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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification of putative substrates for the periplasmic chaperone YfgM in Escherichia coli using quantitative proteomics.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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How proteins are trafficked, folded and assembled into functional units in the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is of significant interest. A number of chaperones have been identified, however the molecular roles of these chaperones are largely enigmatic because it has been challenging to assign substrates. Recently we discovered a novel periplasmic chaperone, called YfgM, which associates with the SecYEG translocon and operates in a network that contains Skp and SurA. The aim of the study presented here was to identify putative substrates of YfgM. We reasoned that substrates would be incorrectly folded or trafficked when YfgM was absent from the cell, and thus more prone to proteolysis (the loss-of-function rationale). We therefore used a comparative proteomic approach to identify cell envelope proteins that were lower in abundance in a strain lacking yfgM, and strains lacking yfgM together with either skp or surA. Sixteen putative substrates were identified. The list contained nine inner membrane proteins (CusS, EvgS, MalF, OsmC, TdcB, TdcC, WrbA, YfhB, YtfH) and seven periplasmic proteins (HdeA, HdeB, AnsB, Ggt, MalE, YcgK and YnjE), but it did not include any lipoproteins or outer membrane proteins. Significantly, AnsB (an asparaginase) and HdeB (a protein involved in the acid stress response), were lower in abundance in all three strains lacking yfgM. For both genes we ruled out the possibility that they were transcriptionally down-regulated, so it is highly likely that the corresponding proteins are misfolded / mistargeted and turned-over in the absence of YfgM. For HdeB we validated this conclusion in a pulse-chase experiment. The identification of HdeB and other cell envelope proteins as potential substrates of YfgM, will be a valuable resource for follow-up experiments that aim to delineate molecular function.
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Characterization and usage of the EASY-spray technology as part of an online 2D SCX-RP ultra-high pressure system.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems combined with state-of-the-art mass spectrometers have pushed the limit of deep proteome sequencing to new heights making it possible to identify thousands of proteins in a single LC-MS experiment within a few hours. The recently released EASY-spray technology allows one to implement nano-UHPLC with straightforwardness. In this work we initially characterized the EASY-spray containing a 50 cm column containing <2 ?m particles and found that the system allowed 3000 proteins to be identified in 90 minutes. We then asked the question whether a fast and sensitive online 2D SCX-RP UHPLC-MS/MS workflow could compete with 1D long gradient analyses, using total analysis time versus proteome coverage and sample usage as benchmark parameters. The 2D LC-MS strategy consisted of the EASY-spray system that had been augmented by the addition of an SCX column. The conversion was made facile since no additional valves were required and by the use of components containing viper fittings. We benchmarked the system using a human cell lysate digest (<10 ?g). The 2D SCX-RP UHPLC-MS/MS workflow allowed the identification of almost 37?000 unique peptides and 6000 proteins in a total analysis time of ?7 hours. On the same system a 1D RP UHPLC-MS/MS workflow plateaued at only 20?000 peptides and 4400 unique proteins and required approx. 8 hours of analysis time. Furthermore, the 2D workflow could continue to increase the proteome coverage with longer analysis times, in fact with a 21 hour analysis we identified 56?600 unique peptides and >7500 proteins. We report, here, that with this fast online SCX-RP UHPLC-MS/MS workflow, the proteome coverage can be substantially extended without significantly compromising the analysis time and sample usage.
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USP17- and SCF?TrCP-Regulated Degradation of DEC1 Controls the DNA Damage Response.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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In response to genotoxic stress, DNA damage checkpoints maintain the integrity of the genome by delaying cell cycle progression to allow for DNA repair. Here we show that the degradation of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor DEC1, a critical regulator of cell fate and circadian rhythms, controls the DNA damage response. During unperturbed cell cycles, DEC1 is a highly unstable protein that is targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation by the SCF(?TrCP) ubiquitin ligase in cooperation with CK1. Upon DNA damage, DEC1 is rapidly induced in an ATM/ATR-dependent manner. DEC1 induction results from protein stabilization via a mechanism that requires the USP17 ubiquitin protease. USP17 binds and deubiquitylates DEC1, markedly extending its half-life. Subsequently, during checkpoint recovery, DEC1 proteolysis is reestablished through ?TrCP-dependent ubiquitylation. Expression of a degradation-resistant DEC1 mutant prevents checkpoint recovery by inhibiting the downregulation of p53. These results indicate that the regulated degradation of DEC1 is a key factor controlling the DNA damage response.
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Flexibility in crosstalk between H2B ubiquitination and H3 methylation in vivo.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Histone H2B ubiquitination is a dynamic modification that promotes methylation of histone H3K79 and H3K4. This crosstalk is important for the DNA damage response and has been implicated in cancer. Here, we show that in engineered yeast strains, ubiquitins tethered to every nucleosome promote H3K79 and H3K4 methylation from a proximal as well as a more distal site, but only if in a correct orientation. This plasticity indicates that the exact location of the attachment site, the native ubiquitin-lysine linkage and ubiquitination cycles are not critical for trans-histone crosstalk in vivo. The flexibility in crosstalk also indicates that other ubiquitination events may promote H3 methylation.
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Degradation of Tiam1 by casein kinase 1 and the SCF?TrCP ubiquitin ligase controls the duration of mTOR-S6K signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Tiam1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that specifically controls the activity of the small GTPase Rac, a key regulator of cell adhesion, proliferation, and survival. Here, we report that in response to mitogens, Tiam1 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system via the SCF(?TrCP) ubiquitin ligase. Mitogenic stimulation triggers the binding of Tiam1 to the F-box protein ?TrCP via its degron sequence and subsequent Tiam1 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The proteolysis of Tiam1 is prevented by ?TrCP silencing, inhibition of CK1 and MEK, or mutation of the Tiam1 degron site. Expression of a stable Tiam1 mutant that is unable to interact with ?TrCP results in sustained activation of the mTOR/S6K signaling and increased apoptotic cell death. We propose that the SCF(?TrCP)-mediated degradation of Tiam1 controls the duration of the mTOR-S6K signaling pathway in response to mitogenic stimuli.
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A Systematic Evaluation of Protein Kinase A-A-Kinase Anchoring Protein Interaction Motifs.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RI?, RI?, RII?, and RII?) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present in each of the more than 40 AKAPs reported so far. This allows for tight anchoring of PKA and efficient communication with other signaling proteins that interact with the AKAP scaffold in a spatial and temporal manner. The hydrophobic interaction surfaces of the PKA-R dimer and several AKAP helices have been investigated in great detail. Despite this knowledge, not every suggested AKAP has had its binding motif specified. Here we created an efficient bioinformatic tool, termed THAHIT, to accurately map the PKA binding motif and/or additional motifs of all previously reported AKAPs. Moreover, THAHIT predicts its specificity toward PKA-RI? and/or PKA-RII? binding. To verify the validity of these newly predicted anchoring sites and their putative specificities, we used computational modeling approaches (HADDOCK), biochemical affinity studies (fluorescence anisotropy), and cellular colocalization studies. We further demonstrate the potential of THAHIT to identify novel AKAPs in cAMP-based chemical proteomics discovery data sets, and the human proteome. We retrieved numerous novel AKAP candidates, including a never reported 330 kDa AKAP observed in heart tissue, which we further characterized biochemically as a PKA-RII? binder. Altogether, THAHIT provides a comprehensive overview of known and novel PKA-AKAP interaction domains and their PKA-R specificities.
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Characterization of biases in phosphopeptide enrichment by Ti(4+)-immobilized metal affinity chromatography and TiO2 using a massive synthetic library and human cell digests.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Outcomes of comparative evaluations of enrichment methods for phosphopeptides depend highly on the experimental protocols used, the operator, the source of the affinity matrix, and the samples analyzed. Here, we attempt such a comparative study exploring a very large synthetic library containing thousands of serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphorylated peptides, being present in roughly equal abundance, along with their nonphosphorylated counterparts, and use an optimized protocol for enrichment by TiO2 and Ti(4+)-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) by a single operator. Surprisingly, our data reveal that there are minimal differences between enrichment of phosphopeptides by TiO2 and Ti(4+)-IMAC when considering biochemical and biophysical parameters such as peptide length, sequence surrounding the site, hydrophobicity, and nature of the amino acid phosphorylated. Similar results were obtained when evaluating a tryptic digest of a cellular lysate, representing a more natural source of phosphopeptides. All the data presented are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000759.
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Proteome adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to severe calorie restriction in Retentostat cultures.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Stationary-phase, carbon-starved shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are popular models for studying eukaryotic chronological aging. However, their nutrient-starved physiological status differs substantially from that of postmitotic metazoan cells. Retentostat cultures offer an attractive alternative model system in which yeast cells, maintained under continuous calorie restriction, hardly divide but retain high metabolic activity and viability for prolonged periods of time. Using TMT labeling and UHPLC-MS/MS, the present study explores the proteome of yeast cultures during transition from exponential growth to near-zero growth in severely calorie-restricted retentostats. This transition elicited protein level changes in 20% of the yeast proteome. Increased abundance of heat shock-related proteins correlated with increased transcript levels of the corresponding genes and was consistent with a strongly increased heat shock tolerance of retentostat-grown cells. A sizable fraction (43%) of the proteins with increased abundance under calorie restriction was involved in oxidative phosphorylation and in various mitochondrial functions that, under the anaerobic, nongrowing conditions used, have a very limited role. Although it may seem surprising that yeast cells confronted with severe calorie restriction invest in the synthesis of proteins that, under those conditions, do not contribute to fitness, these responses may confer metabolic flexibility and thereby a selective advantage in fluctuating natural habitats.
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Analytical approaches for size and mass analysis of large protein assemblies.
Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Analysis of the size and mass of nanoparticles, whether they are natural biomacromolecular or synthetic supramolecular assemblies, is an important step in the characterization of such molecular species. In recent years, electrospray ionization (ESI) has emerged as a technology through which particles with masses up to 100 MDa can be ionized and transferred into the gas phase, preparing them for accurate mass analysis. Here we review currently used methodologies, with a clear focus on native mass spectrometry (MS). Additional complementary methodologies are also covered, including ion-mobility analysis, nanomechanical mass sensors, and charge-detection MS. The literature discussed clearly demonstrates the great potential of ESI-based methodologies for the size and mass analysis of nanoparticles, including very large naturally occurring protein assemblies. The analytical approaches discussed are powerful tools in not only structural biology, but also nanotechnology.
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Facilitating protein disulfide mapping by a combination of pepsin digestion, electron transfer higher energy dissociation (EThcD), and a dedicated search algorithm SlinkS.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Disulfide bond identification is important for a detailed understanding of protein structures, which directly affect their biological functions. Here we describe an integrated workflow for the fast and accurate identification of authentic protein disulfide bridges. This novel workflow incorporates acidic proteolytic digestion using pepsin to eliminate undesirable disulfide reshuffling during sample preparation and a novel search engine, SlinkS, to directly identify disulfide-bridged peptides isolated via electron transfer higher energy dissociation (EThcD). In EThcD fragmentation of disulfide-bridged peptides, electron transfer dissociation preferentially leads to the cleavage of the S-S bonds, generating two intense disulfide-cleaved peptides as primary fragment ions. Subsequently, higher energy collision dissociation primarily targets unreacted and charge-reduced precursor ions, inducing peptide backbone fragmentation. SlinkS is able to provide the accurate monoisotopic precursor masses of the two disulfide-cleaved peptides and the sequence of each linked peptide by matching the remaining EThcD product ions against a linear peptide database. The workflow was validated using a protein mixture containing six proteins rich in natural disulfide bridges. Using this pepsin-based workflow, we were able to efficiently and confidently identify a total of 31 unique Cys-Cys bonds (out of 43 disulfide bridges present), with no disulfide reshuffling products detected. Pepsin digestion not only outperformed trypsin digestion in terms of the number of detected authentic Cys-Cys bonds, but, more important, prevented the formation of artificially reshuffled disulfide bridges due to protein digestion under neutral pH. Our new workflow therefore provides a precise and generic approach for disulfide bridge mapping, which can be used to study protein folding, structure, and stability.
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Phosphoproteome dynamics in onset and maintenance of oncogene-induced senescence.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Expression of the BRAF(V600E) oncoprotein is known to cause benign lesions, such as melanocytic nevi (moles). Despite the oncogenic function of mutant BRAF, these lesions are arrested by a cell-autonomous mechanism called oncogene-induced senescence. Infrequently, nevi can progress to malignant melanoma, through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. To gain more insight into this vital tumor-suppression mechanism, we performed a mass-spectrometry-based screening of the proteome and phosphoproteome in cycling and senescent cells and in cells with abrogated senescence. Proteome analysis of senescent cells revealed the up-regulation of established senescence biomarkers, including specific cytokines, but also several proteins not previously associated with senescence, including extracellular matrix-interacting. Using both general and targeted phosphopeptide enrichment by Ti(4+)-IMAC and phosphotyrosine antibody enrichment, we identified over 15,000 phosphorylation sites. Among the regulated phosphorylation sites we encountered components of the interleukin, BRAF/MAPK, and CDK-retinoblastoma pathways and several other factors. The extensive proteome and phosphoproteome dataset of BRAF(V600E)-expressing senescent cells provides molecular clues as to how oncogene-induced senescence is initiated, maintained, or evaded, serving as a comprehensive proteomic basis for functional validation.
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PRIME-XS, a European infrastructure for proteomics.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The PRIME-XS consortium is a pan-European infrastructure for proteomics. As a prologue to this special issue of Molecular & Cellular Proteomics on the research activities of the PRIME-XS consortium, we, as the guest editors of this issue, provide an overview of the structure and activities of this consortium, which is funded by the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.
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Phosphorylation dependence and stoichiometry of the complex formed by tyrosine hydroxylase and 14-3-3?.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) can form complexes with 14-3-3 proteins, resulting in enzyme activation and stabilization. Although TH was among the first binding partners identified for these ubiquitous regulatory proteins, the binding stoichiometry and the activation mechanism remain unknown. To address this, we performed native mass spectrometry analyses of human TH (nonphosphorylated or phosphorylated on Ser19 (TH-pS19), Ser40 (TH-pS40), or Ser19 and Ser40 (TH-pS19pS40)) alone and together with 14-3-3?. Tetrameric TH-pS19 (224 kDa) bound 14-3-3? (58.3 kDa) with high affinity (Kd = 3.2 nM), generating complexes containing either one (282.4 kDa) or two (340.8 kDa) dimers of 14-3-3. Electron microscopy also revealed one major population of an asymmetric complex, consistent with one TH tetramer and one 14-3-3 dimer, and a minor population of a symmetric complex of one TH tetramer with two 14-3-3 dimers. Lower phosphorylation stoichiometries (0.15-0.54 phosphate/monomer) produced moderate changes in binding kinetics, but native MS detected much less of the symmetric TH:14-3-3? complex. Interestingly, dephosphorylation of [(32)P]-TH-pS19 was mono-exponential for low phosphorylation stoichiometries (0.18-0.52), and addition of phosphatase accelerated the dissociation of the TH-pS19:14-3-3? complex 3- to 4-fold. All together this is consistent with a model in which the pS19 residues in the TH tetramer contribute differently in the association to 14-3-3?. Complex formation between TH-pS40 and 14-3-3? was not detected via native MS, and surface plasmon resonance showed that the interaction was very weak. Furthermore, TH-pS19pS40 behaved similarly to TH-pS19 in terms of binding stoichiometry and affinity (Kd = 2.1 nM). However, we found that 14-3-3? inhibited the phosphorylation rate of TH-pS19 by PKA (3.5-fold) on Ser40. We therefore conclude that Ser40 does not significantly contribute to the binding of 14-3-3?, and rather has reduced accessibility in the TH:14-3-3? complex. This adds to our understanding of the fine-tuned physiological regulation of TH, including hierarchical phosphorylation at multiple sites.
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Alterations in the cerebellar (Phospho)proteome of a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase knockout mouse.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The cyclic nucleotide cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) plays an important role in learning and memory, but its signaling mechanisms in the mammalian brain are not fully understood. Using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics, we evaluated how the cerebellum adapts its (phospho)proteome in a knockout mouse model of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI). Our data reveal that a small subset of proteins in the cerebellum (?3% of the quantified proteins) became substantially differentially expressed in the absence of cGKI. More changes were observed at the phosphoproteome level, with hundreds of sites being differentially phosphorylated between wild-type and knockout cerebellum. Most of these phosphorylated sites do not represent known cGKI substrates. An integrative computational network analysis of the data indicated that the differentially expressed proteins and proteins harboring differentially phosphorylated sites largely belong to a tight network in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum involving important cGMP/cAMP signaling nodes (e.g. PDE5 and PKARII?) and Ca(2+) signaling (e.g. SERCA3). In this way, removal of cGKI could be linked to impaired cerebellar long-term depression at Purkinje cell synapses. In addition, we were able to identify a set of novel putative (phospho)proteins to be considered in this network. Overall, our data improve our understanding of cerebellar cGKI signaling and suggest novel players in cGKI-regulated synaptic plasticity.
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Analytical utility of mass spectral binning in proteomic experiments by SPectral Immonium Ion Detection (SPIID).
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Unambiguous identification of tandem mass spectra is a cornerstone in mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. As the study of post-translational modifications (PTMs) by means of shotgun proteomics progresses in depth and coverage, the ability to correctly identify PTM-bearing peptides is essential, increasing the demand for advanced data interpretation. Several PTMs are known to generate unique fragment ions during tandem mass spectrometry, the so-called diagnostic ions, which unequivocally identify a given mass spectrum as related to a specific PTM. Although such ions offer tremendous analytical advantages, algorithms to decipher MS/MS spectra for the presence of diagnostic ions in an unbiased manner are currently lacking. Here, we present a systematic spectral-pattern-based approach for the discovery of diagnostic ions and new fragmentation mechanisms in shotgun proteomics datasets. The developed software tool is designed to analyze large sets of high-resolution peptide fragmentation spectra independent of the fragmentation method, instrument type, or protease employed. To benchmark the software tool, we analyzed large higher-energy collisional activation dissociation datasets of samples containing phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, formylation, and lysine acetylation. Using the developed software tool, we were able to identify known diagnostic ions by comparing histograms of modified and unmodified peptide spectra. Because the investigated tandem mass spectra data were acquired with high mass accuracy, unambiguous interpretation and determination of the chemical composition for the majority of detected fragment ions was feasible. Collectively we present a freely available software tool that allows for comprehensive and automatic analysis of analogous product ions in tandem mass spectra and systematic mapping of fragmentation mechanisms related to common amino acids.
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PZR coordinates Shp2 Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome signaling in zebrafish and mice.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by activating mutations in the PTPN11 gene encoding Shp2, which manifests in congenital heart disease, short stature, and facial dysmorphia. The complexity of Shp2 signaling is exemplified by the observation that LEOPARD syndrome (LS) patients possess inactivating PTPN11 mutations yet exhibit similar symptoms to NS. Here, we identify "protein zero-related" (PZR), a transmembrane glycoprotein that interfaces with the extracellular matrix to promote cell migration, as a major hyper-tyrosyl-phosphorylated protein in mouse and zebrafish models of NS and LS. PZR hyper-tyrosyl phosphorylation is facilitated in a phosphatase-independent manner by enhanced Src recruitment to NS and LS Shp2. In zebrafish, PZR overexpression recapitulated NS and LS phenotypes. PZR was required for zebrafish gastrulation in a manner dependent upon PZR tyrosyl phosphorylation. Hence, we identify PZR as an NS and LS target. Enhanced PZR-mediated membrane recruitment of Shp2 serves as a common mechanism to direct overlapping pathophysiological characteristics of these PTPN11 mutations.
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Single-step enrichment by Ti4+-IMAC and label-free quantitation enables in-depth monitoring of phosphorylation dynamics with high reproducibility and temporal resolution.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Quantitative phosphoproteomics workflows traditionally involve additional sample labeling and fractionation steps for accurate and in-depth analysis. Here we report a high-throughput, straightforward, and comprehensive label-free phosphoproteomics approach using the highly selective, reproducible, and sensitive Ti(4+)-IMAC phosphopeptide enrichment method. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach by monitoring the phosphoproteome dynamics of Jurkat T cells stimulated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) over six different time points, measuring in total 108 snapshots of the phosphoproteome. In total, we quantitatively monitored 12,799 unique phosphosites over all time points with very high quantitative reproducibility (average r > 0.9 over 100 measurements and a median cv < 0.2). PGE2 is known to increase cellular cAMP levels, thereby activating PKA. The in-depth analysis revealed temporal regulation of a wide variety of phosphosites associated not only with PKA, but also with a variety of other classes of kinases. Following PGE2 stimulation, several pathways became only transiently activated, revealing that in-depth dynamic profiling requires techniques with high temporal resolution. Moreover, the large publicly available dataset provides a valuable resource for downstream PGE2 signaling dynamics in T cells, and cAMP-mediated signaling in particular. More generally, our method enables in-depth, quantitative, high-throughput phosphoproteome screening on any system, requiring very little sample, sample preparation, and analysis time.
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Evaluating the promiscuous nature of tyrosine kinase inhibitors assessed in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells by both chemical- and phosphoproteomics.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Deregulation of protein tyrosine kinase signaling has been linked to many diseases, most notably cancer. As a consequence, small molecule inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases may provide powerful strategies for treatment. Following the successful introduction of imatinib in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, such drugs are also now evaluated for other types of cancer. However, many developed kinase inhibitors are not very target-specific and therefore may induce side effects. The importance of such side effects is certainly cell-proteome dependent. Understanding the all-inclusive action of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor on each individual cell-type entails the identification of potential targets, combined with monitoring the downstream effects revealing the signaling networks involved. Here, we explored a multilevel quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy to identify the direct targets and downstream signaling effect of four tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and nilotinib) in epidermoid carcinoma cells, as a model system for skin-cancer. More than 25 tyrosine kinases showed affinity to the drugs, with imatinib and nilotinib displaying a high specificity, especially when compared to dasatinib and bosutinib. Consequently, the latter two drugs showed a larger effect on downstream phosphotyrosine signaling. Many of the proteins affected are key regulators in cell adhesion and invasion. Our data represents a multiplexed view on the promiscuous action of certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors that needs to be taking into consideration prior to the application of these drugs in the treatment of different forms of cancer.
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Defining the stoichiometry and cargo load of viral and bacterial nanoparticles by Orbitrap mass spectrometry.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Accurate mass analysis can provide useful information on the stoichiometry and composition of protein-based particles, such as virus-like assemblies. For applications in nanotechnology and medicine, such nanoparticles are loaded with foreign cargos, making accurate mass information essential to define the cargo load. Here, we describe modifications to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer that enable high mass analysis of several virus-like nanoparticles up to 4.5 MDa in mass. This allows the accurate determination of the composition of virus-like particles. The modified instrument is utilized to determine the cargo load of bacterial encapsulin nanoparticles that were engineered to encapsulate foreign cargo proteins. We find that encapsulin packages from 8 up to 12 cargo proteins, thereby quantifying cargo load but also showing the ensemble spread. In addition, we determined the previously unknown stoichiometry of the three different splice variants of the capsid protein in adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids, showing that symmetry is broken and assembly is heterogeneous and stochastic. These results demonstrate the potential of high-resolution mass analysis of protein-based nanoparticles, with widespread applications in chemical biology and nanotechnology.
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Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals similar release profiles following specific PAR-1 or PAR-4 stimulation of platelets.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Platelets are a natural source of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, that regulate angiogenesis and inflammation. It has been suggested that differential release of pro- and anti-angiogenic growth factors from platelet ?-granules by protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and 4 may be important for the regulation of angiogenesis. We aimed to compare the releasates of unstimulated platelets with PAR-1- and PAR-4-stimulated platelets.
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Simultaneous assessment of kinetic, site-specific, and structural aspects of enzymatic protein phosphorylation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Protein phosphorylation is a widespread process forming the mechanistic basis of cellular signaling. Up to now, different aspects, for example, site-specificity, kinetics, role of co-factors, and structure-function relationships have been typically investigated by multiple techniques that are incompatible with one another. The approach introduced here maximizes the amount of information gained on protein (complex) phosphorylation while minimizing sample handling. Using high-resolution native mass spectrometry on intact protein (assemblies) up to 150?kDa we track the sequential incorporation of phosphate groups and map their localization by peptide LC-MS/MS. On two model systems, the protein kinase?G and the interplay between Aurora kinase?A and Bora, we demonstrate the simultaneous monitoring of various aspects of the phosphorylation process, namely the effect of different cofactors on PKG autophosphorylation and the interaction of AurA and Bora as both an enzyme-substrate pair and physical binding partners.
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qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml.
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Daily rhythms in the cyanobacterium synechococcus elongatus probed by high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics reveals a small defined set of cyclic proteins.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Circadian rhythms are self-sustained and adjustable cycles, typically entrained with light/dark and/or temperature cycles. These rhythms are present in animals, plants, fungi, and several bacteria. The central mechanism behind these "pacemakers" and the connection to the circadian regulated pathways are still poorly understood. The circadian rhythm of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (S. elongatus) is highly robust and controlled by only three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. This central clock system has been extensively studied functionally and structurally and can be reconstituted in vitro. These characteristics, together with a relatively small genome (2.7 Mbp), make S. elongatus an ideal model system for the study of circadian rhythms. Different approaches have been used to reveal the influence of the central S. elongatus clock on rhythmic gene expression, rhythmic mRNA abundance, rhythmic DNA topology changes, and cell division. However, a global analysis of its proteome dynamics has not been reported yet. To uncover the variation in protein abundances during 48 h under light and dark cycles (12:12 h), we used quantitative proteomics, with TMT 6-plex isobaric labeling. We queried the S. elongatus proteome at 10 different time points spanning a single 24-h period, leading to 20 time points over the full 48-h period. Employing multidimensional separation and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we were able to find evidence for a total of 82% of the S. elongatus proteome. Of the 1537 proteins quantified over the time course of the experiment, only 77 underwent significant cyclic variations. Interestingly, our data provide evidence for in- and out-of-phase correlation between mRNA and protein levels for a set of specific genes and proteins. As a range of cyclic proteins are functionally not well annotated, this work provides a resource for further studies to explore the role of these proteins in the cyanobacterial circadian rhythm.
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Detailed mass analysis of structural heterogeneity in monoclonal antibodies using native mass spectrometry.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The molecular complexity of biopharmaceuticals puts severe demands on the bioanalytical techniques required for their comprehensive structural characterization. Mass spectrometry (MS) has gained importance in the analysis of biopharmaceuticals, taking different complementary approaches ranging from peptide-based sequencing to direct analysis of intact proteins and protein assemblies. In this protocol, we describe procedures optimized to perform the analysis of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) at the intact protein level under pseudo-native conditions, using native MS. Some of the strengths of native MS in the analysis of biopharmaceuticals are its analysis speed, sensitivity and specificity: for most experiments, the whole protocol requires one working day, whereby tens of samples can be analyzed in a multiplexed manner, making it suitable for high-throughput analysis. This method can be used for different applications such as the analysis of mixtures of mAbs, drug-antibody conjugates and the analysis of mAb post-translational modifications, including the qualitative and quantitative analysis of mAb glycosylation.
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Complement is activated by IgG hexamers assembled at the cell surface.
Science
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Complement activation by antibodies bound to pathogens, tumors, and self antigens is a critical feature of natural immune defense, a number of disease processes, and immunotherapies. How antibodies activate the complement cascade, however, is poorly understood. We found that specific noncovalent interactions between Fc segments of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies resulted in the formation of ordered antibody hexamers after antigen binding on cells. These hexamers recruited and activated C1, the first component of complement, thereby triggering the complement cascade. The interactions between neighboring Fc segments could be manipulated to block, reconstitute, and enhance complement activation and killing of target cells, using all four human IgG subclasses. We offer a general model for understanding antibody-mediated complement activation and the design of antibody therapeutics with enhanced efficacy.
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Expanding the detectable HLA peptide repertoire using electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation (EThcD).
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The identification of peptides presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I is tremendously important for the understanding of antigen presentation mechanisms under healthy or diseased conditions. Currently, mass spectrometry-based methods represent the best methodology for the identification of HLA class I-associated peptides. However, the HLA class I peptide repertoire remains largely unexplored because the variable nature of endogenous peptides represents difficulties in conventional peptide fragmentation technology. Here, we substantially enhanced (about threefold) the identification success rate of peptides presented by HLA class I using combined electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation (EThcD), reporting over 12,000 high-confident (false discovery rate <1%) peptides from a single human B-cell line. The direct importance of such an unprecedented large dataset is highlighted by the discovery of unique features in antigen presentation. The observation that a substantial part of proteins is sampled across different HLA alleles, and the common occurrence of HLA class I nested sets, suggest that the constraints of HLA class I to comprehensively present the health states of cells are not as tight as previously thought. Our dataset contains a substantial set of peptides bearing a variety of posttranslational modifications presented with marked allele-specific differences. We propose that EThcD should become the method of choice in analyzing HLA class I-presented peptides.
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Adenovirus composition, proteolysis, and disassembly studied by in-depth qualitative and quantitative proteomics.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Using high-resolution MS-based proteomics in combination with multiple protease digestion, we profiled, with on average 90% sequence coverage, all 13 viral proteins present in an human adenovirus (HAdV) vector. This in-depth profile provided multiple peptide-based evidence on intrinsic protease activity affecting several HAdV proteins. Next, the generated peptide library was used to develop a targeted proteomics method using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) aimed at quantitative profiling of the stoichiometry of all 13 proteins present in the HAdV. We also used this method to probe the release of specific virus proteins initiated by thermal stimulation, mimicking the early stage of HAdV disassembly during entry into host cells. We confirmed the copy numbers of the most well characterized viral capsid components and established the copy numbers for proteins whose stoichiometry has so far not been accurately defined. We also found that heating HAdV induces the complete release of the penton base and fiber proteins as well as a substantial release of protein VIII and VI. For these latter proteins, maturational proteolysis by the adenoviral protease leads to the differential release of fragments with certain peptides being fully released and others largely retained in the AdV particles. This information is likely to be beneficial for the ongoing interpretation of high resolution cryoEM and x-ray electron density maps.
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Boundaries of mass resolution in native mass spectrometry.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Over the last two decades, native mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a valuable tool to study intact proteins and noncovalent protein complexes. Studied experimental systems range from small-molecule (drug)-protein interactions, to nanomachineries such as the proteasome and ribosome, to even virus assembly. In native MS, ions attain high m/z values, requiring special mass analyzers for their detection. Depending on the particular mass analyzer used, instrumental mass resolution does often decrease at higher m/z but can still be above a couple of thousand at m/z 5000. However, the mass resolving power obtained on charge states of protein complexes in this m/z region is experimentally found to remain well below the inherent instrument resolution of the mass analyzers employed. Here, we inquire into reasons for this discrepancy and ask how native MS would benefit from higher instrumental mass resolution. To answer this question, we discuss advantages and shortcomings of mass analyzers used to study intact biomolecules and biomolecular complexes in their native state, and we review which other factors determine mass resolving power in native MS analyses. Recent examples from the literature are given to illustrate the current status and limitations.
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Self-sorting of foreign proteins in a bacterial nanocompartment.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Nature uses bottom-up approaches for the controlled assembly of highly ordered hierarchical structures with defined functionality, such as organelles, molecular motors, and transmembrane pumps. The field of bionanotechnology draws inspiration from nature by utilizing biomolecular building blocks such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, for the (self-) assembly of new structures for applications in biomedicine, optics, or electronics. Among the toolbox of available building blocks, proteins that form cage-like structures, such as viruses and virus-like particles, have been of particular interest since they form highly symmetrical assemblies and can be readily modified genetically or chemically both on the outer or inner surface. Bacterial encapsulins are a class of nonviral protein cages that self-assemble in vivo into stable icosahedral structures. Using teal fluorescent proteins (TFP) engineered with a specific native C-terminal docking sequence, we report the molecular self-sorting and selective packaging of TFP cargo into bacterial encapsulins during in vivo assembly. Using native mass spectrometry techniques, we show that loading of either monomeric or dimeric TFP cargo occurs with unprecedented high fidelity and exceptional loading accuracy. Such self-assembling systems equipped with self-sorting capabilities would open up exciting opportunities in nanotechnology, for example, as artificial (molecular storage or detoxification) organelles or as artificial cell factories for in situ biocatalysis.
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The cleaved N-terminus of pVI binds peripentonal hexons in mature adenovirus.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Mature human adenovirus particles contain four minor capsid proteins, in addition to the three major capsid proteins (penton base, hexon and fiber) and several proteins associated with the genomic core of the virion. Of the minor capsid proteins, VI plays several crucial roles in the infection cycle of the virus, including hexon nuclear targeting during assembly, activation of the adenovirus proteinase (AVP) during maturation and endosome escape following cell entry. VI is translated as a precursor (pVI) that is cleaved at both N- and C-termini by AVP. Whereas the role of the C-terminal fragment of pVI, pVIc, is well established as an important co-factor of AVP, the role of the N-terminal fragment, pVIn, is currently elusive. In fact, the fate of pVIn following proteolytic cleavage is completely unknown. Here, we use a combination of proteomics-based peptide identification, native mass spectrometry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to show that pVIn is associated with mature human adenovirus, where it binds at the base of peripentonal hexons in a pH-dependent manner. Our findings suggest a possible role for pVIn in targeting pVI to hexons for proper assembly of the virion and timely release of the membrane lytic mature VI molecule.
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Similar is not the same: Differences in the function of the (hemi-)cellulolytic regulator XlnR (Xlr1/Xyr1) in filamentous fungi.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The transcriptional activator XlnR (Xlr1/Xyr1) is a major regulator in fungal xylan and cellulose degradation as well as in the utilization of d-xylose via the pentose catabolic pathway. XlnR homologs are commonly found in filamentous ascomycetes and often assumed to have the same function in different fungi. However, a comparison of the saprobe Aspergillus niger and the plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae showed different phenotypes for deletion strains of XlnR. In this study wild type and xlnR/xlr1/xyr1 mutants of five fungi were compared: Fusarium graminearum, M. oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans. Growth profiling on relevant substrates and a detailed analysis of the secretome as well as extracellular enzyme activities demonstrated a common role of this regulator in activating genes encoding the main xylanolytic enzymes. However, large differences were found in the set of genes that is controlled by XlnR in the different species, resulting in the production of different extracellular enzyme spectra by these fungi. This comparison emphasizes the functional diversity of a fine-tuned (hemi-)cellulolytic regulatory system in filamentous fungi, which might be related to the adaptation of fungi to their specific biotopes. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001190.
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Proteasome-dependent degradation of transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein 4 (TFAP4) controls mitotic division.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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TFAP4, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates the expression of a multitude of genes involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, stemness, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and a number of other human malignancies. We have found that, during the G2 phase of the cell division cycle, TFAP4 is targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation by the SCF(?TrCP) ubiquitin ligase. This event requires phosphorylation of TFAP4 on a conserved degron. Expression of a stable TFAP4 mutant unable to interact with ?TrCP results in a number of mitotic defects, including chromosome missegregation and multipolar spindles, which eventually lead to the activation of the DNA damage response. Our findings reveal that ?TrCP-dependent degradation of TFAP4 is required for the fidelity of mitotic division.
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Assessment of differences in the conformational flexibility of hepatitis B virus core-antigen and e-antigen by hydrogen deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry.
Protein Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Hepatitis B virus core-antigen (capsid protein) and e-antigen (an immune regulator) have almost complete sequence identity, yet the dimeric proteins (termed Cp149d and Cp(-10)149d , respectively) adopt quite distinct quaternary structures. Here we use hydrogen deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to study their structural properties. We detect many regions that differ substantially in their HDX dynamics. Significantly, whilst all regions in Cp(-10)149d exchange by EX2-type kinetics, a number of regions in Cp149d were shown to exhibit a mixture of EX2- and EX1-type kinetics, hinting at conformational heterogeneity in these regions. Comparison of the HDX of the free Cp149d with that in assembled capsids (Cp149c ) indicated increased resistance to exchange at the C-terminus where the inter-dimer contacts occur. Furthermore, evidence of mixed exchange kinetics were not observed in Cp149c , implying a reduction in flexibility upon capsid formation. Cp(-10)149d undergoes a drastic structural change when the intermolecular disulphide bridge is reduced, adopting a Cp149d -like structure, as evidenced by the detected HDX dynamics being more consistent with Cp149d in many, albeit not all, regions. These results demonstrate the highly dynamic nature of these similar proteins. To probe the effect of these structural differences on the resulting antigenicity, we investigated binding of the antibody fragment (Fab E1) that is known to bind a conformational epitope on the four-helix bundle. Whilst Fab E1 binds to Cp149c and Cp149d , it does not bind non-reduced and reduced Cp(-10)149d , despite unhindered access to the epitope. These results imply a remarkable sensitivity of this epitope to its structural context.
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Insight into cyanobacterial circadian timing from structural details of the KaiB-KaiC interaction.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Circadian timing in cyanobacteria is determined by the Kai system consisting of KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. Interactions between Kai proteins change the phosphorylation status of KaiC, defining the phase of circadian timing. The KaiC-KaiB interaction is crucial for the circadian rhythm to enter the dephosphorylation phase but it is not well understood. Using mass spectrometry to characterize Kai complexes, we found that KaiB forms monomers, dimers, and tetramers. The monomer is the unit that interacts with KaiC, with six KaiB monomers binding to one KaiC hexamer. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS reveals structural changes in KaiC upon binding of KaiB in both the CI and CII domains, showing allosteric coupling upon KaiB binding. Based on this information we propose a model of the KaiB-KaiC complex and hypothesize that the allosteric changes observed upon complex formation relate to coupling KaiC ATPase activity with KaiB binding and to sequestration of KaiA dimers into KaiCBA complexes.
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Microtubule minus-end stabilization by polymerization-driven CAMSAP deposition.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Microtubules are cytoskeletal polymers with two structurally and functionally distinct ends, the plus- and the minus-end. Here, we focus on the mechanisms underlying the regulation of microtubule minus-ends by the CAMSAP/Nezha/Patronin protein family. We show that CAMSAP2 is required for the proper organization and stabilization of interphase microtubules and directional cell migration. By combining live-cell imaging and in vitro reconstitution of microtubule assembly from purified components with laser microsurgery, we demonstrate that CAMSAPs regulate microtubule minus-end growth and are specifically deposited on the lattice formed by microtubule minus-end polymerization. This process leads to the formation of CAMSAP-decorated microtubule stretches, which are stabilized from both ends and serve as sites of noncentrosomal microtubule outgrowth. The length of the stretches is regulated by the microtubule-severing protein katanin, which interacts with CAMSAPs. Our data thus indicate that microtubule minus-end assembly drives the stabilization of noncentrosomal microtubules and that katanin regulates this process.
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Analyzing protein micro-heterogeneity in chicken ovalbumin by high-resolution native mass spectrometry exposes qualitatively and semi-quantitatively 59 proteoforms.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Taking chicken Ovalbumin as a prototypical example of a eukaryotic protein we use high-resolution native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry on a modified Exactive Orbitrap mass analyzer to qualitatively and semiquantitatively dissect 59 proteoforms in the natural protein. This variety is largely induced by the presence of multiple phosphorylation sites and a glycosylation site that we find to be occupied by at least 45 different glycan structures. Mass analysis of the intact protein in its native state is straightforward and fast, requires very little sample preparation, and provides a direct view on the stoichiometry of all different coappearing modifications that are distinguishable in mass. As such, this proof-of-principal analysis shows that native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in combination with an Orbitrap mass analyzer offers a means to characterize proteins in a manner highly complementary to standard bottom-up shot-gun proteome analysis.
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Game-theory-based search engine to automate the mass assignment in complex native electrospray mass spectra.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Electrospray ionization coupled to native mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved into an important tool in structural biology to decipher the composition of protein complexes. However, the mass analysis of heterogeneous protein assemblies is hampered because of their overlapping charge state distributions, fine structure, and peak broadening. To facilitate the mass analysis, it is of importance to automate preprocessing raw mass spectra, assigning ion series to peaks and deciphering the subunit compositions. So far, the automation of preprocessing raw mass spectra has not been accomplished; Massign was introduced to simplify data analysis and decipher the subunit compositions. In this study, we develop a search engine, AutoMass, to automatically assign ion series to peaks without any additional user input, for example, limited ranges of charge states or ion mass. AutoMass includes an ion intensity-dependent method to check for Gaussian distributions of ion series and an ion intensity-independent method to address highly overlapping and non-Gaussian distributions. The minimax theorem from game theory is adopted to define the boundaries. With AutoMass, the boundaries of ion series in the well-resolved tandem mass spectra of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids and those of the mass spectrum from CRISPR-related cascade protein complex are accurately assigned. Theoretical and experimental HBV ion masses are shown in agreement up to ?0.03%. The analysis is finished within a minute on a regular workstation. Moreover, less well-resolved mass spectra, for example, complicated multimer mass spectra and norovirus capsid mass spectra at different levels of desolvation, are analyzed. In sum, this first-ever fully automatic program reveals the boundaries of overlapping ion peak series and can further aid developing high-throughput native MS and top-down proteomics.
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Identification of Enriched PTM Crosstalk Motifs from Large-Scale Experimental Data Sets.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in the regulation of protein function. Mass spectrometry based proteomics experiments nowadays identify tens of thousands of PTMs in a single experiment. A wealth of data has therefore become publically available. Evidently the biological function of each PTM is the key question to be addressed; however, such analyses focus primarily on single PTM events. This ignores the fact that PTMs may act in concert in the regulation of protein function, a process termed PTM crosstalk. Relatively little is known on the frequency and functional relevance of crosstalk between PTM sites. In a bioinformatics approach, we extracted PTMs occurring in proximity in the protein sequence from publically available databases. These PTMs and their flanking sequences were subjected to stringent motif searches, including a scoring for evolutionary conservation. Our unprejudiced approach was able to detect a respectable set of motifs, of which about half were described previously. Among these we could add many new proteins harboring these motifs. We extracted also several novel motifs, which through their widespread appearance and high conservation may pinpoint at previously nonannotated concerted PTM actions. By employing network analyses on these proteins, we propose putative functional roles for these novel motifs with two PTM sites in close proximity.
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Architecture of a dsDNA Viral Capsid in Complex with Its Maturation Protease.
Structure
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Most double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, rely on a staged assembly process of capsid formation. A viral protease is required for many of them to disconnect scaffolding domains/proteins from the capsid shell, therefore priming the maturation process. We used the bacteriophage HK97 as a model system to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the recruitment of the maturation protease by the assembling procapsid and the influence exerted onto the latter. Comparisons of the procapsid with and without protease using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions, hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, and native mass spectrometry demonstrated that the protease interacts with the scaffolding domains within the procapsid interior and stabilizes them as well as the whole particle. The results suggest that the thermodynamic consequences of protease packaging are to shift the equilibrium between isolated coat subunit capsomers and procapsid in favor of the latter by stabilizing the assembled particle before making the process irreversible through proteolysis of the scaffolding domains.
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Sizing up large protein complexes by electrospray ionisation-based electrophoretic mobility and native mass spectrometry: morphology selective binding of Fabs to hepatitis B virus capsids.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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The capsid of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major viral antigen and important diagnostic indicator. HBV capsids have prominent protrusions (spikes) on their surface and are unique in having either T?=?3 or T?=?4 icosahedral symmetry. Mouse monoclonal and also human polyclonal antibodies bind either near the spike apices (historically the ?-determinant) or in the floor regions between them (the ?-determinant). Native mass spectrometry (MS) and gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (GEMMA) were used to monitor the titration of HBV capsids with the antigen-binding domain (Fab) of mAb 3120, which has long defined the ?-determinant. Both methods readily distinguished Fab binding to the two capsid morphologies and could provide accurate masses and dimensions for these large immune complexes, which range up to ~8 MDa. As such, native MS and GEMMA provide valuable alternatives to a more time-consuming cryo-electron microscopy analysis for preliminary characterisation of virus-antibody complexes.
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Substrate Occupancy at the Onset of Oligomeric Transitions of DegP.
Structure
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The protease-chaperone DegP undergoes secondary through quaternary structural changes, regulating function and preventing indiscriminate proteolysis. Several structures of DegP oligomers have been observed, including the resting state 6-mer and the 12-mer and 24-mer active states. However, the precise events of the transition between the resting and active states still need to be elucidated. We used native mass spectrometry to demonstrate that binding of multiple substrate-mimicking peptide ligands to the DegP resting state occurs prior to the transition to an active conformation. This transition occurred at a 6-mer occupancy of 40% for each peptide ligand. We observed ligand-specific 9-mer formation with a maximum load of 9 peptides, whereas other substrates led to 12-mers accommodating 24 peptides. Based on these data, we present a model for the initial steps of substrate-induced transitions from the resting to active states of DegP.
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Unravelling the Neospora caninum secretome through the secreted fraction (ESA) and quantification of the discharged tachyzoite using high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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The apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum causes neosporosis, a disease that leads to abortion or stillbirth in cattle, generating an economic impact on the dairy and beef cattle trade. As an obligatory intracellular parasite, N. caninum needs to invade the host cell in an active manner to survive. The increase in parasite cytosolic Ca2+ upon contact with the host cell mediates critical events, including the exocytosis of phylum-specific secretory organelles and the activation of the parasite invasion motor. Because invasion is considered a requirement for pathogen survival and replication within the host, the identification of secreted proteins (secretome) involved in invasion may be useful to reveal interesting targets for therapeutic intervention.
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In-depth qualitative and quantitative analysis of composite glycosylation profiles and other micro-heterogeneity on intact monoclonal antibodies by high-resolution native mass spectrometry using a modified Orbitrap.
MAbs
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Here, we describe a fast, easy-to-use, and sensitive method to profile in-depth structural micro-heterogeneity, including intricate N-glycosylation profiles, of monoclonal antibodies at the native intact protein level by means of mass spectrometry using a recently introduced modified Orbitrap Exactive Plus mass spectrometer. We demonstrate the versatility of our method to probe structural micro-heterogeneity by describing the analysis of three types of molecules: (1) a non-covalently bound IgG4 hinge deleted full-antibody in equilibrium with its half-antibody, (2) IgG4 mutants exhibiting highly complex glycosylation profiles, and (3) antibody-drug conjugates. Using the modified instrument, we obtain baseline separation and accurate mass determination of all different proteoforms that may be induced, for example, by glycosylation, drug loading and partial peptide backbone-truncation. We show that our method can handle highly complex glycosylation profiles, identifying more than 20 different glycoforms per monoclonal antibody preparation and more than 30 proteoforms on a single highly purified antibody. In analyzing antibody-drug conjugates, our method also easily identifies and quantifies more than 15 structurally different proteoforms that may result from the collective differences in drug loading and glycosylation. The method presented here will aid in the comprehensive analytical and functional characterization of protein micro-heterogeneity, which is crucial for successful development and manufacturing of therapeutic antibodies.
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Phosphoproteomics study based on in vivo inhibition reveals sites of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulation in the heart.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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The multifunctional Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a crucial mediator of cardiac physiology and pathology. Increased expression and activation of CaMKII has been linked to elevated risk for arrhythmic events and is a hallmark of human heart failure. A useful approach to determining CaMKIIs role therein is large-scale analysis of phosphorylation events by mass spectrometry. However, current large-scale phosphoproteomics approaches have proved inadequate for high-fidelity identification of kinase-specific roles. The purpose of this study was to develop a phosphoproteomics approach to specifically identify CaMKIIs downstream effects in cardiac tissue.
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Interrogating cAMP-dependent kinase signaling in jurkat T cells via a protein kinase A targeted immune-precipitation phosphoproteomics approach.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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In the past decade, mass-spectrometry-based methods have emerged for the quantitative profiling of dynamic changes in protein phosphorylation, allowing the behavior of thousands of phosphorylation sites to be monitored in a single experiment. However, when one is interested in specific signaling pathways, such shotgun methodologies are not ideal because they lack selectivity and are not cost and time efficient with respect to instrument and data analysis time. Here we evaluate and explore a peptide-centric antibody generated to selectively enrich peptides containing the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consensus motif. This targeted phosphoproteomic strategy is used to profile temporal quantitative changes of potential PKA substrates in Jurkat T lymphocytes upon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulation, which increases intracellular cAMP, activating PKA. Our method combines ultra-high-specificity motif-based immunoaffinity purification with cost-efficient stable isotope dimethyl labeling. We identified 655 phosphopeptides, of which 642 (i.e. 98%) contained the consensus motif [R/K][R/K/X]X[pS/pT]. When our data were compared with a large-scale Jurkat T-lymphocyte phosphoproteomics dataset containing more than 10,500 phosphosites, a minimal overlap of 0.2% was observed. This stresses the need for such targeted analyses when the interest is in a particular kinase. Our data provide a resource of likely substrates of PKA, and potentially some substrates of closely related kinases. Network analysis revealed that about half of the observed substrates have been implicated in cAMP-induced signaling. Still, the other half of the here-identified substrates have been less well characterized, representing a valuable resource for future research.
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Structure and activity of the RNA-targeting Type III-B CRISPR-Cas complex of Thermus thermophilus.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtCmr complex copurifies with crRNA species of 40 and 46 nt, originating from a distinct subset of CRISPR loci and spacers. The TtCmr complex cleaves the target RNA at multiple sites with 6 nt intervals via a 5 ruler mechanism. Electron microscopy revealed that the structure of TtCmr resembles a "sea worm" and is composed of a Cmr2-3 heterodimer "tail," a helical backbone of Cmr4 subunits capped by Cmr5 subunits, and a curled "head" containing Cmr1 and Cmr6. Despite having a backbone of only four Cmr4 subunits and being both longer and narrower, the overall architecture of TtCmr resembles that of Type I Cascade complexes.
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Quantitative and qualitative proteome characteristics extracted from in-depth integrated genomics and proteomics analysis.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We obtained peptide evidence for 26,463 rat liver proteins. We validated 1,195 gene predictions, 83 splice events, 126 proteins with nonsynonymous variants, and 20 isoforms with nonsynonymous RNA editing. Quantitative RNA sequencing and proteomics data correlate highly between strains but poorly among each other, indicating extensive nongenetic regulation. Our multilevel analysis identified a genomic variant in the promoter of the most differentially expressed gene Cyp17a1, a previously reported top hit in genome-wide association studies for human hypertension, as a potential contributor to the hypertension phenotype in SHR rats. These results demonstrate the power of and need for integrative analysis for understanding genetic control of molecular dynamics and phenotypic diversity in a system-wide manner.
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Mixed-bed ion exchange chromatography employing a salt-free pH gradient for improved sensitivity and compatibility in MudPIT.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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In proteomics, comprehensive analysis of peptides mixtures necessitates multiple dimensions of separation prior to mass spectrometry analysis to reduce sample complexity and increase the dynamic range of analysis. The main goal of this work was to improve the performance of (online) multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in terms of sensitivity, compatibility and recovery. The method employs weak anion and strong cation mixed-bed ion exchange chromatography (ACE) in the first separation dimension and reversed phase chromatography (RP) in the second separation dimension (Motoyama et.al. Anal. Chem 2007, 79, 3623-34.). We demonstrated that the chromatographic behavior of peptides in ACE chromatography depends on both the WAX/SCX mixing ratio as the ionic strength of the mobile phase system. This property allowed us to replace the conventional salt gradient by a (discontinuous) salt-free, pH gradient. First dimensional separation of peptides was accomplished with mixtures of aqueous formic acid and dimethylsulfoxide with increasing concentrations. The overall performance of this mobile phase system was found comparable to ammonium acetate buffers in application to ACE chromatography, but clearly outperformed strong cation exchange for use in first dimensional peptide separation. The dramatically improved compatibility between (salt-free) ion exchange chromatography and reversed phase chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed us to downscale the dimensions of the RP analytical column down to 25 ?m i.d. for an additional 2- to 3-fold improvement in performance compared to current technology. The achieved levels of sensitivity, orthogonality, and compatibility demonstrates the potential of salt-free ACE MudPIT for the ultrasensitive, multidimensional analysis of very modest amounts of sample material.
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Control of Epithelial Cell Migration and Invasion by the IKK?- and CK1?-Mediated Degradation of RAPGEF2.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Epithelial cell migration is crucial for the development and regeneration of epithelial tissues. Aberrant regulation of epithelial cell migration has a major role in pathological processes such as the development of cancer metastasis and tissue fibrosis. Here, we report that in response to factors that promote cell motility, the Rap guanine exchange factor RAPGEF2 is rapidly phosphorylated by I-kappa-B-kinase-? and casein kinase-1? and consequently degraded by the proteasome via the SCF(?TrCP) ubiquitin ligase. Failure to degrade RAPGEF2 in epithelial cells results in sustained activity of Rap1 and inhibition of cell migration induced by HGF, a potent metastatic factor. Furthermore, expression of a degradation-resistant RAPGEF2 mutant greatly suppresses dissemination and metastasis of human breast cancer cells. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism regulating migration and invasion of epithelial cells and establish a key direct link between IKK? and cell motility controlled by Rap-integrin signaling.
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F-actin asymmetry and the endoplasmic reticulum-associated TCC-1 protein contribute to stereotypic spindle movements in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The microtubule spindle apparatus dictates the plane of cell cleavage in animal cells. During development, dividing cells control the position of the spindle to determine the size, location, and fate of daughter cells. Spindle positioning depends on pulling forces that act between the cell periphery and astral microtubules. This involves dynein recruitment to the cell cortex by a heterotrimeric G-protein ? subunit in complex with a TPR-GoLoco motif protein (GPR-1/2, Pins, LGN) and coiled-coil protein (LIN-5, Mud, NuMA). In this study, we searched for additional factors that contribute to spindle positioning in the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We show that cortical actin is not needed for G?-GPR-LIN-5 localization and pulling force generation. Instead, actin accumulation in the anterior actually reduces pulling forces, possibly by increasing cortical rigidity. Examining membrane-associated proteins that copurified with GOA-1 G?, we found that the transmembrane and coiled-coil domain protein 1 (TCC-1) contributes to proper spindle movements. TCC-1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and interacts with UNC-116 kinesin-1 heavy chain in yeast two-hybrid assays. RNA interference of tcc-1 and unc-116 causes similar defects in meiotic spindle positioning, supporting the concept of TCC-1 acting with kinesin-1 in vivo. These results emphasize the contribution of membrane-associated and cortical proteins other than G?-GPR-LIN-5 in balancing the pulling forces that position the spindle during asymmetric cell division.
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Monitoring the interaction between ?2-microglobulin and the molecular chaperone ?B-crystallin by NMR and mass spectrometry: ?B-crystallin dissociates ?2-microglobulin oligomers.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The interaction at neutral pH between wild-type and a variant form (R3A) of the amyloid fibril-forming protein ?2-microglobulin (?2m) and the molecular chaperone ?B-crystallin was investigated by thioflavin T fluorescence, NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Fibril formation of R3A?2m was potently prevented by ?B-crystallin. ?B-crystallin also prevented the unfolding and nonfibrillar aggregation of R3A?2m. From analysis of the NMR spectra collected at various R3A?2m to ?B-crystallin molar subunit ratios, it is concluded that the structured ?-sheet core and the apical loops of R3A?2m interact in a nonspecific manner with the ?B-crystallin. Complementary information was derived from NMR diffusion coefficient measurements of wild-type ?2m at a 100-fold concentration excess with respect to ?B-crystallin. Mass spectrometry acquired in the native state showed that the onset of wild-type ?2m oligomerization was effectively reduced by ?B-crystallin. Furthermore, and most importantly, ?B-crystallin reversibly dissociated ?2m oligomers formed spontaneously in aged samples. These results, coupled with our previous studies, highlight the potent effectiveness of ?B-crystallin in preventing ?2m aggregation at the various stages of its aggregation pathway. Our findings are highly relevant to the emerging view that molecular chaperone action is intimately involved in the prevention of in vivo amyloid fibril formation.
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High precision platelet releasate definition by quantitative reversed protein profiling--brief report.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Platelet activation and subsequent protein release play an important role in healthy hemostasis and inflammatory responses, yet the identity and quantity of proteins in the platelet releasate are still debated. Here, we present a reversed releasate proteomics approach to determine unambiguously and quantitatively proteins released from activated platelets.
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Profiling of diet-induced neuropeptide changes in rat brain by quantitative mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Neuropeptides are intercellular signal transmitters that play key roles in modulation of many behavioral and physiological processes. Neuropeptide signaling in several nuclei in the hypothalamus contributes to the control of food intake. Additionally, food intake regulation involves neuropeptide signaling in the reward circuitry in the striatum. Here, we analyze neuropeptides extracted from hypothalamus and striatum from rats in four differentially treated dietary groups including a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, mimicking diet-induced obesity. We employ high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry using higher-energy collision dissociation and electron transfer dissociation fragmentation for sensitive identification of more than 1700 unique endogenous peptides, including virtually all key neuropeptides known to be involved in food intake regulation. Label-free quantification of differential neuropeptide expression revealed comparable upregulation of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides in rats that were fed on a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.
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Targeted phosphotyrosine profiling of glycoprotein VI signaling implicates oligophrenin-1 in platelet filopodia formation.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Platelet adhesion to subendothelial collagen is dependent on the integrin ?2?1 and glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptors. The major signaling routes in collagen-dependent platelet activation are outlined; however, crucial detailed knowledge of the actual phosphorylation events mediating them is still limited. Here, we explore phosphotyrosine signaling events downstream of GPVI with site-specific detail.
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Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of checkpoint recovery identifies new regulators of the DNA damage response.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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How cells recover from a DNA damage-induced arrest is currently poorly understood. We performed large-scale quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify changes in protein phosphorylation that occurred during recovery from arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle caused by DNA damage. We identified 154 proteins that were differentially phosphorylated, and systematic depletion of each of these differentially phosphorylated proteins by small interfering RNA (siRNA) identified at least 10 potential regulators of recovery. Astrin, a protein associated with the mitotic spindle, was among the potential regulators of recovery. We found that astrin controlled the abundance of the cell cycle regulator p53 during DNA damage-induced arrest. Cells in which astrin was depleted had decreased murine double minute 2 (MDM2) abundance and increased p53 at the later stages of the DNA damage response. Astrin was required for continued expression of genes encoding proteins that promote cell cycle progression in arrested cells. Thus, by controlling p53 abundance in cells recovering from DNA damage, astrin maintains the cells in a state competent to resume the cell cycle.
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Determining protein concentrations of the human ventricular proteome.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Proteomics is mostly used for measurements of relative differences in protein concentrations. Although such analyses are meaningful for comparing differences between two and more conditions, they do not directly provide details on the absolute protein concentrations within a system. Now, proteomics is heading more towards absolute quantitative strategies with results being expressed in copies/cell or ng/mg tissue. In the cardiac context, such quantitative information is crucial for (1) evaluating the feasibility of selecting a certain protein as potential novel drug target, (2) the expected concentration excreted into the circulation when selecting a biomarker, and (3) to build a model of cardiac function at the molecular level. At the same time, by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, a wealth of spectral information is gathered that can be used to evaluate protein levels of a select set of novel disease-altered proteins using, for instance, single reaction monitoring. Here we describe how to build a quantitative map of the human left ventricular proteome using a simple yet effective mass spectrometry-based spectral count method.
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Epitope-distal effects accompany the binding of two distinct antibodies to hepatitis B virus capsids.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Infection of humans by hepatitis B virus (HBV) induces the copious production of antibodies directed against the capsid protein (Cp). A large variety of anticapsid antibodies have been identified that differ in their epitopes. These data, and the status of the capsid as a major clinical antigen, motivate studies to achieve a more detailed understanding of their interactions. In this study, we focused on the Fab fragments of two monoclonal antibodies, E1 and 3120. E1 has been shown to bind to the side of outward-protruding spikes whereas 3120 binds to the "floor" region of the capsid, between spikes. We used hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to investigate the effects on HBV capsids of binding these antibodies. Conventionally, capsids loaded with saturating amounts of Fabs would be too massive to be readily amenable to HDX-MS. However, by focusing on the Cp protein, we were able to acquire deuterium uptake profiles covering the entire 149-residue sequence and reveal, in localized detail, changes in H/D exchange rates accompanying antibody binding. We find increased protection of the known E1 and 3120 epitopes on the capsid upon binding and show that regions distant from the epitopes are also affected. In particular, the ?2a helix (residues 24-34) and the mobile C-terminus (residues 141-149) become substantially less solvent-exposed. Our data indicate that even at substoichiometric antibody binding an overall increase in the rigidity of the capsid is elicited, as well as a general dampening of its breathing motions.
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A large synthetic peptide and phosphopeptide reference library for mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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We present a peptide library and data resource of >100,000 synthetic, unmodified peptides and their phosphorylated counterparts with known sequences and phosphorylation sites. Analysis of the library by mass spectrometry yielded a data set that we used to evaluate the merits of different search engines (Mascot and Andromeda) and fragmentation methods (beam-type collision-induced dissociation (HCD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD)) for peptide identification. We also compared the sensitivities and accuracies of phosphorylation-site localization tools (Mascot Delta Score, PTM score and phosphoRS), and we characterized the chromatographic behavior of peptides in the library. We found that HCD identified more peptides and phosphopeptides than did ETD, that phosphopeptides generally eluted later from reversed-phase columns and were easier to identify than unmodified peptides and that current computational tools for proteomics can still be substantially improved. These peptides and spectra will facilitate the development, evaluation and improvement of experimental and computational proteomic strategies, such as separation techniques and the prediction of retention times and fragmentation patterns.
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Finding the same needles in the haystack? A comparison of phosphotyrosine peptides enriched by immuno-affinity precipitation and metal-based affinity chromatography.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Analysis of tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics remains challenging, due to the low occurrence of this post-translational modification compared to serine and threonine phosphorylation events in mammalian systems. Conventional metal-based affinity chromatography methods used to enrich phosphopeptides can nowadays isolate over 10,000 phosphopeptides. However, these approaches are not particularly suitable for the selective enrichment of low abundant Tyr phosphorylated peptides as the higher abundant co-enriched serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) phosphorylated peptides typically obscure their detection. Therefore, a more targeted approach based on immuno-affinity precipitation at the peptide level has been introduced for the specific analysis of Tyr phosphorylated species. This method typically leads to the detection of a few hundreds of phosphopeptides, albeit typically over 70% of those are Tyr phosphorylated. Here, we evaluated and compared phosphotyrosine peptides enriched by a phospho-Tyr immuno-affinity enrichment (employing pY99 antibodies) and a multidimensional approach consisting of metal-affinity based enrichment (Ti(4+)-IMAC) followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) fractionation. Our aim was to assess differences and similarities in the set of Tyr phosphorylated peptides detected by each approach. Our data suggest that both strategies are not redundant but complementary and should ideally be combined for a more comprehensive view at phosphotyrosine signaling.
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Performing native mass spectrometry analysis on therapeutic antibodies.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Since the introduction of "soft" ionization techniques, the role of mass spectrometry (MS) in the field of structural biology has increasingly expanded. With the incorporation of volatile buffers as electrospray ionization (ESI) solvents, non-covalent protein complexes could be efficiently transferred to the gas phase for mass analysis. While native MS has not become a technique used for standard characterization of therapeutic proteins in an industrial setting, it is increasingly used to probe the structural heterogeneity of these complex biomolecules. Here, we describe a detailed sample protocol for the analysis of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by native MS and highlight some recent applications of native MS in the analysis of intact mAbs and mAb-based therapeutics.
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Characterization of electron transfer dissociation in the Orbitrap Velos HCD cell.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is commonly employed in ion traps utilizing rf fields that facilitate efficient electron transfer reactions. Here, we explore performing ETD in the HCD collision cell on an Orbitrap Velos instrument by applying a static DC gradient axially to the rods. This gradient enables simultaneous three dimensional, charge sign independent, trapping of cations and anions, initiating electron transfer reactions in the center of the HCD cell where oppositely charged ions clouds overlap. Here, we evaluate this mode of operation for a number of tryptic peptide populations and the top-down sequence analysis of ubiquitin. Our preliminary data show that performing ETD in the HCD cell provides similar fragmentation as ion trap-ETD but requires further optimization to match performance of ion trap-ETD.
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The CRAPome: a contaminant repository for affinity purification-mass spectrometry data.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a widely used approach for the identification of protein-protein interactions. However, for any given protein of interest, determining which of the identified polypeptides represent bona fide interactors versus those that are background contaminants (for example, proteins that interact with the solid-phase support, affinity reagent or epitope tag) is a challenging task. The standard approach is to identify nonspecific interactions using one or more negative-control purifications, but many small-scale AP-MS studies do not capture a complete, accurate background protein set when available controls are limited. Fortunately, negative controls are largely bait independent. Hence, aggregating negative controls from multiple AP-MS studies can increase coverage and improve the characterization of background associated with a given experimental protocol. Here we present the contaminant repository for affinity purification (the CRAPome) and describe its use for scoring protein-protein interactions. The repository (currently available for Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and computational tools are freely accessible at http://www.crapome.org/.
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16 kDa heat shock protein from heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a homodimer - suitability for diagnostic applications with specific llama VHH monoclonals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The 16 kDa heat shock protein (HSP) is an immuno-dominant antigen, used in diagnosis of infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.) causing tuberculosis (TB). Its use in serum-based diagnostics is limited, but for the direct identification of M.tb. bacteria in sputum or cultures it may represent a useful tool. Recently, a broad set of twelve 16 kDa specific heavy chain llama antibodies (VHH) has been isolated, and their utility for diagnostic applications was explored.
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Database independent proteomics analysis of the ostrich and human proteome.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis relies heavily on the presence of complete protein databases. Such a strategy is extremely powerful, albeit not adequate in the analysis of unpredicted postgenome events, such as posttranslational modifications, which exponentially increase the search space. Therefore, it is of interest to explore "database-free" approaches. Here, we sampled the ostrich and human proteomes with a method facilitating de novo sequencing, utilizing the protease Lys-N in combination with electron transfer dissociation. By implementing several validation steps, including the combined use of collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation data and a cross-validation with conventional database search strategies, we identified approximately 2,500 unique de novo peptide sequences from the ostrich sample with over 900 peptides generating full backbone sequence coverage. This dataset allowed the appropriate positioning of ostrich in the evolutionary tree. The described database-free sequencing approach is generically applicable and has great potential in important proteomics applications such as in the analysis of variable parts of endogenous antibodies or proteins modified by a plethora of complex posttranslational modifications.
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Targeted quantitative phosphoproteomics approach for the detection of phospho-tyrosine signaling in plants.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation plays an essential role in signaling in animal systems. However, a few studies have also reported Tyr phosphorylation in plants, but the relative contribution of tyrosine phosphorylation to plant signal transduction has remained an open question. We present an approach to selectively measure and quantify Tyr phosphorylation in plant cells, which can also be applied to whole plants. We combined a (15)N stable isotope metabolic labeling strategy with an immuno-affinity purification using phospho-tyrosine (pY) specific antibodies. This single enrichment strategy was sufficient to reproducibly identify and quantify pY containing peptides from total plant cell extract in a single LC-MS/MS run. We succeeded in identifying 149 unique pY peptides originating from 135 proteins, including a large set of different protein kinases and several receptor-like kinases. We used flagellin perception by Arabidopsis cells, a model system for pathogen triggered immune (PTI) signaling, to test our approach. We reproducibly quantified 23 pY peptides in 2 inversely labeled biological replicates identifying 11 differentially phosphorylated proteins. These include a set of 3 well-characterized flagellin responsive MAP kinases and 4 novel MAP kinases. With this targeted approach, we elucidate a new level of complexity in flagellin-induced MAP kinase activation.
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Oxidative stress-induced modifications of histidyl-tRNA synthetase affect its tRNA aminoacylation activity but not its immunoreactivity.
Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that catalyze the esterification of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. Autoantibodies against several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are found in autoimmune polymyositis and dermatomyositis patients. Because necrosis is often found in skeletal muscle biopsies of these patients, we hypothesized that cell-death-induced protein modifications may help in breaking immunological tolerance. Since cell death is associated with oxidative stress, the effect of oxidative stress on the main myositis-specific autoantibody target Jo-1 (histidyl-tRNA synthetase; HisRS) was studied in detail. The exposure of Jurkat cells to hydrogen peroxide resulted in the detection of several oxidized methionines and one oxidized tryptophan residue in the HisRS protein, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry. Unexpectedly, the tRNA aminoacylation activity of HisRS appeared to be increased upon oxidative modification. The analysis of myositis patient sera did not lead to the detection of autoantibodies that are specifically reactive with the modified HisRS protein. The results of this study demonstrate that the Jo-1/HisRS autoantigen is modified under oxidative stress conditions. The consequences of these modifications for the function of HisRS and its autoantigenicity are discussed.
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Interconversion between active and inactive TATA-binding protein transcription complexes in the mouse genome.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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The TATA binding protein (TBP) plays a pivotal role in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through incorporation into the TFIID and B-TFIID complexes. The role of mammalian B-TFIID composed of TBP and B-TAF1 is poorly understood. Using a complementation system in genetically modified mouse cells where endogenous TBP can be conditionally inactivated and replaced by exogenous mutant TBP coupled to tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify two TBP mutations, R188E and K243E, that disrupt the TBP-BTAF1 interaction and B-TFIID complex formation. Transcriptome and ChIP-seq analyses show that loss of B-TFIID does not generally alter gene expression or genomic distribution of TBP, but positively or negatively affects TBP and/or Pol II recruitment to a subset of promoters. We identify promoters where wild-type TBP assembles a partial inactive preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID, TFIIB and Mediator complex, but lacking TFIID, TFIIE and Pol II. Exchange of B-TFIID in wild-type cells for TFIID in R188E and K243E mutant cells at these primed promoters completes preinitiation complex formation and recruits Pol II to activate their expression. We propose a novel regulatory mechanism involving formation of a partial preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID that primes the promoter for productive preinitiation complex formation in mammalian cells.
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Structural reorganization of the antigen-binding groove of human CD1b for presentation of mycobacterial sulfoglycolipids.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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The mechanisms permitting nonpolymorphic CD1 molecules to present lipid antigens that differ considerably in polar head and aliphatic tails remain elusive. It is also unclear why hydrophobic motifs in the aliphatic tails of some antigens, which presumably embed inside CD1 pockets, contribute to determinants for T-cell recognition. The 1.9-Å crystal structure of an active complex of CD1b and a mycobacterial diacylsulfoglycolipid presented here provides some clues. Upon antigen binding, endogenous spacers of CD1b, which consist of a mixture of diradylglycerols, moved considerably within the lipid-binding groove. Spacer displacement was accompanied by F pocket closure and an extensive rearrangement of residues exposed to T-cell receptors. Such structural reorganization resulted in reduction of the A pocket capacity and led to incomplete embedding of the methyl-ramified portion of the phthioceranoyl chain of the antigen, explaining why such hydrophobic motifs are critical for T-cell receptor recognition. Mutagenesis experiments supported the functional importance of the observed structural alterations for T-cell stimulation. Overall, our data delineate a complex molecular mechanism combining spacer repositioning and ligand-induced conformational changes that, together with pocket intricacy, endows CD1b with the required molecular plasticity to present a broad range of structurally diverse antigens.
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The diversity of protein turnover and abundance under nitrogen-limited steady-state conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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To establish more advanced models of molecular dynamics within cells, protein characteristics such as turnover rate and absolute instead of relative abundance have to be analyzed. We applied a proteomics strategy to analyze protein degradation and abundance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We used steady-state chemostat cultures to ascertain well-defined growth conditions and nitrogen limited media, which allowed us to rapidly switch from (14)N to (15)N-isotope containing media and to monitor the decay of the (14)N mono-isotope signals in time. We acquired both protein abundance information and degradation rates of 641 proteins. Half-lives of individual proteins were very diverse under nitrogen-limited steady-state conditions, ranging from less than 30 min to over 20 h. Proteins that act as single physical complexes do not always show alike half-lives. For example the chaperonin-containing TCP-1 complex showed similar intermediate half-lives ranging from 7 to 20 h. In contrast, the ribosome exhibited a wide diversity of half-lives ranging from 2.5 to over 20 h, although their cellular abundances were rather similar. The stabilities of proteins involved in the central sugar metabolism were found to be intermediary, except for the glycolytic enzymes Hxk1p and Fba1p and the TCA-cycle proteins Lsc2p and Kgd1p, which showed half-lives of over 20 h. These data stress the need for inclusion of quantitative data of protein turn-over rates in yeast systems biology.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.