Adverse conditions in utero can have transgenerational effects, in the absence of a subsequent insult. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the maternal pregnancy environment vs. germ line effects in mediating alterations to cardiorenal and metabolic physiology in offspring from mothers born small. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (Restricted group) or sham surgery (Control group) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Restricted and control female offspring (F1) were mated with either breeder males (embryo donor) or vasectomized males (embryo recipient). Embryo transfer was performed at embryonic day (E) 1, whereby second-generation (F2) embryos gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a control (Cont-in-Cont, Rest-in-Cont) or restricted (Cont-in-Rest, Rest-in-Rest) mother. In male and female offspring, glomerular number and size were measured at postnatal day (PN) 35, and systolic blood pressure, glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic ?-cell mass were measured in separate sibling cohorts at 6 mo. Rest-in-Rest offspring were hypothesized to have similar characteristics (reduced growth, altered metabolic control, and hypertension) to non-embryo-transferred Rest, such that embryo transfer would not be a confounding experimental influence. However, embryo-transferred Rest-in-Rest offspring underwent accelerated growth during the peripubertal phase, followed by slowed growth between 2 and 3 mo of age compared with non-embryo-transferred Rest groups. Furthermore, renal function and insulin response to a glucose load were different to respective non-embryo-transferred groups. Our data demonstrate the long-term effects of in vitro embryo manipulation, which confounded the utility of this approach in delineating between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects that drive transgenerational outcomes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.