committee adjudicated versus investigator reported outcomes.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the mode of death and hospitalizations in advanced heart failure (HF) patients with renal dysfunction and to examine the rate of concordance between events reported by the clinical events committee and site investigators (using case report forms) in the Second Follow-Up Serial Infusions of Nesiritide (FUSION II) trial. Little is known about the cause of death and hospitalization in patients with advanced HF. FUSION II was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating outpatient nesiritide infusions versus placebo, with 911 patients with advanced HF (New York Heart Association class III or IV) and renal dysfunction enrolled. There were 151 deaths and 1,041 hospitalizations at 24 weeks. The clinical events committee classified events as cardiac, renal, cardiorenal, other or noncardiovascular, or unknown. Kappa statistics and McNemar tests were used to assess agreement (overall and by individual modes of death and hospitalization indications). In conclusion, the most common cause of death or hospitalization was cardiac related, with 70% of deaths and 60% of hospitalizations due to cardiac causes. There was 74% agreement (26% disagreement) on cardiac cause of death (? = 0.40, McNemar p = 0.001) and 75% agreement (25% disagreement) between the investigators and the clinical events committee on cardiac classification for hospitalization (? = 0.49, McNemar p <0.0001).
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The relationship between aortic stiffness and E/A filling ratio and myocardial strain in the context of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with normal ejection fraction: insights from magnetic resonance imaging.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between aortic stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and compare the results to normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen human subjects (eight HFNEF and eight volunteers) were scanned on a 3.0-T MRI system. Aortic stiffness was assessed using pulse wave velocity (PWV). Left ventricle (LV) diastolic function was assessed by the early/atrial (E/A) filling ratio and different myocardial strain components. The results showed that, in HFNEF, a major part of LV filling occurred later during the atrial filling phase. The E/A ratio was less than 1 in HFNEF and greater than 1 in volunteers. Left ventricular myocardial dynamic strain range (difference between end-diastolic and end-systolic strains) was reduced in HFNEF, with less relaxation (strain rate) during the diastolic phase. Aortic PWV was higher in HFNEF than in volunteers due to less vessel compliance. The E/A ratio and myocardial strain measurements showed inverse correlations with aortic stiffness in HFNEF. The resulting inter- and intraobserver variabilities showed no bias between repeated cardiovascular measurements. In conclusion, a comprehensive MRI exam was developed for assessing patients with HFNEF. Heart failure with normal EF is associated with impaired LV diastolic function and significant ventricular and aortic stiffening. The degree of aortic stiffness involvement suggests reduced aortic compliance as a major factor in HFNEF.
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Toward health reform for seniors in Bermuda: historical constraints on political possibilities.
J Aging Soc Policy
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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In 2009, as the United States moved toward health care reform, the government of Bermuda implemented its FutureCare program to make health care for seniors more affordable. This article investigates how preferences for reform and its eventual design were shaped by the countrys social history and commitment to free market values. Data derive from 36 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders deemed knowledgeable about health care financing and delivery in Bermuda, including government officials, provider representatives, insurance executives, and consumer advocates. Data also derive from a variety of documentary sources. Results indicate that although a clear need for health care and the ability to finance it for seniors exists in Bermuda, the scope of reform was circumscribed by preferences for prior policy decisions, creating a favorable tax and business environment for international corporations and a minimalist social welfare state for addressing racial and economic inequality. This suggests that widespread agreement on the challenges in meeting the health and long-term care needs of the elderly does not necessarily lead to equally commensurable solutions to addressing it.
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Flying beneath the radar of health reform: the community living assistance services and supports (CLASS) act.
Gerontologist
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act attempts to address prevailing deficiencies in long-term care (LTC) financing through the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act, a national voluntary LTC insurance program administered by the Federal government. The CLASS Act is intended to supplement rather than supplant assistance received from other payers. Furthermore, its reliance on a cash benefit allocated by beneficiaries with the assistance of counseling services makes it consistent with the consumer-directed philosophy increasingly favored by the LTC advocacy community. Largely due to inadequate take-up, however, particularly among better than average risks, it is unlikely that implementation of the CLASS Act will fundamentally alter the current public-private partnership for LTC financing. Instead, voluntary enrollment combined with a lack of medical underwriting could lead to disproportionate numbers of high-cost enrollees. This could result in premium increases that further discourage participation on the part of the broader population. Barring making the program mandatory, there are a number of comparatively minor changes policymakers could make to strengthen the risk pool, though doing so will involve a trade-off between attracting better-off risks while eschewing those likely to need the benefit most. Thus, although the CLASS Act may provide a meaningful benefit for those who enroll, its impact on improving the affordability of LTC for most Americans will likely be limited. Most will continue to rely on substantial unpaid care, out-of-pocket payments when formal care is required, and Medicaid when all other money has run out.
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The continuing need to investigate the nature and content of teleconsultation communication using interaction analysis techniques.
J Telemed Telecare
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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The lack of systematically collected and analysed data about the effect of telemedicine on patient-provider communication is a frequently cited barrier for why video communication has yet to reach its full potential. Existing research provides little information about the subtle and detailed changes in communication that take place over video. Comprehensive investigations of actual medical encounter behaviour are therefore required, including verbal content analysis, which uses interaction analysis systems (IAS) to describe and categorize the communication that has taken place. Ten IAS studies were identified in the literature. Although it is difficult to generalize due to differences in methodology and context, some tentative conclusions can be drawn. First, on-site providers tend to be substantially less active than off-site providers, suggesting that the former typically serve as facilitators and observers, rather than active participants. Second, just as in the conventional face-to-face setting, providers utterances tend to predominate in telemedicine. Third, conventional patterns of more task-focused than socio-emotional utterances tend to persist in telemedicine. However, some studies found telemedicine to be more patient-centred than conventional medicine, and others found it less so. We do not yet have a full understanding of the subtractive and enhancing effects of telemedicine on provider-patient relations and outcomes.
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Small group health insurance reform in Rhode Island: promises and pitfalls of the HEALTHpact plan.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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This study analyzes what design elements inhibited enrollment in HEALTHpact.
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Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in patients hospitalized for heart failure with chronically reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association between implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) status at the time of hospitalization for worsening heart failure (HF) with postdischarge events in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. We conducted an analysis of 4133 patients hospitalized for HF with left ventricular ejection fraction 40% or less in EVEREST. The final analysis included patients without an electrophysiological device (n = 3102) and those with an ICD (n = 600) at the time of enrollment. During a median follow-up of 300 days, all-cause mortality was 22.9% in the no device group and 35.2% in the ICD group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-1.89). Rehospitalization for HF was 27.0% in the no device group and 46.8% in the ICD group (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.92-2.52). After adjustment for multiple variables, the rates for all-cause mortality were similar (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.83-1.22), but the ICD group had elevated rates of HF hospitalizations compared with the no device group (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.60). In patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, an ICD at presentation for hospitalization for worsening HF was associated with similar rates of death but higher rates of rehospitalization for HF. Given our findings, further studies should investigate optimization of care in patients already implanted with an ICD as well as the role of ICD implantation during or soon after hospitalization for HF in patients not yet implanted.
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Caregiver Burden, Health Utilities, and Institutional Service Costs Among Community-dwelling Patients With Alzheimer Disease.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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This study examined the moderating effect of caregiver burden on the relationship between patients health status and institutional costs in Alzheimer disease (AD). Data were obtained on whether 421 community-dwelling patients with AD in the CATIE-AD trial received institutional services in the month preceding baseline and at 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month follow-up. All participants had a caregiver who lived with or visited them regularly. Outcome variables include hospital, nursing home, residential, and combined institutional costs. Mixed models were employed to estimate the interaction of Health Utility Index (HUI)-III scores (a health status measure) and 5 measures of caregiver burden. Wherever significant, results indicate that greater caregiver burden weakens the inverse relationship between health utilities and institutional costs, leading to greater costs than would be expected at a given level of health. Altogether 45.0% of the models (9/20) showed this effect (positive coefficient on the burden-HUI interaction term). Interventions to support caregivers should be based on caregiver burden, regardless of care recipient health status, for even seemingly manageable patients may be at heightened risk for institutionalization if caregivers experience sufficiently high levels of burden.
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Determination of hospitalization type by investigator case report form or adjudication committee in a large heart failure clinical trial (?-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial [BEST]).
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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End point committees are routinely used to adjudicate efficacy and safety end points in clinical trials. The 2,708-patient ?-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) originally determined hospitalization type via investigator case report forms (CRFs), which captured whether a hospitalization was due to worsening heart failure (HF). Recently, the BEST End Points Committee (EPC) completed a blinded adjudication of all hospitalizations, allowing a comparison of the CRF method to the EPC method of determining hospitalization type. We sought to compare the investigator-determined mode of hospitalizations with the adjudicated events, to quantify the degree of agreement, and to compare the clinical trial results by method of event classification.
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Importance of blood pressure control in left ventricular mass regression.
J Am Soc Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Blood pressure (BP) reduction to 140/90 mm Hg or lower using renin-angiotensin-system blockers reportedly provides the greatest left ventricular (LV) mass regression; ?-blockers have less effect. This study examined whether combination antihypertensive therapy would provide greater benefit. With a double-blind, parallel-group design, the effects of 3 different combinations, carvedilol controlled-release (CR)/lisinopril, atenolol/lisinopril, and lisinopril, on left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were assessed by MRI after 12 months. Patients were treated to achieve guideline-recommended BP (<140 mm Hg/<90 mm Hg; diabetes: <130 mm Hg/<80 mm Hg). Sample size was calculated to achieve 90% power to detect a 5 g/m(2) difference in mean change from baseline in LVMI between the carvedilol CR/lisinopril group and each of the other treatment groups. Of 287 patients randomized, more than 50% were titrated to maximum dosage; 73% reached targeted BP. At month 12 (last observation carried forward ? month 9) for 195 evaluable subjects, mean BP was similar in all groups (carvedilol CR/lisinopril: 128.8/77.9; atenolol/lisinopril: 128.7/76.5; lisinopril: 126.3/80.3 mm Hg). Compared with baseline, mean LVMI decreased to a similar extent in all groups (carvedilol CR/lisinopril: -6.3; atenolol/lisinopril: -6.7; lisinopril: -7.9 g/m(2)). Achievement of targeted BP control is more important than treatment regimen in achieving LV mass reduction.
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Comparison of pioglitazone vs glyburide in early heart failure: insights from a randomized controlled study of patients with type 2 diabetes and mild cardiac disease.
Congest Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Pioglitazone may cause fluid retention, a well-known side effect of thiazolidinediones, and may exacerbate heart failure. Patients with type 2 diabetes and mild cardiac disease (New York Heart Association functional class I) received pioglitazone (n=151) or glyburide (n=149) for 1 year. The primary endpoint was change in distance covered in the 6-minute walk test. Main secondary endpoints included comparison of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, analysis of changes from baseline in cardiac structure and function by echocardiogram, and lipid panel. There was no significant treatment difference in the mean change from baseline in the 6-minute walk test (-11.7 m [95% confidence interval, -29.79 to 6.42]). Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity were not significantly different between the treatment groups. Echocardiographic data suggested no significant deterioration in cardiac function with pioglitazone, although more heart failure (10 vs 7 patients), edema (21.2% vs 12.8%), and weight gain (2.56+/-4.62 kg vs 0.86+/-3.85 kg) were observed than with glyburide.
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Diagnosis blog: checking up on health blogs in the blogosphere.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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We analyzed the content and characteristics of influential health blogs and bloggers to provide a more thorough understanding of the health blogosphere than was previously available.
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The Commonwealth Fund Survey of Long-Term Care Specialists.
Med Care Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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The Commonwealth Fund Survey of Long-Term Care of Specialists was administered via the World Wide Web from September 2007 through March 2008. The primary purpose was to characterize the views of those with known or demonstrable experience and expertise with at least one aspect of long-term care. Among 2,577 potential respondents, 1,147 completed the entire survey for an overall response rate of 44.5%. This special supplement of Medical Care Research and Review uses data collected from the survey to explore several issue areas, namely, reforming long-term care financing, improving government oversight, adopting nursing home culture change, and rebalancing long-term care away from institutions toward home- and community-based services. Analyses documenting the opinion networks of long-term care specialists and the relationship between network characteristics and attitudes toward reform are also reported. Two leading experts provide commentary as well. Details of the studys methodology and issue content are described.
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Measuring aortic pulse wave velocity using high-field cardiovascular magnetic resonance: comparison of techniques.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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The assessment of arterial stiffness is increasingly used for evaluating patients with different cardiovascular diseases as the mechanical properties of major arteries are often altered. Aortic stiffness can be noninvasively estimated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV). Several methods have been proposed for measuring PWV using velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), including transit-time (TT), flow-area (QA), and cross-correlation (XC) methods. However, assessment and comparison of these techniques at high field strength has not yet been performed. In this work, the TT, QA, and XC techniques were clinically tested at 3 Tesla and compared to each other.
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The taste for regulation in long-term care.
Med Care Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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Concerns about the quality of long-term care have resulted in an extensive array of regulations governing provider behavior. This article reports the results of a survey of 1,147 long-term care specialists on issues related to the governments performance in assuring quality and improving care. With the exception of providers, more than half of specialists ranked the quality of the average nursing home as fair or poor; home health agencies and even assisted-living facilities fared only somewhat better. Yet despite the perceived ineffectiveness of the current regime, the majority of specialists expressed a general willingness to continue pursuing more stringent and enhanced enforcement and to proceed down the same path with assisted-living facilities. Furthermore, while most were not sanguine about public reporting, the majority favored pay-for-performance, even though both rely on the same information. In addition to constituency group affiliation, differences in views derived largely from respondents ideological predispositions.
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Supporting home- and community-based care: views of long-term care specialists.
Med Care Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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A significant rebalancing of the long-term care system away from nursing homes toward home- and community-based services (HCBS) has occurred over the past two decades. This article reports the results of the Commonwealth Fund Long-Term Care Opinion Leader Survey (N = 1,147) on issues related to supporting HCBS. Respondents expressed strong enthusiasm for rebalancing of the long-term care system toward HCBS. In particular, respondents supported system-based approaches for this expansion, with the majority indicating that greater care coordination was the single most preferred approach for rebalancing the system, helping consumers make informed long-term care choices, and supporting caregivers. Building on the long-term care specialists enthusiasm for system-based reforms, we encourage state policy makers to pursue HCBS models that are linked to Medicare, engage primary care physicians, and are based on rigorous evaluations.
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Opinion networks among long-term care specialists.
Med Care Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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A challenge in the adoption of long-term care (LTC) policy reform is the number of constituency groups active in LTC and historical antagonism among these groups regarding critical issues such as LTC financing and regulation. As part of a national survey of LTC specialists, the authors asked previously identified specialists to nominate other "experts" with known or demonstrable experience in LTC. As a proxy for potential information exchange, data about nominations were used to construct and describe the networks of LTC specialists representing consumer advocates, provider representatives, public officials, policy experts, and others. Associations between network characteristics and attitudes about LTC policy reform were also examined. Individuals tended to nominate other people within their same constituency group as experts. Academic and research-based policy experts were most likely to be classified as prominent network members. Network structure was associated with attitudes toward LTC financing but not the regulation of nursing homes.
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Weighing public and private options for reforming long-term care financing: findings from a national survey of specialists.
Med Care Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Deficiencies in current long-term care (LTC) financing models are substantial and must be addressed if the nation is going to meet the needs of the growing population of frail and disabled elders. Because debate over reforming LTC financing has traditionally focused on the relative roles of the public and private sectors, this article examines what characteristics predispose LTC specialists to weigh one approach--public or private--more than the other. Data are derived from a Web-based survey of 1,147 individuals with known or demonstrable experience with LTC, including consumer advocates, provider representatives, policy experts, and public officials. Results suggest that support for spurring private sector mechanisms, bolstering the governments role, and reforming Medicare and Medicaid vary with key characteristics of the respondents, including experiential, attitudinal, and background variables. Findings also suggest consensus that reform of LTC financing should improve on the current public-private partnership in this area.
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Nursing home organizational change: the "Culture Change" movement as viewed by long-term care specialists.
Med Care Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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A decade-long grassroots movement aims to deinstitutionalize nursing home (NH) environments and individualize care. Coined "NH Culture Change" the movement is often described by its resident-centered/directed care focus. While empirical data of "culture changes" costs and benefits are limited, it is broadly viewed as beneficial and widely promoted. Still, debate abounds regarding barriers to its adoption. We used data from a Web-based survey of 1,147 long-term care specialists (including NH and other providers, consumers/advocates, state and federal government officials, university/academic, researchers/consultants, and others) to better understand factors associated with perceived barriers. Long-term care specialists view the number-one barrier to adoption differently depending on their employment, familiarity with culture change, and their underlying policy views. To promote adoption, research and broad-based educational efforts are needed to influence views and perceptions. Fundamental changes in the regulatory process together with targeted regulatory changes and payment incentives may also be needed.
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Mode of death in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction: results from the Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Study (I-Preserve) trial.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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The mode of death has been well characterized in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction; however, less is known about the mode of death in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). The purpose of this study was to examine the mode of death in patients with HFPEF enrolled in the Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Study (I-Preserve) trial and to determine whether irbesartan altered the distribution of mode of death in HFPEF.
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Predictors of nursing home admission among Alzheimers disease patients with psychosis and/or agitation.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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The purpose of this study is to identify factors that predict nursing home placement among community-dwelling Alzheimers disease (AD) patients with psychosis and/or agitation in a randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00015548).
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Causes of death and rehospitalization in patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: results from Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) program.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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The postdischarge rehospitalization and death rates are high in patients with acute heart failure (HF) syndromes despite optimization of standard therapy for chronic HF. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no systematic analysis of the causes of death and rehospitalization in this patient population.
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A canary in the coal mine: documenting citizenship and identity in the State of Massachusetts.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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The U.S. federal government requires original documentation of citizenship and identity for applicants to qualify for coverage under Medicaid. The purpose of this investigation is to identify what challenges one state Medicaid agency has faced when implementing this requirement; and to identify what strategies this agency and other interested parties (e.g., providers, community advocates) adopted to help overcome them.
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Maximizing federal Medicaid dollars: nursing home provider tax adoption, 2000-2004.
J Health Polit Policy Law
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2009
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Since Medicaid is jointly financed by the federal and state governments, state officials have sought to offset state expenditures by maximizing federal contributions. One such strategy is to adopt a provider tax, which enables states to collect revenues from providers; those revenues are then used to pay for services rendered to Medicaid recipients, thereby leveraging federal matching dollars without concomitant increases in state expenditures. The number of states adopting a nursing home tax increased from thirteen to thirty-one between 2000 and 2004. This study seeks to identify the factors that spurred the rapid increase in nursing home provider taxes following implementation of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Results indicate that states with more powerful nursing home lobbies, lower proportions of private pay nursing home residents, worse fiscal health, weaker fiscal capacity, broader Medicaid eligibility, and nursing home supply restrictions were more likely to adopt. This implies that state officials react rationally to prevailing fiscal and programmatic circumstances when formulating policy under Medicaid and that providers seek relief, in part, from the adverse fiscal consequences of federal policy changes by promoting policy change at the state level.
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The impact of B-type natriuretic peptide, New York Heart Association classification and depression on quality of life in nonhospitalized heart failure patients.
Prog Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Healthcare providers should be concerned with improving the quality of life (QOL) of patients with heart failure (HF) because disease-specific QOL is linked to disease progression. The present study investigated the significance of elevated b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), NYHA classification and depression to HF-related QOL to develop better management strategies. Outpatient subjects with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (n=108; mean age=64.9+/-12) completed the self-administered Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Functional status was measured using the New York Heart Association Classification (NYHA) and BNP concentrations were measured in plasma samples. Multiregression analysis determined that plasma BNP levels did not contribute significantly to the total QOL score while depression (r=0.63, t ratio=7.43, P<.0001) and NHYA class (r=0.47, t ratio=3.31, P<.001) were significant contributors. NYHA III subjects exhibited worse depression scores (II 15+/-7 and III: 22+/-10, P<.001) and elevated plasma BNP (II: 2.0+/-0.5 and III: 2.4+/-0.6, P<.001). Low-cost psychological assessments are recommended to evaluate depression and suggest that those HF patients with NYHA III be closely monitored for depression and reduced QOL.
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Hemorrhagic gastritis and duodenitis following celiac plexus neurolysis.
Pain Physician
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Neurolytic celiac plexus block is a well established intervention to palliate pain, and it potentially improves quality of life in patients suffering from an upper abdominal malignancy, specifically pancreatic cancer.
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Assessing the relationship between health utilities, quality of life, and health services use in Alzheimers disease.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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To examine the relationship between use of multiple health services and health utilities, quality of life and other factors in Alzheimers disease (AD).
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Blocking aldosterone in heart failure.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Fifty years after its discovery, aldosterone continues to stimulate interest as a therapeutic target. Early studies focused on aldosterones actions on hypertension, the kidney, and electrolyte handling. More recently, its actions on the heart and cardiovascular system have become more apparent. Aldosterone causes cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, and stimulates neurohormonal systems that adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Aldosterone antagonism attenuates these negative effects. Clinical studies have applied this science and demonstrated improved morbidity and mortality with aldosterone blockade, specifically in patients with chronic heart failure and patients who are postmyocardial infarction and with depressed left ventricular function. This article will address the pathophysiology of aldosterone in cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, review the current clinical trial data, and explore the application of aldosterone blockade in an expanded heart failure population. The Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study showed that the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone reduced mortality when compared to placebo in patients with chronic advanced heart failure. Similarly, the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality and hospitalizations for patients randomized to the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone. A more provocative question is whether aldosterone antagonism will afford the same protection in patient populations with heart failure and preserved left ventricular function. Clinical trials are underway, and results are eagerly awaited.
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Understanding heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: clinical importance and future outlook.
Congest Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) accounts for approximately one half of all HF patients admitted with acute decompensated HF and carries a significant morbidity and mortality burden. This condition, however, has been largely understudied because it is difficult to diagnose, and management guidelines are still being discussed. This article provides an overview of HF-PEF and its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment, with a focus on clinical trials using renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. Inhibitors of the RAAS have been studied in HF-PEF to determine whether their benefits extend beyond blood pressure control. However, the 3 trials conducted to date (CHARM-Preserved, PEP-CHF, and I-PRESERVE) with candesartan, perindopril, and irbesartan, have failed to demonstrate significant morbidity and mortality benefits. Although no agent has proven statistically significant benefits in morbidity and mortality in HF-PEF, recent studies have added to the breadth of clinical data and understanding of the demographics of these patients.
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Extracellular potassium dependency of block of HERG by quinidine and cisapride is primarily determined by the permeant ion and not by inactivation.
Channels (Austin)
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Drug induced Long QT syndrome results primarily from block of the cardiac potassium channel HERG (human-ether-a-go-go related gene). In some cases prolongation of the QT interval can result in the lethal arrhythmia torsade de pointes, an arrhythmia characterized by a rapid heart rate and severely compromised cardiac output. Many patients requiring medication present with abnormal serum electrolyte levels due to a variety of conditions including gastrointestinal dysfunction, renal and endocrine disorders, diuretic use, alcoholism and aging. Extracellular cations have significant influence on HERG channel gating and in some instances they have been shown to alter drug block of HERG. However, the mechanisms by which drug block is altered in different extracellular cation solutions are not well understood. In this study, HERG block by quinidine and cisapride was assessed in extracellular solutions of calcium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and tetraethylammonium (TEA) using two-electrode voltage clamping of Xenopus oocytes. Consistent with previous reports we show that increases in extracellular potassium reduce HERG block by quinidine and cisapride. We also show that increasing extracellular rubidium and cesium reduced HERG block by quinidine and cisapride whereas increasing extracellular calcium and extracellular TEA did not alter HERG block by quinidine and cisapride. These results demonstrate that at lower extracellular potassium concentrations, the permeant ion is almost exclusively responsible for the reduction in quinidine and cisapride block of HERG due to increases in extracellular potassium.
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Reforming long-term care in the United States: findings from a national survey of specialists.
Gerontologist
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2009
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Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists nationwide.
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Sotalol as adjunctive therapy to implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in heart failure patients.
Congest Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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The number of heart failure patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators is rising. Common issues encountered in this population are high defibrillation thresholds and inappropriate shocks. In order to resolve these problems, the addition of a class III antiarrhythmic such as sotalol is often considered. Given the emerging issue of polypharmacy and medication compliance in the heart failure population, the question of the efficacy of sotalol in reducing inappropriate shocks, defibrillation thresholds, and its ability to replace conventional beta-blockers is often raised. Current literature review suggests that sotalol is a useful adjunct to the contemporary heart failure regimen. It has the ability to reduce inappropriate shocks and defibrillation thresholds, but appears not to fully reproduce the pleiotropic beneficial effects of the beta-blockers more commonly employed for their mortality/remodeling benefits in heart failure patients.
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The influence of national policy change on subnational policymaking: Medicaid nursing facility reimbursement in the American states.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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This study proposes that exogenous shocks emanating from national governments can significantly change health policy processes among subnational units. The relevance of this insight for comparative health policy research is examined in the context of Medicaid nursing facility reimbursement policymaking in the American states. Event history techniques are used to model state adoption of case-mix methods for reimbursing nursing homes under Medicaid from 1980 to 2004. Case-mix adjusts Medicaid nursing home payments for patient acuity, thereby enabling states to pay more for residents with higher care needs and to pay less for residents with lower care needs. The goal is to improve access for more resource intensive Medicaid beneficiaries and to distribute payments more equitably across the providers who serve them. The most noteworthy national policy changes affecting case-mix implementation by state governments were adoption of nursing home quality reform with the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987 and case-mix by Medicare with the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997. In light of the 1990 and 1999 implementation of OBRA 1987 and the BBA, respectively, five models were estimated, which in addition to covering the entire time period studied (1980-2004) include pre-/post-BBA comparisons (1980-1998, 1999-2004) and pre-/post-OBRA 1987 comparisons (1980-1989, 1990-1998). Results suggest that in contrast to early adoption, which tended to be grounded in the capabilities of innovative states, later adoption tended to take place among less capable states influenced more by the changing federal policy environment. They also highlight the salience of programmatic and fiscal conditions but during the middle of the adoption cycle only. Future research should clarify the ways in which national policy changes influence health policy adoption at the subnational level, both in other nations and across different levels of government.
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Reliability associated with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) adapted for the telemedicine context.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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This studys purpose was to adapt the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) for telemedicine clinics and to investigate the adapted measures reliability. The study also sought to better understand the volume of technology-related utterance in established telemedicine clinics and the feasibility of using the measure within the telemedicine setting. This initial evaluation is a first step before broadly using the adapted measure across technologies and raters.
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Wheres the revolution? Digital technology and health care in the internet age.
J Health Polit Policy Law
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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Despite the growing use of online resources, it is unclear how many Americans are using the World Wide Web for different health-related purposes and whether factors promoting use of the Internet in health care correspond with those affecting more traditional in-person and telemedicine encounters. This research uses a national public opinion survey to examine the degree to which health care consumers communicate through conventional, face-to-face consultation, telemedicine, or digital technology, and the relationship between these means of communication and respondent characteristics. Results indicate that few people are using digital technology to get information, communicate with health personnel, or make online medical purchases. Furthermore, less well educated, lower-income individuals living in rural areas tend to use the health care Internet less than others. Several policy measures need to be undertaken in order to accelerate the appropriate use of digital technology by health care consumers of all kinds. These include improving education and technological literacy and providing access to low-cost digital technology. Without a consumer complement to prevailing efforts to spur health information technology development and implementation on the part of providers, the promise of the digital revolution will continue to be limited to certain better-connected segments of the population.
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Does clinicians knowledge of B-type natriuretic peptide levels translate to improvement of quality of life and less hospitalization days in patients with heart failure?
Prog Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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This pilot study was conducted to determine whether clinicians knowledge of b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in individuals with heart failure (HF) correlates with better outcomes including quality of life (QOL) and hospital length of stay (LOS) over a 90-day period. HF clinic patients were randomized into 2 groups: clinician aware (BNP group; n=50) or blinded to BNP levels (control group; n=42). BNP levels were measured at baseline using the BNP Immunoassay Kit. QOL was measured by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) questionnaire, and hospital LOS were measured at baseline and 90 days. There was no significant difference in BNP levels between groups. Compared with baseline scores (46.87+/-29.63), mean QOL scores at 90 days (37.46+/-28.67) were not significantly different for both groups. Hospital LOS was also similar for both groups (mean=3 days). BNP levels were significantly correlated with New York Heart Association classification (P=.05), ejection fraction (P=0.0001), creatinine levels (P=0.05), and overall Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire scores (P=.01). Clinicians knowledge of BNP levels is not associated with better outcomes of QOL or hospital LOS in HF patients. However, BNP levels are correlated with functional status and physiological parameters. Further research is needed to determine whether other factors influence QOL and hospital LOS of HF patients.
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The devils in the details: trading policy goals for complexity in medicaid nursing home reimbursement.
J Health Polit Policy Law
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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There is great variability in how much nursing home providers are paid for a day of care for a Medicaid recipient, how the payment level is set, and what mechanisms are used to reimburse facilities. Given the absence of recent, comprehensive in-depth analyses of state reimbursement systems, this article undertakes a comparative case analysis of Medicaid nursing facility reimbursement in Alabama, California, Minnesota, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Findings indicate that states design their methods of reimbursement to achieve desired policy outcomes related to facility cost and quality, access to care, payment equity, service capacity, and budgetary control. The result, however, has been the development of enormously complex and demanding rate-setting methodologies, the adverse consequences of which can outweigh and overwhelm the discrete policy objectives contained in the reimbursement formula. This complexity highlights the potential trade-off between achieving desired goals and costly administrative burdens, opportunities for appeal and disagreement, difficulties understanding the ramifications of system changes, reliance on simplified decision-making rules, and exclusion of otherwise interested parties from the policy process.
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Commentary: navigating the labyrinth of long-term care: shoring up informal caregiving in a home- and community-based world.
J Aging Soc Policy
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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Informal caregivers face difficulties navigating the services and funding sources that constitute long-term care. Indeed, barriers to identifying and accessing even the most basic resources compound the sense of isolation felt by millions of unpaid individuals who provide the bulk of long-term care. Though expansion of home- and community-based options is welcomed, it may also shift additional caregiving burden onto an already overburdened informal care system, especially when the intention is to delay or substitute for institutional care. This essay argues that growing government emphasis on rebalancing long-term care away from nursing homes will founder unless public officials recognize increased burdens on the informal care system.
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Prospective assessment of the occurrence of anemia in patients with heart failure: results from the Study of Anemia in a Heart Failure Population (STAMINA-HFP) Registry.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2009
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Although a potentially important pathophysiologic factor in heart failure, the prevalence and predictors of anemia have not been well studied in unselected patients with heart failure.
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Effect of bucindolol on heart failure outcomes and heart rate response in patients with reduced ejection fraction heart failure and atrial fibrillation.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
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There is little evidence of beta-blocker treatment benefit in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFREF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the effects of bucindolol in HFREF patients with AF enrolled in the Beta-blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST).
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Role of the activation gate in determining the extracellular potassium dependency of block of HERG by trapped drugs.
Channels (Austin)
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Drug induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS) results primarily from block of the cardiac potassium channel HERG (human-ether-a-go-go related gene). In some cases long QT syndrome can result in the lethal arrhythmia torsade de pointes, an arrhythmia characterized by a rapid heart rate and severely compromised cardiac output. Many patients requiring medication present with serum potassium abnormalities due to a variety of conditions including gastrointestinal dysfunction, renal and endocrine disorders, diuretic use, and aging. Extracellular potassium influences HERG channel inactivation and can alter block of HERG by some drugs. However, block of HERG by a number of drugs is not sensitive to extracellular potassium. In this study, we show that block of WT HERG by bepridil and terfenadine, two drugs previously shown to be trapped inside the HERG channel after the channel closes, is insensitive to extracellular potassium over the range of 0 mM to 20 mM. We also show that bepridil block of the HERG mutant D540K, a mutant channel that is unable to trap drugs, is dependent on extracellular potassium, correlates with the permeant ion, and is independent of HERG inactivation. These results suggest that the lack of extracellular potassium dependency of block of HERG by some drugs may in part be related to the ability of these drugs to be trapped inside the channel after the channel closes.
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National newspaper portrayal of U.S. nursing homes: periodic treatment of topic and tone.
Milbank Q
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Although observers have long highlighted the relationship of public distrust, government regulation, and media depictions of nursing-home scandals, no study has systematically analyzed the way in which nursing homes have been portrayed in the national media. This study examines how nursing homes were depicted in four leading national newspapers-the New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, and Los Angeles Times-from 1999 to 2008.
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Engaging consumers in medicaid nursing home reimbursement policy: lessons from New York and Minnesota.
Gerontologist
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This study draws lessons for successful consumer engagement in Medicaid nursing home (NH) reimbursement policy from New York and Minnesota. In these two states, resident advocates have influenced reimbursement policy to better encourage access, care quality, and quality of life.
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Combinatorial pharmacogenetic interactions of bucindolol and ?1, ?2C adrenergic receptor polymorphisms.
PLoS ONE
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Pharmacogenetics involves complex interactions of gene products affecting pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, but there is little information on the interaction of multiple genetic modifiers of drug response. Bucindolol is a ?-blocker/sympatholytic agent whose efficacy is modulated by polymorphisms in the primary target (?(1) adrenergic receptor [AR] Arg389 Gly on cardiac myocytes) and a secondary target modifier (?(2C) AR Ins [wild-type (Wt)] 322-325 deletion [Del] on cardiac adrenergic neurons). The major allele homozygotes and minor allele carriers of each polymorphism are respectively associated with efficacy enhancement and loss, creating the possibility for genotype combination interactions that can be measured by clinical trial methodology.
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Veterans use of non-VHA services: implications for policy and planning.
Soc Work Public Health
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Most Veterans elect not to use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), even if eligible, or access the VHA system but rely on non-VHA providers as well. Given considerable cross-system use, failure to account for non-VHA care can bias conclusions about prevalence and incidence in utilization, diagnoses, and other characteristics. Furthermore, though dual VHA and non-VHA use provides Veterans with additional service options, it makes it difficult for VHA to ensure continuity of care. To better coordinate services, the VHA needs to construct the necessary health information bridges while widening the purview of case management programs. These changes are especially important in light of increased demand for care among younger Veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanstain and older Veterans who served in previous wars.
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The affordable care act and long-term care: comprehensive reform or just tinkering around the edges?
J Aging Soc Policy
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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes several provisions that aim to improve prevailing deficiencies in the nations long-term care system. But just how effective is the ACA likely to be in addressing these challenges? Will it result in meaningful or marginal reform? This special issue of Journal of Aging & Social Policy seeks to answer these questions. The most prominent long-term care provision is the now-suspended Community Living Assistance Services and Supports Act. Others include incentives and options for expanding home- and community-based care, a number of research and demonstration projects in the areas of chronic care coordination and the dually eligible, and nursing home quality reforms. There are also elements that seek to improve workforce recruitment and retention, in addition to benefit improvements and spending reductions under Medicare. This article reviews the basic problems plaguing the long-term care sector and the provisions within the ACA meant to address them. It also includes a brief overview of issue content.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.