JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The immunophenotype of mast cells and its utility in the diagnostic work-up of systemic mastocytosis.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SM comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by an abnormal accumulation of clonal MCs in 1 or more tissues, frequently involving the skin and BM. Despite the fact that most adult patients (>90%) carry the same genetic lesion (D816V KIT mutation), the disease presents with multiple variants with very distinct clinical and biologic features, a diverse prognosis, and different therapeutic requirements. Recent advances in the standardization of the study of BM MC by MFC allowed reproducible identification and characterization of normal/reactive MCs and their precursors, as well as the establishment of the normal MC maturational profiles. Analysis of large groups of patients versus normal/reactive samples has highlighted the existence of aberrant MC phenotypes in SM, which are essential for the diagnosis of the disease. In turn, 3 clearly distinct and altered maturation-associated immunophenotypic profiles have been reported recently in SM, which provide criteria for the distinction between ISM patients with MC-restricted and multilineage KIT mutation; thus, immunphenotyping also contributes to prognostic stratification of ISM, particularly when analysis of the KIT mutation on highly purified BM cells is not routinely available in the diagnostic work-up of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Altered interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization profiles of chromosomes 4, 8q24, and 9q34 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are associated with a poorer patient outcome.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) die within 6 months of diagnosis. However, 20% to 25% patients undergoing total tumor resection remain alive and disease-free 5 years after diagnostic surgery. Few studies on tumor markers have predicted patient prognosis and/or survival. We evaluated the effect of tumor cytogenetic copy number changes detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on overall survival (OS) of 55 PDAC patients. The prognostic value of copy number changes showing an effect on OS was validated in an external cohort of 44 surgically resected PDAC patients by comparative genomic hybridization arrays, and the genes coded in altered chromosomes with prognostic value were identified by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in 20 cases. Copy number changes of chromosomes 4 and 9q34 with gains of 8q24 were independently associated with shorter OS. On the basis of these three chromosomal alterations, a score is proposed that identifies patients with significantly different (P < 0.001) 5-year OS rates: 60% ± 20%, 16% ± 8%, and 0% ± 0%, respectively. Our results show an association between tumor cytogenetics and OS of PDAC patients and provide the basis for further prognostic stratification of patients undergoing complete tumor resection. Further studies to identify specific genes coded in these chromosomes and their functional consequences are necessary to understand the clinical effect of these changes.
Related JoVE Video
B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia: a specific subgroup of mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is a rare mature B-cell malignancy that may be hard to distinguish from mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). B-PLL cases with a t(11;14) were redefined as MCL in the World Health Organization 2008 classification. We evaluated 13 B-PLL patients [7 being t(11;14)-positive (B-PLL+) and 6 negative (B-PLL-)] and compared them with MCL and CLL patients. EuroFlow-based immunophenotyping showed significant overlap between B-PLL+ and B-PLL-, as well as between B-PLL and MCL, whereas CLL clustered separately. Immunogenotyping showed specific IGHV gene usage partly resembling MCL. Gene expression profiling showed no separation between B-PLL+ and B-PLL- but identified 3 subgroups. One B-PLL subgroup clustered close to CLL and another subgroup clustered with leukemic MCL; both were associated with prolonged survival. A third subgroup clustered close to nodal MCL and was associated with short survival. Gene expression profiles of both B-PLL+ and B-PLL- showed best resemblance with normal immunoglobulin M-only B-cells. Our data confirm that B-PLL+ is highly comparable to MCL, indicate that B-PLL- also may be considered as a specific subgroup of MCL, and suggest that B-PLL is part of a spectrum, ranging from CLL-like B-PLL, to leukemic MCL-like B-PLL, to nodal MCL-like B-PLL.
Related JoVE Video
Quality assessment program for EuroFlow protocols: Summary results of four-year (2010-2013) quality assurance rounds.
Cytometry A
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flow cytometric immunophenotyping has become essential for accurate diagnosis, classification, and disease monitoring in hemato-oncology. The EuroFlow Consortium has established a fully standardized "all-in-one" pipeline consisting of standardized instrument settings, reagent panels, and sample preparation protocols and software for data analysis and disease classification. For its reproducible implementation, parallel development of a quality assurance (QA) program was required. Here, we report on the results of four consecutive annual rounds of the novel external QA EuroFlow program. The novel QA scheme aimed at monitoring the whole flow cytometric analysis process (cytometer setting, sample preparation, acquisition and analysis) by reading the median fluorescence intensities (MedFI) of defined lymphocytes' subsets. Each QA participant applied the predefined reagents' panel on blood cells of local healthy donors. A uniform gating strategy was applied to define lymphocyte subsets and to read MedFI values per marker. The MedFI values were compared with reference data and deviations from reference values were quantified using performance score metrics. In four annual QA rounds, we analyzed 123 blood samples from local healthy donors on 14 different instruments in 11 laboratories from nine European countries. The immunophenotype of defined cellular subsets appeared sufficiently standardized to permit unified (software) data analysis. The coefficient of variation of MedFI for 7 of 11 markers performed repeatedly below 30%, average MedFI in each QA round ranged from 86 to 125% from overall median. Calculation of performance scores was instrumental to pinpoint standardization failures and their causes. Overall, the new EuroFlow QA system for the first time allowed to quantify the technical variation that is introduced in the measurement of fluorescence intensities in a multicentric setting over an extended period of time. EuroFlow QA is a proficiency test specific for laboratories that use standardized EuroFlow protocols. It may be used to complement, but not replace, established proficiency tests. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Related JoVE Video
Subjects with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia-like B-cell clones with stereotyped B-cell receptors frequently show MDS-associated phenotypes on myeloid cells.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An increasing body of evidence suggests the potential occurrence of antigen encounter by the cell of origin in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and CLL-like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). However, the scenario in which this event might occur remains unknown. In order to gain insight into this scenario we investigated the molecular, cytogenetic and haematological features of 223 CLL-like (n = 84) and CLL (n = 139) clones with stereotyped (n = 32) versus non-stereotyped (n = 191) immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) amino acid sequences. Overall, stereotyped CLL-like MBL and CLL clones showed a unique IGHV profile, associated with higher IGHV1 and lower IGHV3 gene family usage (P = 0·03), longer IGHV complementary determining region 3 (HCDR3) sequences (P = 0·007) and unmutated IGHV (P < 0·001) versus non-stereotyped clones. Whilst the overall size of the stereotyped B-cell clones in peripheral blood did not appear to be associated with the CLL-related cytogenetic profile of B-cells (P > 0·05), it did show a significant association with the presence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-associated immunophenotypes on peripheral blood neutrophils and/or monocytes (P = 0·01). Altogether our results point to the potential involvement of different selection forces in the expansion of stereotyped vs. non-stereotyped CLL and CLL-like MBL clones, the former being potentially favoured by an underlying altered haematopoiesis.
Related JoVE Video
Involvement of primary mesenchymal precursors and hematopoietic bone marrow cells from chronic myeloid leukemia patients by BCR-ABL1 fusion gene.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For decades now, it is well established that chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell(HPC) disorder. However, it remains to be determined whether BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangement occurs in a HPC or at an earlier stem cell and whether the degree of involvement of hematopoiesis by the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene relates to the response to therapy. Here, we have investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) the distribution of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene in FACS-sorted bone marrow (BM) populations of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) and other hematopoietic cell populations from 18 newly diagnosed CML patients. Overall, our results showed systematic involvement at relatively high percentages of BM maturing neutrophils (97%615%), basophils (95%612%), eosinophils (90%68%), CD341 precursors cells (90%67%),monocytes (84%630%), nucleated red blood cells (87%624%), and mast cells (77%633%). By contrast, MPC(30%634%), B-cells (15%627%), T-lymphocytes (50%626%), and NK-cells (35%634%) were involved at lower percentages. In 8/18 CML patients, 2 tumor BCR-ABL11 subclones were detected by iFISH. Of note, all tumor cell subclones were systematically detected in CD341 cells, whereas MPC were only involved by the ancestral tumor cell subclone. In summary, here we confirm the presence at diagnosis of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene inMPC, CD341 precursors, and other different BM hematopoietic myeloid cell lineages from CML patients,including also in a significant fraction of cases, a smaller percentage of T, B, and NK lymphocytes.Interestingly, involvement of MPC was restricted to the ancestral BCR-ABL11 subclone.
Related JoVE Video
Flow cytometry in mastocytosis: utility as a diagnostic and prognostic tool.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article presents information for the identification and characterization of mast cells from bone marrow and other tissues using multiparametric flow cytometry. In addition, it provides guidelines for the application of this technique in the subclassification of systemic mastocytosis and assessment of the long-term prognosis of patients individually.
Related JoVE Video
Transient expression of Bcl6 is sufficient for oncogenic function and induction of mature B-cell lymphoma.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma and can be separated into two subtypes based upon molecular features with similarities to germinal centre B-cells (GCB-like) or activated B-cells (ABC-like). Here we identify gain of 3q27.2 as being significantly associated with adverse outcome in DLBCL and linked with the ABC-like subtype. This lesion includes the BCL6 oncogene, but does not alter BCL6 transcript levels or target-gene repression. Separately, we identify expression of BCL6 in a subset of human haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). We therefore hypothesize that BCL6 may act by 'hit-and-run' oncogenesis. We model this hit-and-run mechanism by transiently expressing Bcl6 within murine HSPCs, and find that it causes mature B-cell lymphomas that lack Bcl6 expression and target-gene repression, are transcriptionally similar to post-GCB cells, and show epigenetic changes that are conserved from HSPCs to mature B-cells. Together, these results suggest that BCL6 may function in a 'hit-and-run' role in lymphomagenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Detection and outcome of occult leptomeningeal disease in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benefit of intrathecal therapy and systemic rituximab on the outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at risk of central nervous system disease is controversial. Furthermore, the effect of intrathecal treatment and rituximab in diffuse large B-cell and Burkitt lymphoma with occult leptomeningeal disease detected by flow cytometry at diagnosis is unknown. Untreated diffuse large B-cell (n=246) and Burkitt (n=80) lymphoma at clinical risk of central nervous system disease and having had pre-treatment cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed by flow cytometry and cytology. Spinal fluid involvement was detected by flow cytometry alone (occult) in 33 (13%) diffuse large B-cell and 9 (11%) Burkitt lymphoma patients, and detected by cytology in 11 (4.5%) and 5 (6%) patients, respectively. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with occult spinal fluid involvement had poorer survival (P=0.0001) and freedom from central nervous system relapse (P<0.0001) compared to negative cases. Burkitt lymphoma with occult spinal fluid involvement had an inferior freedom from central nervous system relapse (P=0.026) but not survival. The amount of intrathecal chemotherapy was quantitatively associated with survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with (P=0.02) and without (P=0.001) occult spinal fluid involvement. However, progression of systemic disease and not control of central nervous system disease was the principal cause of treatment failure. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, systemic rituximab was associated with improved freedom from central nervous system relapse (P=0.003) but not with survival. Our results suggest that patients at risk of central nervous system disease should be evaluated by flow cytometry and that intrathecal prophylaxis/therapy is beneficial.
Related JoVE Video
Human IgE(+) B cells are derived from T cell-dependent and T cell-independent pathways.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prevalence of IgE-mediated diseases has been increasing worldwide, yet IgE-expressing B cells are poorly characterized, mainly because of their scarcity and low membrane IgE levels.
Related JoVE Video
Proposal for a new risk stratification classification for meningioma based on patient age, WHO tumor grade, size, localization, and karyotype.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tumor recurrence remains the major clinical complication of meningiomas, the majority of recurrences occurring among WHO grade I/benign tumors. In the present study, we propose a new scoring system for the prognostic stratification of meningioma patients based on analysis of a large series of meningiomas followed for a median of >5 years.
Related JoVE Video
Immune reconstitution in patients with Fanconi anemia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive or X-linked genetic disorder characterized by bone marrow (BM) failure/aplasia. Failure of hematopoiesis results in depletion of the BM stem cell reservoir, which leads to severe anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, frequently requiring therapeutic interventions, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Successful BM transplantation (BMT) requires reconstitution of normal immunity.
Related JoVE Video
The protein expression profile of meningioma cells is associated with distinct cytogenetic tumour subgroups.
Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limited information exists about the impact of cytogenetic alterations on the protein expression profiles of individual meningioma cells and their association with the clinico-histopathological characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential association between the immunophenotypic profile of single meningioma cells and the most relevant features of the tumour.
Related JoVE Video
Contribution of cerebrospinal fluid sCD19 levels to the detection of CNS lymphoma and its impact on disease outcome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flow cytometry (FCM) is more sensitive than conventional cytology for detection of occult leptomeningeal lymphoma; however, some FCM-negative patients show central nervous system (CNS) recurrence. Here, we evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 13 B-cell-associated markers and their contribution to the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma in 91 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and 22 Burkitt lymphomas (BLs). From all markers tested, CD19 was the most informative. Thus, higher soluble CD19 (sCD19) levels were associated with a greater frequency of neurological symptoms in DLBCL and BL and with parenchymal CNS lymphoma in DLBCL; sCD19 emerged as a powerful predictor of event-free and overall survival in DLBCL and BL, particularly when combined with FCM detection of CNS disease. These results support the utility of combined FCM detection of lymphoma cells and assessment of sCD19 levels in CSF, for more accurate identification of CNS disease in DLBCL and BL patients.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes.
Related JoVE Video
Relevance of Nck-CD3 epsilon interaction for T cell activation in vivo.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On TCR ligation, the adaptor Nck is recruited through its src homology 3.1 domain to a proline-rich sequence (PRS) in CD3?. We have studied the relevance of this interaction for T cell activation in vitro and in vivo by targeting the interaction sites in both partners. The first approach consisted of studying a knockin (KI) mouse line (KI-PRS) bearing a conservative mutation in the PRS that makes the TCR incompetent to recruit Nck. This deficiency prevents T cell activation by Ag in vitro and inhibited very early TCR signaling events including the tyrosine phosphorylation of CD3?. Most important, KI-PRS mice are partly protected against the development of neurological symptoms in an experimental autoimmune encephalitis model, and show a deficient antitumoral response after vaccination. The second approach consisted of using a high-affinity peptide that specifically binds the src homology 3.1 domain and prevents the interaction of Nck with CD3?. This peptide inhibits T cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that Nck recruitment to the TCR is fundamental to mount an efficient T cell response in vivo, and that the Nck-CD3? interaction may represent a target for pharmacological modulation of the immune response.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a characteristic copy number alteration profile by high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays associated with metastatic sporadic colorectal cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metastatic dissemination is the most frequent cause of death in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC). It is believed that the metastatic process is related at least in part to a specific background of genetic alterations accumulated in cells from primary tumors, and the ability to detect such alterations is critical for the identification of patients with sCRC who are at risk of developing metastases.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of homo- and hetero-functionally activated glass surfaces for optimized antibody arrays.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antibody arrays hold great promise for biomedical applications, but they are typically manufactured using chemically functionalized surfaces that still require optimization. Here, we describe novel hetero-functionally activated glass surfaces favoring oriented antibody binding for improved performance in protein microarray applications. Antibody arrays manufactured in our facility using the functionalization chemistries described here proved to be reproducible and stable and also showed good signal intensities. As a proof-of-principle of the glass surface functionalization protocols described in this article, we built antibody-based arrays functionalized with different chemistries that enabled the simultaneous detection of 71 human leukocyte membrane differentiation antigens commonly found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Such detection is specific and semi-quantitative and can be performed in a single assay under native conditions. In summary, the protocol described here, based on the use of antibody array technology, enabled the concurrent detection of a set of membrane proteins under native conditions in a specific, selective, and semi-quantitative manner and in a single assay.
Related JoVE Video
Distinction between asymptomatic monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with cyclin D1 overexpression and mantle cell lymphoma: from molecular profiling to flow cytometry.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
According to current diagnostic criteria, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) encompasses the usual, aggressive variants and rare, non-nodal cases with monoclonal asymptomatic lymphocytosis, cyclin D1-positive (MALD1). We aimed to understand the biology behind this clinical heterogeneity and to identify markers for adequate identification of MALD1 cases.
Related JoVE Video
Detailed characterization of multiple myeloma circulating tumor cells shows unique phenotypic, cytogenetic, functional, and circadian distribution profile.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating myeloma tumor cells (CTCs) as defined by the presence of peripheral blood (PB) clonal plasma cells (PCs) are a powerful prognostic marker in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the biological features of CTCs and their pathophysiological role in MM remains unexplored. Here, we investigate the phenotypic, cytogenetic, and functional characteristics as well as the circadian distribution of CTCs vs paired bone marrow (BM) clonal PCs from MM patients. Our results show that CTCs typically represent a unique subpopulation of all BM clonal PCs, characterized by downregulation (P < .05) of integrins (CD11a/CD11c/CD29/CD49d/CD49e), adhesion (CD33/CD56/CD117/CD138), and activation molecules (CD28/CD38/CD81). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorter-sorted CTCs also unraveled different cytogenetic profiles vs paired BM clonal PCs. Moreover, CTCs were mostly quiescent and associated with higher clonogenic potential when cocultured with BM stromal cells. Most interestingly, CTCs showed a circadian distribution which fluctuates in a similar pattern to that of CD34(+) cells, and opposite to stromal cell-derived factor 1 plasma levels and corresponding surface expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 on clonal PCs, suggesting that in MM, CTCs may egress to PB to colonize/metastasize other sites in the BM during the patients resting period.
Related JoVE Video
Functional redundancy of Sos1 and Sos2 for lymphopoiesis and organismal homeostasis and survival.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sos1 and Sos2 are ubiquitously expressed, universal Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Ras-GEFs) acting in multiple signal transduction pathways activated by upstream cellular kinases. The embryonic lethality of Sos1 null mutants has hampered ascertaining the specific in vivo contributions of Sos1 and Sos2 to processes controlling adult organism survival or development of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic organs, tissues, and cell lineages. Here, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Sos1-null mouse strain allowing analysis of the combined disruption of Sos1 and Sos2 (Sos1/2) during adulthood. Sos1/2 double-knockout (DKO) animals died precipitously, whereas individual Sos1 and Sos2 knockout (KO) mice were perfectly viable. A reduced percentage of total bone marrow precursors occurred in single-KO animals, but a dramatic depletion of B-cell progenitors was specifically detected in Sos1/2 DKO mice. We also confirmed a dominant role of Sos1 over Sos2 in early thymocyte maturation, with almost complete thymus disappearance and dramatically higher reduction of absolute thymocyte counts in Sos1/2 DKO animals. Absolute counts of mature B and T cells in spleen and peripheral blood were unchanged in single-KO mutants, while significantly reduced in Sos1/2 DKO mice. Our data demonstrate functional redundancy between Sos1 and Sos2 for homeostasis and survival of the full organism and for development and maturation of T and B lymphocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced cytotoxic activity of bile acid cisplatin derivatives by conjugation with gold nanoparticles.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article explores the potential cytotoxic activity of bile-acid cisplatin derivatives like bisursodeoxycholate(ethylenediamine)platinum(II), PtU2, when conjugated with gold nanoparticles, being a promising alternative to cisplatin in the treatment of cancer due to their lower toxicity. For our purpose we analyzed the intracellular delivery ability of these compounds after conjugation with 20-nm gold nanoparticles (PtU2-AuNPs) in the MG63 (osteosarcoma) cell line. Same platinum uptake after incubation with PtU2 and PtU2-AuNPs-derivatives is associated with a higher cytotoxic activity in case of the platinum-gold nanoparticle conjugate, the overall IC50 of PtU2 being reduced more than 10 fold for these new conjugates. When conjugated with gold nanoparticles, this bile-acid derivative is more efficient than the platinum compound alone in terms of their cytotoxic activity.
Related JoVE Video
Circulating clonotypic B-cells in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The B-cell compartment where the multiple myeloma stem cell resides, remains unclear. We investigated the potential presence of mature surface-membrane immunoglobulin-positive B lymphocytes clonally-related to the tumoral bone marrow plasma cells among different subsets of peripheral blood B-cells from 10 patients (7 multiple myeloma and 3 monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance). Presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements was determined in multiple highly-purified fractions of PB B-lymphocytes including surface membrane IgM+ CD27- naive B-lymphocytes, plus surface membrane IgG+, IgA+ and IgM+ memory CD27+ B-cells, and normal circulating plasma cells, in addition to (mono)clonal plasma cells, by a highly-specific and sensitive allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction directed to the CDR3 sequence of the rearranged IGH gene of tumor plasma cells from individual patients. Our results showed systematic absence of clonotypic rearrangements in all different B-cell subsets analyzed, including, M-component isotype-matched memory B-lymphocytes, at frequencies <0.03 cells/mL (range: 0.0003-0.03 cells/mL); the only exception were the myeloma plasma cells detected and purified from the peripheral blood of 4/7 myeloma patients. These results indicate that circulating B-cells from patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopaties of undetermined significance are usually devoided of clonotypic B-cells while the presence of immunophenotypically aberrant myeloma plasma cells in peripheral blood of myeloma patients is a relatively frequent finding.
Related JoVE Video
Association between mutation of the NF2 gene and monosomy 22 in menopausal women with sporadic meningiomas.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Meningioma was the first solid tumor shown to contain a recurrent genetic alteration e.g. monosomy 22/del(22q), NF2 being the most relevant gene involved. Although monosomy 22/del(22q) is present in half of all meningiomas, and meningiomas frequently carry NF2 mutations, no study has been reported so far in which both alterations are simultaneously assessed and correlated with the features of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with mantle cell lymphoma. Recommendations from the GEL/TAMO Spanish Cooperative Group.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered a distinct type of B-cell lymphoma genetically characterized by the t(11;14) translocation and cyclin D1 overexpression. There is also a small subset of tumors negative for cyclin D1 expression that are morphologically and immunophenotypically indistinguishable from conventional MCL. Although in the last decades, the median overall survival of patients with MCL has improved significantly, it is still considered as one of the poorest prognoses diseases among B-cell lymphomas. Election of treatment for patients with MCL is complex due to the scarcity of solid evidence. Current available data shows that conventional chemotherapy does not yield satisfactory results as in other types of B-cell lymphomas. However, the role of other approaches such as autologous or allogenic stem cell transplantation, immunotherapy, the administration of consolidation or maintenance schedules, or the use of targeted therapies still lack clear indications. In view of this situation, the Spanish Group of Lymphomas/Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation has conducted a series of reviews on different aspects of MCL, namely its diagnosis, prognosis, first-line and salvage treatment (both in young and elderly patients), new targeted therapies, and detection of minimal residual disease. On the basis of the available evidence, a series of recommendations have been issued with the intention of providing guidance to clinicians on the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients with MCL.
Related JoVE Video
Immunogenetics shows that not all MBL are equal: the larger the clone, the more similar to CLL.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) -like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) shares common immunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities with CLL, from which it is discriminated by a cutoff value of 5 × 10(9)/L circulating clonal B cells. However, the clonal size in MBL is extremely variable and allows discrimination of two distinct entities (high-count [HC] and low-count [LC]-MBL) based on a cutoff value of 0.5 × 10(9)/L clonal B cells. HC-MBL is associated with lymphocytosis and progresses to CLL requiring treatment at a rate of 1.1% per year, whereas LC-MBL is found in the general population only through high-sensitivity techniques and carries limited, if any, risk of progression. We performed an immunogenetic profiling of 333 cases with CLL-like MBL supplemented by detailed comparisons with CLL, focusing especially on CLL Rai stage 0 (CLL-0). LC- and HC-MBL had similar somatic hypermutation status, yet different IGHV gene repertoires and frequencies of B-cell receptor (BcR) stereotypy. In particular, stereotyped BcRs were infrequent in LC-MBL and were often not CLL specific. In contrast, HC-MBL exhibited clear immunogenetic similarities to CLL-0. These findings indicate that LC-MBL may not represent a true preleukemic condition, thus differing from HC-MBL/CLL-0 in which the identification of factors endowing malignant potential is strongly warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Nonaggressive systemic mastocytosis (SM) without skin lesions associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis shows unique features versus other indolent SM.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) without skin lesions (ISMs(-)) shows a higher prevalence in males, lower serum baseline tryptase levels, and KIT mutation more frequently restricted to bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MCs) than ISM with skin lesions (ISMs(+)). Interestingly, in almost one-half of ISMs(-) patients, MC-mediator release episodes are triggered exclusively by insects.
Related JoVE Video
Protein arrays as tool for studies at the host-pathogen interface.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pathogens and parasites encode a wide spectrum of multifunctional proteins interacting to and modifying proteins in host cells. However, the current lack of a reliable method to unveil the protein-protein interactions (PPI) at the host-pathogen interface is retarding our understanding of many important pathogenic processes. Thus, the identification of proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions is important for the elucidation of virulence determinants, mechanisms of infection, host susceptibility and/or disease resistance. In this sense, proteomic technologies have experienced major improvements in recent years and protein arrays are a powerful and modern method for studying PPI in a high-throughput format. This review focuses on these techniques analyzing the state-of-the-art of proteomic technologies and their possibilities to diagnose and explore host-pathogen interactions. Major technical advancements, applications and protocol concerns are presented, so readers can appreciate the immense progress achieved and the current technical options available for studying the host-pathogen interface. Finally, future uses of this kind of array-based proteomic tools in the fight against infectious and parasitic diseases are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Contribution of multiparameter flow cytometry immunophenotyping to the diagnostic screening and classification of pediatric cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pediatric cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of hematological and non-hematological malignancies which require multiple procedures for its diagnostic screening and classification. Until now, flow cytometry (FC) has not been systematically applied to the diagnostic work-up of such malignancies, particularly for solid tumors. Here we evaluated a FC panel of markers for the diagnostic screening of pediatric cancer and further classification of pediatric solid tumors. The proposed strategy aims at the differential diagnosis between tumoral vs. reactive samples, and hematological vs. non-hematological malignancies, and the subclassification of solid tumors. In total, 52 samples from 40 patients suspicious of containing tumor cells were analyzed by FC in parallel to conventional diagnostic procedures. The overall concordance rate between both approaches was of 96% (50/52 diagnostic samples), with 100% agreement for all reactive/inflammatory and non-infiltrated samples as well as for those corresponding to solid tumors (n?=?35), with only two false negative cases diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic lymphoma, respectively. Moreover, clear discrimination between samples infiltrated by hematopoietic vs. non-hematopoietic tumor cells was systematically achieved. Distinct subtypes of solid tumors showed different protein expression profiles, allowing for the differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma (CD56(hi)/GD2(+)/CD81(hi)), primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CD271(hi)/CD99(+)), Wilms tumors (>1 cell population), rhabdomyosarcoma (nuMYOD1(+)/numyogenin(+)), carcinomas (CD45(-)/EpCAM(+)), germ cell tumors (CD56(+)/CD45(-)/NG2(+)/CD10(+)) and eventually also hemangiopericytomas (CD45(-)/CD34(+)). In summary, our results show that multiparameter FC provides fast and useful complementary data to routine histopathology for the diagnostic screening and classification of pediatric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
CD30 expression by bone marrow mast cells from different diagnostic variants of systemic mastocytosis.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CD30 expression by bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MC) has been reported recently in systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of CD30 expression in SM as assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry.
Related JoVE Video
Gene expression profile of highly purified bone marrow mast cells in systemic mastocytosis.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the fact that a great majority (>90%) of patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry a common genetic lesion, the D816V KIT mutation, little is known regarding the molecular and biological pathways underlying the clinical heterogeneity of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Genomics and proteomics approaches for biomarker discovery in sporadic colorectal cancer with metastasis.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC) is one of the most frequent types of cancer in Europe. Despite understanding of its tumorigenesis, the metastatic process is not yet clear. In this article, we review the most significant genetic and proteomic advances that have been made in regards to research of the sCRC metastatic process, and the new biomarkers that are able to predict disease prognosis or response to treatments, in order to define personalized medicine.
Related JoVE Video
Overview of clinical flow cytometry data analysis: recent advances and future challenges.
Trends Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Major technological advances in flow cytometry (FC), both for instrumentation and reagents, have emerged over the past few decades. These advances facilitate simultaneous evaluation of more parameters in single cells analyzed at higher speed. Consequently, larger and more complex data files that contain information about tens of parameters for millions of cells are generated. This increasing complexity has challenged pre-existing data analysis tools and promoted the development of new algorithms and tools for data analysis and visualization. Here, we review the currently available (conventional and newly developed) data analysis and visualization strategies that aim for easier, more objective, and robust interpretation of FC data both in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic laboratories.
Related JoVE Video
Combined flow cytometric assessment of CD45, HLA-DR, CD34, and CD117 expression is a useful approach for reliable quantification of blast cells in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Quantification of bone marrow (BM) blasts by cytomorphology is essential for the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Owing to its subjectivity and the potential impact of dysplastic features on accurate identification of blast cells, more objective approaches are required, multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) being a particularly promising approach in this regard. However, no consensus exists about the optimal combination of markers and strategy to be used.
Related JoVE Video
Protein microarrays: technological aspects, applications and intellectual property.
Recent Pat Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Over the last decade, proteomics has undergone remarkable progress thanks to the technical advances made in the field. Improvements in the design of the protein microarrays, including more types of chemical groups for surface functionalization, new capture agents and novel detection strategies, among others, have allowed the detection of proteins in a robust, specific, sensitive, real time and high throughput manner. However, there are still problems that hinder the analysis of low abundance proteins or those present in complex samples. For this reason, the development of patents related to the features mentioned above has an important relevance. In this review, we focus on the study of recently approved patents that try to solve the existing problems. Thanks to them, it is expected that the identification of disease biomarkers can be made in a suitable and reliable way, and above all, biocompatible and environmentally friendly.
Related JoVE Video
International Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) & European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM) consensus response criteria in advanced systemic mastocytosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by accumulation of neoplastic mast cells and is classified into indolent and aggressive forms. The latter include aggressive SM (ASM), mast cell leukemia (MCL), and SM associated with a myeloid neoplasm wherein 1 or both disease compartments exhibit advanced features. These variants, henceforth collectively referred to as advanced SM for the purposes of this report, are typically characterized by organ damage and shortened survival duration. In contrast to indolent SM, in which symptoms are usually managed by noncytotoxic antimediator therapy, cytoreduction is usually necessary for disease control in advanced SM. Unfortunately, current drug treatment of these patients rarely results in complete clinical and histopathologic remissions or improved survival time. Previously defined response criteria were adapted to the heterogeneous presentations of advanced SM and the limited effects of available drugs. However, recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of SM and the corresponding prospect in targeted therapy make it a priority to modify these criteria. Our current study is the product of an international group of experts and summarizes the challenges in accomplishing this task and forwards a new proposal for response criteria, which builds on prior proposals and should facilitate response evaluation in clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Decreased peripheral blood CD4?/CD25? regulatory T cells in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Development of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) may be favored by the activation of the innate immune response. Recently, decreased numbers of circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been reported in diseases associated with an immune activation status, but no studies have focused so far, in investigating the distribution of Tregs in chronic alcoholism and its potential association with liver disease. Here, we analyzed for the first time the frequency of peripheral blood (PB) Tregs and Treg subsets in AH and its relationship with the production of inflammatory cytokines by PB monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs).
Related JoVE Video
Serum tryptase monitoring in indolent systemic mastocytosis: association with disease features and patient outcome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serum baseline tryptase (sBT) is a minor diagnostic criterion for systemic mastocytosis (SM) of undetermined prognostic impact. We monitored sBT levels in indolent SM (ISM) patients and investigated its utility for predicting disease behaviour and outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Association between inflammatory infiltrates and isolated monosomy 22/del(22q) in meningiomas.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Meningiomas contain highly variable levels of infiltrating tissue macrophages (TiMa) and other immune cells. In this study we investigated the potential association between the number and immunophenotype of inflammatory and other immune cells infiltrating the tumor as evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry, and the clinico-biological, cytogenetic and gene expression profile (GEP) of 75 meningioma patients. Overall, our results showed a close association between the amount and cellular composition of the inflammatory and other immune cell infiltrates and the cytogenetic profile of the tumors. Notably, tumors with isolated monosomy 22/del(22q) showed greater numbers of TiMa, NK cells and (recently)-activated CD69(+) lymphocytes versus meningiomas with diploid and complex karyotypes. In addition, in the former cytogenetic subgroup of meningiomas, tumor-infiltrating TiMa also showed a more activated and functionally mature phenotype, as reflected by a greater fraction of CD69(+), CD63(+), CD16(+) and CD33(+) cells. GEP at the mRNA level showed a unique GEP among meningiomas with an isolated monosomy 22/del(22q) versus all other cases, which consisted of increased expression of genes involved in inflammatory/immune response, associated with an M1 TiMa phenotype. Altogether, these results suggest that loss of expression of specific genes coded in chromosome 22 (e.g. MIF) is closely associated with an increased homing and potentially also anti-tumoral effect of TiMa, which could contribute to explain the better outcome of this specific good-prognosis cytogenetic subgroup of meningiomas.
Related JoVE Video
Combined patterns of IGHV repertoire and cytogenetic/molecular alterations in monoclonal B lymphocytosis versus chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL) with (MBL(hi)) or without (MBL(lo)) absolute B-lymphocytosis precedes most CLL cases,the specific determinants for malignant progression remaining unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Multiparametric flow cytometry for identification and fluorescence activated cell sorting of five distinct B-cell subpopulations in normal tonsil tissue.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to establish a procedure capable of isolating distinct B-cell subpopulations from human tonsils as a basis for subsequent molecular analyses. Overall, 5 distinct B-cell subpopulations were purified from fresh tonsils based on their fluorescence surface marker expression: naive B cells, centroblasts, centrocytes, memory B cells, and plasmablasts. The immunophenotypic identity of the subpopulations was verified by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using the proliferation marker MKI-67 and 6 B-cell-associated differentiation markers (BACH2, BCL6, PAX5, IRF4, PRDM1, and XBP1). Furthermore, within the centroblast compartment, large and small centroblasts could be distinguished and large centroblasts were shown to proliferate with a morphologic appearance of a "centroblast"-like cell but with lower gene expression of the germinal center markers BCL6 and BACH2 vs small centroblasts. This study has established a detailed and fast procedure for simultaneous sorting of up to 5 distinct maturation-associated B-cell subpopulations from human tonsils.
Related JoVE Video
Acute myeloid leukemia of donor origin after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a sibling who harbors germline XPD and XRCC3 homozygous polymorphisms.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed with infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma. Two years after treatment, the patient developed an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which harbored del(11q23) in 8% of the blast cells. The patient was submitted for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT) from her HLA-compatible sister. Ten months after transplantation, she relapsed with an AML with basophilic maturation characterized by CD45(low) CD33(high), CD117?, CD13(-/+), HLA Dr(high), CD123(high), and CD203c? blast cells lacking expression of CD7, CD10, CD34, CD15, CD14, CD56, CD36, CD64, and cytoplasmic tryptase. Karyotype analysis showed the emergence of a new clone with t(2;14) and FISH analysis indicated the presence of MLL gene rearrangement consistent with del(11q23). Interestingly, AML blast cell DNA tested with microsatellite markers showed the same pattern as the donors, suggesting that this AML emerged from donor cells. Additionally, polymorphisms of the XPA, XPD, XRCC1, XRCC3 and RAD51 DNA repair genes revealed three unfavorable alleles with low DNA repair capacity.In summary, we report the first case of AML involving XPD and XRCC3 polymorphisms from donor origin following allogeneic stem cell transplantation and highlight the potential need for careful analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms in selecting candidate donors prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Dermoscopic features of skin lesions in patients with mastocytosis.
Arch Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate dermoscopic features in a group of 127 patients with mastocytosis in the skin and to investigate the relationship between different dermoscopic patterns and other clinical and biological characteristics of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Detailed characterization of alterations of chromosomes 7, 9, and 10 in glioblastomas as assessed by single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glioblastomas are cytogenetically heterogeneous tumors that frequently display alterations of chromosomes 7, 9p, and 10q. We used high-density (500K) single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays to investigate genome-wide copy number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in 35 primary glioblastomas. We focused on the identification and detailed characterization of alterations involving the most frequently altered chromosomes (chromosomes 7, 9, and 10), the identification of distinct prognostic subgroups of glioblastomas based on the cytogenetic patterns of alteration for these chromosomes, and validation of their prognostic impact in a larger series of tumors from public databases. Gains of chromosome 7 (97%), with or without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification, and losses of chromosomes 9p (83%) and 10 (91%) were the most frequent alterations. Such alterations defined five different cytogenetic groups with a significant effect on patient survival; notably, EGFR amplification (29%) was associated with a better survival among older patients, as confirmed by multivariate analysis of a larger series of glioblastomas from the literature. In addition, our results provide further evidence about the relevance of other genes (eg, EGFR, CDKN2A/B, MTAP) in the pathogenesis of glioblastomas. Altogether, our results confirm the cytogenetic heterogeneity of glioblastomas and suggest that their stratification based on combined assessment of cytogenetic alterations involving chromosomes 7, 9, and 10 may contribute to the prognostic evaluation of glioblastomas.
Related JoVE Video
Heme-oxygenases during erythropoiesis in K562 and human bone marrow cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In mammalian cells, heme can be degraded by heme-oxygenases (HO). Heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is known to be the heme inducible isoform, whereas heme-oxygenase 2 (HO-2) is the constitutive enzyme. Here we investigated the presence of HO during erythroid differentiation in human bone marrow erythroid precursors and K562 cells. HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were below limits of detection in K562 cells. Moreover, heme was unable to induce HO-1, at the protein and mRNA profiles. Surprisingly, HO-2 expression was inhibited upon incubation with heme. To evaluate the physiological relevance of these findings, we analyzed HO expression during normal erythropoiesis in human bone marrow. Erythroid precursors were characterized by lack of significant expression of HO-1 and by progressive reduction of HO-2 during differentiation. FLVCR expression, a recently described heme exporter found in erythroid precursors, was also analyzed. Interestingly, the disruption in the HO detoxification system was accompanied by a transient induction of FLVCR. It will be interesting to verify if the inhibition of HO expression, that we found, is preventing a futile cycle of concomitant heme synthesis and catabolism. We believe that a significant feature of erythropoiesis could be the replacement of heme breakdown by heme exportation, as a mechanism to prevent heme toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Platinum complexes for multi-parametric assays using microarray systems.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, we present a two novel fluorescent dyes ethylenediaminechlorocholylglycinateplatinum(II), [Pt(CG)Cl(en)] complex 1 and bisursodeoxycholate(ethylenediamine)platinum(II), [Pt(UDC)(2)(en)] complex 2 based on well-known cis-platin chemistry. These platinum complexes contain cholylglycinate (CG) and ursodeoxycholate (UDC) as ligands. These compounds enable qualitative detection of double-helix DNA and quantitative detection (from pg to ?g). These novel compounds have absorption and emission spectra in a difference range as the common ones (for example: cyanine dyes such as Cy3, Cy5, Cy7,…); therefore, it could allow the multi-parametric detection of DNA arrays, incrementing the capacity of experimental performance per one single array. As a consequence, it will increase the amount of data info obtained per chip. The combination of the intrinsic property of this compounds with the optical properties in different fluorescence channels, can allow introducing a new molecule with a wide range of possible applications in DNA arrays.
Related JoVE Video
Venom immunotherapy in patients with mastocytosis and hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis.
Immunotherapy
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is typically suspected in patients with cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). In recent years, the presence of clonal mast cells (MCs) in a subset of patients with systemic symptoms associated with MC activation in the absence of CM has been reported and termed monoclonal MC activation syndromes or clonal systemic MC activation syndromes. In these cases, bone marrow (BM) MC numbers are usually lower than in SM with CM, there are no detectable BM MC aggregates, and serum baseline tryptase is often <20 µg/l; thus, diagnosis of SM in these patients should be based on careful evaluation of other minor WHO criteria for SM in reference centers, where highly sensitive techniques for immunophenotypic analysis and investigation of KIT mutations on fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified BM MCs are routinely performed. The prevalence of hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) among SM patients is higher than among the normal population and it has been reported to be approximately 5%. In SM patients with IgE-mediated HVA, venom immunotherapy is safe and effective and it should be prescribed lifelong. Severe adverse reactions to hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy have been associated with increased serum baseline tryptase; however, presence of clonal MC has not been ruled out in most reports and thus both SM and clonal MC activation syndrome might be underdiagnosed in such patients. In fact, clonal BM MC appears to be a relevant risk factor for both HVA and severe reactions to venom immunotherapy, while the increase in serum baseline tryptase by itself should be considered as a powerful surrogate marker for anaphylaxis. The Spanish Network on Mastocytosis has developed a scoring system based on patient gender, the clinical symptoms observed during anaphylaxis and serum baseline tryptase to predict for the presence of both MC clonality and SM among individuals who suffer from anaphylaxis.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the WHO criteria for the classification of patients with mastocytosis.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diagnosis and classification of mastocytosis is currently based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Here, we evaluate the utility of the WHO criteria for the diagnosis and classification of a large series of mastocytosis patients (n=133), and propose a new algorithm that could be routinely applied for refined diagnosis and classification of the disease. Our results confirm the utility of the WHO criteria and provide evidence for the need of additional information for (1) a more precise diagnosis of mastocytosis, (2) specific identification of new forms of the disease, (3) the differential diagnosis between cutaneous mastocytosis vs systemic mastocytosis, and (4) improved distinction between indolent systemic mastocytosis and aggressive systemic mastocytosis. Based on our results, a new algorithm is proposed for a better diagnostic definition and prognostic classification of mastocytosis, as confirmed prospectively in an independent validation series of 117 mastocytosis patients.
Related JoVE Video
Nanotechniques in proteomics: protein microarrays and novel detection platforms.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The field of proteomics has undergone rapid advancements over the last decade and protein microarrays have emerged as a promising technological platform for the challenging tasks of studying complex proteomes. Researchers have gone beyond traditional techniques and approached promising disciplines like nanotechnology to satisfy the growing demands of studying proteins in high-throughput format. Applications of nanotechnology in proteomics came from the need to detect low-abundant proteins in complex mixtures for sensitive, real-time and multiplexed detection platform. The scope of this article is to outline the current status and key technological advances of nanotechniques in protein microarrays.
Related JoVE Video
Flow cytometry immunophenotyping of fine-needle aspiration specimens: utility in the diagnosis and classification of non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To establish the utility of flow cytometry (FCM) for screening and diagnosis of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) from lymphoid tissue samples obtained by fine-needle aspiration (FNA).
Related JoVE Video
New technologies in cancer. Protein microarrays for biomarker discovery.
Clin Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The emergence of proteomic techniques and methodological approaches to study disease has kindled the quest for new biomarkers. Thus, the use of protein microarrays has surged as a powerful tool for large-scale testing of biological samples. In this mini-review, we will discuss the application of protein microarray technologies that offer unique opportunities to find novel biomarkers.
Related JoVE Video
Association between genetic subgroups of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma defined by high density 500 K SNP-arrays and tumor histopathology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The specific genes and genetic pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are still largely unknown partially due to the low resolution of the techniques applied so far to their study. Here we used high-density 500 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-arrays to define those chromosomal regions which most commonly harbour copy number (CN) alterations and loss of heterozygozity (LOH) in a series of 20 PDAC tumors and we correlated the corresponding genetic profiles with the most relevant clinical and histopathological features of the disease. Overall our results showed that primary PDAC frequently display (>70%) extensive gains of chromosomes 1q, 7q, 8q and 20q, together with losses of chromosomes 1p, 9p, 12q, 17p and 18q, such chromosomal regions harboring multiple cancer- and PDAC-associated genes. Interestingly, these alterations clustered into two distinct genetic profiles characterized by gains of the 2q14.2, 3q22.1, 5q32, 10q26.13, 10q26.3, 11q13.1, 11q13.3, 11q13.4, 16q24.1, 16q24.3, 22q13.1, 22q13.31 and 22q13.32 chromosomal regions (group 1; n?=?9) versus gains at 1q21.1 and losses of the 1p36.11, 6q25.2, 9p22.1, 9p24.3, 17p13.3 and Xp22.33 chromosomal regions (group 2; n?=?11). From the clinical and histopathological point of view, group 1 cases were associated with smaller and well/moderately-differentiated grade I/II PDAC tumors, whereas and group 2 PDAC displayed a larger size and they mainly consisted of poorly-differentiated grade III carcinomas. These findings confirm the cytogenetic complexity and heterozygozity of PDAC and provide evidence for the association between tumor cytogenetics and its histopathological features. In addition, we also show that the altered regions identified harbor multiple cancer associate genes that deserve further investigation to determine their relevance in the pathogenesis of PDAC.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Persistence of immunological alterations after thymectomy in Goods syndrome: a clue to its pathogenesis.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Analyzing the phenotypic characterization of the immune system cells involved in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency with thymoma (Goods syndrome) is difficult due to the low number of studies on that subject. We describe the immunological alterations observed in a case of Goods syndrome, and we summarize the pathogenic explanations found in the literature.
Related JoVE Video
Cell-cycle distribution of different cell compartments in normal versus reactive bone marrow: a frame of reference for the study of dysplastic hematopoiesis.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limited information is currently available about the proliferation activity and cell-cycle distribution of different bone marrow (BM) cell subsets defined according to their lineage and maturation stage in normal versus cytopenia-associated reactive BM samples. Here, we report a three-color flow cytometry approach to investigate the cell-cycle distribution of different BM cell compartments-CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor and precursor cells (HPC), maturing neutrophils and monocytic cells, mature lymphocytes, eosinophils, and nucleated red blood cell precursors (NRBC)-from normal (n = 47) versus cytopenia-associated reactive (n = 47) BM samples. Highly similar proliferation profiles were detected in normal versus reactive BM, with a higher proliferation index (PI) for the more immature CD34(+) HPC, CD11b(-) maturing neutrophils and NRBC versus other BM cell compartments. The only differences observed between normal and reactive BM were restricted to the more mature (CD13(hi) /CD11b(+) ) bands/neutrophils and to monocytic cells, which showed an increased PI (0.9% ± 0.8% vs. 0.6% ± 0.5% and 6 ± 3.6 vs. 4.6 ± 4.5, respectively) at the expense of a lower PI of CD34(+) HPC in reactive conditions. Of note, bands/mature neutrophils and mature lymphocytes showed either residual numbers or absence of S + G? /M-phase cells in both normal and reactive BM. Our results suggest that a slight shift of proliferation from the early precursors to the more mature granulomonocytic compartment occurs in reactive BM, which could reflect an attempt of the hematopoietic system to rapidly produce functional neutrophils and monocytes, at the expense of a lower expansion of the minor compartments of CD34(+) HPC.
Related JoVE Video
Definitions, criteria and global classification of mast cell disorders with special reference to mast cell activation syndromes: a consensus proposal.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Activation of tissue mast cells (MCs) and their abnormal growth and accumulation in various organs are typically found in primary MC disorders also referred to as mastocytosis. However, increasing numbers of patients are now being informed that their clinical findings are due to MC activation (MCA) that is neither associated with mastocytosis nor with a defined allergic or inflammatory reaction. In other patients with MCA, MCs appear to be clonal cells, but criteria for diagnosing mastocytosis are not met. A working conference was organized in 2010 with the aim to define criteria for diagnosing MCA and related disorders, and to propose a global unifying classification of all MC disorders and pathologic MC reactions. This classification includes three types of MCA syndromes (MCASs), namely primary MCAS, secondary MCAS and idiopathic MCAS. MCA is now defined by robust and generally applicable criteria, including (1) typical clinical symptoms, (2) a substantial transient increase in serum total tryptase level or an increase in other MC-derived mediators, such as histamine or prostaglandin D(2), or their urinary metabolites, and (3) a response of clinical symptoms to agents that attenuate the production or activities of MC mediators. These criteria should assist in the identification and diagnosis of patients with MCAS, and in avoiding misdiagnoses or overinterpretation of clinical symptoms in daily practice. Moreover, the MCAS concept should stimulate research in order to identify and exploit new molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets.
Related JoVE Video
Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia: clinical and laboratory features and outcome in 100 patients defined according to the WHO 2008 classification.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The features of 100 mixed-phenotype acute leukemias (MPALs), fulfilling WHO 2008 criteria, are documented. Myeloid and T-lineage features were demonstrated by cytoplasmic myeloperoxidase and CD3; B-lineage features were demonstrated by at least 2 B-lymphoid markers. There were 62 men and 38 women; 68% were adults. Morphology was consistent with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 43%), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 42%), or inconclusive (15%). Immunophenotyping disclosed B + myeloid (59%), T + myeloid (35%), B + T (4%), or trilineage (2%) combinations. Cytogenetics evidenced t(9;22)/(Ph(+)) (20%), 11q23/MLL rearrangements (8%), complex (32%), aberrant (27%), or normal (13%) karyotypes. There was no correlation between age, morphology, immunophenotype, or cytogenetics. Response to treatment and outcome were available for 67 and 70 patients, respectively; 27 received ALL, 34 AML, 5 a combination of ALL + AML therapy, and 1 imatinib. ALL treatment induced a response in 85%, AML therapy in 41%; 3 of 5 patients responded to the combination therapy. Forty (58%) patients died, 33 of resistant disease. Overall median survival was 18 months and 37% of patients are alive at 5 years. Age, Ph(+), and AML therapy were predictors for poor outcome (P < .001; P = .002; P = .003). MPAL is confirmed to be a poor-risk disease. Adults and Ph(+) patients should be considered for transplantation in first remission.
Related JoVE Video
CD117 expression in gammopathies is associated with an altered maturation of the myeloid and lymphoid hematopoietic cell compartments and favorable disease features.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aberrant CD117 expression is associated with a favorable outcome in multiple myeloma. We analyzed 106 patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=50), smoldering multiple myeloma (n=38) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=18) to elucidate biological features of CD117(+) versus CD117(-) monoclonal gammopathies. CD117(+) (mono)clonal plasma cells were detected in 30% symptomatic multiple myeloma, 45% smoldering multiple myeloma and 72% monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients. CD117 expression was associated with higher percentages of normal bone marrow plasma cells, CD117(+) myeloid precursors and CD38(+) B lymphocytes in all monoclonal gammopathies. Conversely, the number of bone marrow CD34(+) myeloid cells and peripheral blood neutrophils was reduced among CD117(+) multiple myeloma but not monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients. CD117 expression by (mono)clonal plasma cells is associated with uniquely altered patterns of production of hematopoietic bone marrow cells with decreased peripheral blood neutrophil counts and persistence of normal residual bone marrow plasma cells.
Related JoVE Video
Mobilization of plasma cells in healthy individuals treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for haematopoietic stem cell collection.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In mice, the plasma cell (PC) niche in the bone marrow is close to the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche. We investigated whether PCs can be mobilized into the peripheral blood (PB) in healthy donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for the induction of HSC mobilization into the PB. G-CSF increased the count of circulating PCs 6-fold, that of circulating B lymphocytes 4-fold and that of circulating HSCs 44-fold. Mobilized circulating PCs comprised CD138(-) (62·2%) and CD138(+) (37·8%) PCs, the latter being more mature based on increased CD27, CD38 and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin expression. Mobilized PCs had a phenotype close to that of steady-state PB PCs or in vitro generated PCs, but they expressed L-selectin only weakly. Finally, a median value of 0·4 × 10(6) /kg donor PCs - one-thirtieth of the overall PC count in a healthy adult - was grafted into patients, which could contribute to immune memory recovery.
Related JoVE Video
Commentary: Comparison of current flow cytometry methods for monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis detection.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is now recognized as the B-lymphocyte analogue of a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. MBL can be the precursor of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or associated with non-Hodgkins lymphoma. It may be associated with an autoimmune abnormality or be related to aging (immunosenescence). The combination of available new fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibody reagents, multilaser instrumentation, and improved software tools have led to a new level of multicolor analysis of MBL. Presently, several centers, including the University of Salamanca (Spain), Duke University (Durham, NC), Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN), and the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD) in conjunction with the Genetics and Epidemiology of Familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia Consortium, the Food and Drug Administration (Bethesda, MD), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (Atlanta, GA) in collaboration with Saint Lukes Hospital (Kansas City, MO), the Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele in Milan (Italy), and Leeds Teaching Hospital (UK) are all actively conducting studies on MBL. This commentary is an updated summary of the current methods used in these centers. It is important to note the diversity of use in reagents, instruments, and methods of analysis. Despite this diversity, there is a consensus in what constitutes the diagnosis of MBL and its subtypes. There is also an emerging consensus on what the next investigative steps should be.
Related JoVE Video
Non-CLL-like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis in the general population: prevalence and phenotypic/genetic characteristics.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) indicates <5 × 10(9) peripheral blood (PB) clonal B-cells/L in healthy individuals. In most cases, MBL cells show similar phenotypic/genetic features to chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells-CLL-like MBL-but little is known about non-CLL-like MBL.
Related JoVE Video
Different biology and clinical outcome according to the absolute numbers of clonal B-cells in monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL).
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The biological and clinical relationship between Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) and Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis (MBL) has now been reported in some detail. This review investigates associations between biology and disease activity as they relate to the absolute numbers of abnormal cells. The clonal B-cells in CLL-type MBL are indistinguishable from CLL with respect to surface phenotype and the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. However, the majority of CLL-type MBL cases in the general population have very low numbers of clonal B-cells, typically in the range 0.1-10 per ?L, and such cases use different IGHV genes than higher-count CLL-type MBL cases and often show intraclonal heterogeneity. Cases with higher counts are biologically similar to CLL although there is a relationship between the CLL cell count at presentation and the likelihood of further clonal expansion. Individuals presenting with CLL cell counts above 2,000 per ?L are more likely to have gradually increasing B-cell counts over time and although the risk of requiring treatment for progressive CLL remains low there may be impaired normal B-cell activity.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis: a systematic review.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Individuals with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) have been identified in clinic outpatients, in unaffected relatives of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and in general populations. MBL and its relationship with CLL have been actively investigated over the last decade. This report systematically reviews the prevalence of MBL in the context of the populations studied and the evolution of laboratory methods used to define MBL.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance of occult cerebrospinal fluid involvement assessed by flow cytometry in non-Hodgkins lymphoma patients at high risk of central nervous system disease in the rituximab era.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is more sensitive than conventional cytology (CC) for diagnosis of lymphomatous meningeosis, but the clinical significance of occult central nervous system (CNS) disease (positive FCM with negative CC) remains unknown. Patients and
Related JoVE Video
Mapping of genetic abnormalities of primary tumours from metastatic CRC by high-resolution SNP arrays.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For years, the genetics of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) have been studied using a variety of techniques. However, most of the approaches employed so far have a relatively limited resolution which hampers detailed characterization of the common recurrent chromosomal breakpoints as well as the identification of small regions carrying genetic changes and the genes involved in them.
Related JoVE Video
Childhood near-tetraploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an EGIL study on 36 cases.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with near-tetraploid (karyotype: 81 - 103 chromosomes) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (NT-ALL) constitute about 1% of childhood ALL and data reported on them are limited and controversial. The aim of the study was to enlarge the knowledge on these rarely occurring ALL.
Related JoVE Video
Intratumoural cytogenetic heterogeneity of sporadic colorectal carcinomas suggests several pathways to liver metastasis.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Much has been learned about the chromosomal abnormalities of colorectal carcinomas but the cytogenetic relationship between the neoplastic clones present in primary versus metastatic tumour samples remains unclear. We analyse the frequency of abnormalities for 47 chromosome regions using the interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization technique in a group of 48 tumours, including 24 primary colorectal tumours and 24 paired liver metastases. All tumours showed complex karyotypes with numerical/structural abnormalities for seven or more different chromosomes/chromosome regions both in the primary tumours and in their paired metastases. Chromosome 8 was the most frequently altered (22/24 primary tumours), consistently showing del(8p22) and/or gains/amplification of 8q24, followed by abnormalities of the entire chromosome 7 (21/24 primary tumours) and of chromosomes 17p and 20q (20/24 primary tumours). Simultaneous staining for multiple chromosome probes revealed the presence of two or more tumour cell clones in 23/24 cases (46/48 tumour samples). Interestingly, the liver metastases typically contained tumour cell clones similar to those found in the primary tumours, suggesting the absence of selective selection of specific tumour clones. Despite this, additional chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 23/24 metastatic tumours, which preferentially consisted of del(17p13) and gains/amplification of 11q13 and 20q13; moreover, compared to primary tumours, metastases showed an increased number of abnormalities of chromosomes 1p, 7q, 8q, 13q, and 18q, and new chromosomal abnormalities involving chromosomes 6, 10q23, 14q32, 15q22, and 19q13. Owing to the high frequency of numerical abnormalities of the entire chromosome 7 and loss and/or gain/amplification of specific regions of chromosome 8, eg del(8p22) and/or gains/amplification of 8q24 in primary colorectal tumours with associated metastases, it is suggested that their assessment at diagnosis could be of great clinical utility for the identification of colorectal cancer patients at higher risk of developing liver metastases.
Related JoVE Video
Gene expression profiles of human glioblastomas are associated with both tumor cytogenetics and histopathology.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the increasing knowledge about the genetic alterations and molecular pathways involved in gliomas, few studies have investigated the association between the gene expression profiles (GEP) and both cytogenetics and histopathology of gliomas. Here, we analyzed the GEP (U133Plus2.0 chip) of 40 gliomas (35 astrocytic tumors, 3 oligodendrogliomas, and 2 mixed tumors) and their association with tumor cytogenetics and histopathology. Unsupervised and supervised analyses showed significantly different GEP in low- vs high-grade gliomas, the most discriminating genes including genes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and signal transduction. In turn, among glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 3 subgroups of tumors were identified according to their GEP, which were closely associated with the cytogenetic profile of their ancestral tumor cell clones: (i) EGFR amplification, (ii) isolated trisomy 7, and (iii) more complex karyotypes. In summary, our results show a clear association between the GEP of gliomas and tumor histopathology; additionally, among grade IV astrocytoma, GEP are significantly associated with the cytogenetic profile of the ancestral tumor cell clone. Further studies in larger series of patients are necessary to confirm our observations.
Related JoVE Video
Bcl2 is not required for the development and maintenance of leukemia stem cells in mice.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The existence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) responsible for tumor maintenance has been firmly established. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of these LSCs may have a profound impact on cancer eradication. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 has been proposed as a therapeutic target, but its role in LSC biology has not been investigated. In order to understand the role of Bcl2 in LSC generation and maintenance, we have taken advantage of our Sca1-BCRABLp210 mouse model of human chronic myeloid leukemia and bcl2 gene-targeted mice. This study provides genetic evidence that the inhibition of Bcl2 is not critical for the generation, selection or maintenance of the tumor initiating and maintaining cells in mice.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.