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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cerebrospinal fluid level of YKL-40 protein in preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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An increase in YKL-40 levels seems to correlate with disease severity and poor prognosis in many diseases, including several neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, YKL-40 protein is increased in mild AD with respect to controls, both in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma.
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Correlates of cerebrospinal fluid levels of oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein in premotor, motor and dementia stages of Parkinson's disease.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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High-oligomeric and low-total-?-synuclein cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels have been found in Parkinson's disease (PD), but with inconsistent or limited data, particularly on their clinical and structural correlates in earliest (premotor) or latest (dementia) PD stages. We determined CSF oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein in 77 subjects: 23 with idiopathic REM-sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD, a condition likely to include a remarkable proportion of subjects in the premotor stage of PD) and 41 with PD [21 non-demented (PDND) + 20 demented (PDD)], intended to reflect the premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum, along with 13 healthy controls. The study protocol also included the Unified PD Rating Scale motor-section (UPDRS-III), mini mental state examination (MMSE), neuropsychological cognitive testing, 3T brain MRI for cortical-thickness analyses, CSF ? and CSF A?. CSF oligomeric-?-synuclein was higher in PDND than iRBD and in PDD than iRBD and controls, and correlated with UPDRS-III, MMSE, semantic fluency and visuo-perceptive scores across the proposed premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum (iRBD + PDND + PDD). CSF total-?-synuclein positively correlated with age, CSF A?, and, particularly, CSF ?, tending towards lower levels in PD (but not iRBD) vs. controls only when controlling for CSF ?. Low CSF total-?-synuclein was associated with dysfunction in phonetic-fluency (a frontal-lobe function) in PD and with frontal cortical thinning in iRBD and PDND independently of CSF ?. Conversely, the associations of high (instead of low) CSF total-?-synuclein with posterior-cortical neuropsychological deficits in PD and with posterior cortical thinning in PDD were driven by high CSF ?. These findings suggest that CSF oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein have different clinical, neuropsychological and MRI correlates across the proposed premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum. CSF total-?-synuclein correlations with CSF ? and A? support the hypothesis of an interaction among these proteins in PD, with CSF ? probably influencing the presence of high (instead of low) CSF total-?-synuclein and its correlates mostly in the setting of PD-related dementia.
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Novel approach identifies SNPs in SLC2A10 and KCNK9 with evidence for parent-of-origin effect on body mass index.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The phenotypic effect of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) depends on their parental origin. We present a novel approach to detect parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome-wide genotype data of unrelated individuals. The method exploits increased phenotypic variance in the heterozygous genotype group relative to the homozygous groups. We applied the method to >56,000 unrelated individuals to search for POEs influencing body mass index (BMI). Six lead SNPs were carried forward for replication in five family-based studies (of ?4,000 trios). Two SNPs replicated: the paternal rs2471083-C allele (located near the imprinted KCNK9 gene) and the paternal rs3091869-T allele (located near the SLC2A10 gene) increased BMI equally (beta?=?0.11 (SD), P<0.0027) compared to the respective maternal alleles. Real-time PCR experiments of lymphoblastoid cell lines from the CEPH families showed that expression of both genes was dependent on parental origin of the SNPs alleles (P<0.01). Our scheme opens new opportunities to exploit GWAS data of unrelated individuals to identify POEs and demonstrates that they play an important role in adult obesity.
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Five-year follow-up of substantia nigra echogenicity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra visualized by transcranial sonography occurs in most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) subjects eventually develop PD and other synucleinopathies. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether in IRBD, transcranial sonography identifies subjects who convert to PD and other synucleinopathies, and whether substantia nigra echogenic size changes with time. It was a prospective study in which 55 IRBD patients underwent transcranial sonography at baseline and were invited to follow-up after 5 years. Patients were assessed by the same experienced sonographer who was blinded to clinical data and baseline transcranial sonography results, and used the same equipment and adjustments. Twenty-one (38.2%) subjects were diagnosed with a synucleinopathy (PD in 11, dementia with Lewy bodies in nine, and multiple system atrophy in one). Sensitivity of baseline substantia nigra hyperechogenicity for the development of a synucleinopathy was 42.1%, specificity 67.7%, positive predictive value 44.4%, negative predictive value 65.6%, and relative risk 1.29. No differences were detected between the first and second examination in mean size of the substantia nigra (0.20?±?0.09 cm(2) vs. 0.19?±?0.07 cm(2) ; P?=?0.777) and in percentage of patients with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (33.3% vs. 42.8%, P?=?0.125). Transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra alone is not a useful tool to identify IRBD subjects at risk for the development of PD or a synucleinopathy after 5 years of follow-up. In IRBD, transcranial sonography cannot be used to monitor the degenerative process in the substantia nigra, because echogenicity size remains stable over time. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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A novel non-rapid-eye movement and rapid-eye-movement parasomnia with sleep breathing disorder associated with antibodies to IgLON5: a case series, characterisation of the antigen, and post-mortem study.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Autoimmunity might be associated with or implicated in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe the features of a novel neurological syndrome associated with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a neuronal antigen.
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Non-random temporal distribution of sleep onset REM periods in the MSLT in narcolepsy.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The diagnosis of narcolepsy is supported by the presence of two or more sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) in the multiple latency sleep test (MSLT). The distribution of SOREMPs throughout the MSLT has not been systematically studied in narcolepsy. We studied the temporal distribution of SOREMPs in the MSLT of a large series of narcoleptics and calculated the effects of age and the diagnostic value of shorter versions of the test.
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Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder: a multicentre case-control study.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic symptoms between our iRBD patients and controls emerged in the gastrointestinal domain. Interestingly, it has been reported that an altered gastrointestinal motility can predate the motor phase of PD. The cardiovascular domain SCOPA-AUT score in our study in iRBD patients was intermediate with respect to the scores reported in PD patients by other authors. Our findings underline the importance of collecting data on autonomic symptoms in iRBD. These data may be used in prospective studies for evaluating the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders.
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Neuropathology of prodromal Lewy body disease.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Current evidence suggests that there is a prodromal stage in Parkinson disease characterized by a variety of nonmotor symptoms.
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Neurodegenerative disorder risk in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder: study in 174 patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To estimate the risk for developing a defined neurodegenerative syndrome in a large cohort of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) patients with long follow-up.
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Parkinson disease and sleep: sleep-wake changes in the premotor stage of Parkinson disease; impaired olfaction and other prodromal features.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Parkinson disease (PD) has a premotor stage where neurodegeneration occurs before parkinsonism becomes apparent. Identification of individuals at this stage provides an opportunity to study early disease progression and test disease-modifying interventions. Hyposmia, constipation, depression and hypersomnia are part of this premotor phase and predictive of future development of PD. However, these features are common in the general population, and they are most often the result of causes other than incipient PD. In contrast, most individuals with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) eventually develop PD and other synucleinopathies. IRBD individuals with hyposmia, substantia nigra hyperechogenicity, and abnormal striatal dopamine transporter imaging findings have increased short-term risk of developing a synucleinopathy. IRBD is an optimal target to test disease-modifying agents in the PD prodromal phase. Serial dopamine transporter imaging, but not olfactory tests, may serve to monitor the disease process in future disease-modifying trials in IRBD.
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Neurodegenerative disease status and post-mortem pathology in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: an observational cohort study.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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We postulated that idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) represents the prodromal phase of a Lewy body disorder and that, with sufficient follow-up, most cases would eventually be diagnosed with a clinical defined Lewy body disorder, such as Parkinsons disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
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ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin) deficiency. We genotyped loci associated with other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in 1,886 individuals with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and 10,421 controls, all of European ancestry, using a custom genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease risk. In addition to a strong signal in the T cell receptor alpha (TRA@), variants in two additional narcolepsy loci, Cathepsin H (CTSH) and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4, also called OX40L), attained genome-wide significance. These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease.
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Longitudinal assessment of olfactory function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) is an early marker of Lewy body disorders and is linked to olfactory loss. We evaluated whether olfactory function deteriorates with time in IRBD. Progressive smell loss could be a useful way in which to monitor the effect of disease-modifying interventions in subjects with IRBD.
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Clinical, polysomnographic and genome-wide association analyses of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a European Narcolepsy Network study.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and PSG characteristics of narcolepsy with cataplexy and their genetic predisposition by using the retrospective patient database of the European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN). We have analysed retrospective data of 1099 patients with narcolepsy diagnosed according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2. Demographic and clinical characteristics, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test data, hypocretin-1 levels, and genome-wide genotypes were available. We found a significantly lower age at sleepiness onset (men versus women: 23.74 ± 12.43 versus 21.49 ± 11.83, P = 0.003) and longer diagnostic delay in women (men versus women: 13.82 ± 13.79 versus 15.62 ± 14.94, P = 0.044). The mean diagnostic delay was 14.63 ± 14.31 years, and longer delay was associated with higher body mass index. The best predictors of short diagnostic delay were young age at diagnosis, cataplexy as the first symptom and higher frequency of cataplexy attacks. The mean multiple sleep latency negatively correlated with Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and with the number of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods (SOREMPs), but none of the polysomnographic variables was associated with subjective or objective measures of sleepiness. Variant rs2859998 in UBXN2B gene showed a strong association (P = 1.28E-07) with the age at onset of excessive daytime sleepiness, and rs12425451 near the transcription factor TEAD4 (P = 1.97E-07) with the age at onset of cataplexy. Altogether, our results indicate that the diagnostic delay remains extremely long, age and gender substantially affect symptoms, and that a genetic predisposition affects the age at onset of symptoms.
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Sleep disorders in Parkinson disease.
Neurologist
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Sleep is affected in a large number of patients with Parkinson disease. The mechanisms by which this occurs and the different types of sleep disorders that a patient with Parkinson disease may suffer (insufficient or fragmented sleep, persistent excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome) will be reviewed in this study, as well as their relationship with the dopaminergic system. Finally, the most effective treatments will be proposed.
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Restless abdomen: a phenotypic variant of restless legs syndrome.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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A diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) requires an urge to move the legs in combination with sensory leg discomfort. Localization of the symptoms to other body areas in the absence of leg involvement is not recognized as part of the phenotypic spectrum of RLS. We describe 3 patients who presented with sensorimotor symptoms confined to the abdominal wall and, with the exception of not involving the legs, satisfied the primary and secondary diagnostic criteria for RLS.
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Serial dopamine transporter imaging of nigrostriatal function in patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: a prospective study.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Serial dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies shows progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction. Because idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) can precede the classic symptoms of PD and other synucleinopathies, we postulated that serial DAT imaging in patients with IRBD could be used to detect decline in striatal tracer uptake, indicating progressive nigrostriatal cell degeneration.
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Sleep-wake changes in the premotor stage of Parkinson disease.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Longitudinal studies in Parkinson disease (PD) have shown that the prevalence of sleep disorders increases with advanced disease. However, two sleep disorders, namely excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have been described to antedate the development of the classical motor signs and symptoms of PD. One epidemiological study from the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study showed that aging men who reported "being sleepy most of the daily" had a threefold excess risk for developing PD after a seven-year follow-up. The origin and nature of EDS were not investigated. This study needs to be replicated. More robust data exist regarding RBD as the first manifestation of PD. RBD subjects commonly develop parkinsonism and cognitive impairment with time. Patients with the idiopathic form of RBD with decreased striatal dopamine transporters imaging, substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and hyposmia have an increased short-term risk for developing the classical motor, dysautonomic and cognitive symptoms of a synucleinopathy. Patients with idiopathic RBD, particularly those with abnormal subclinical features seen in the synucleinopathies such as decreased striatal dopamine transporters uptake, are the ideal population to be tested with disease-modifying agents in order to stop or slow down neurodegeneration in the brain.
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Subclinical nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation in the cerebellar subtype of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C).
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Nigrostriatal involvement is considered an additional feature in the new consensus criteria for the diagnosis of the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C). However, so far, only a few studies, which include a relative small number of patients, give support to this criterion. Our objective was to assess nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation in patients with MSA-C without parkinsonism by use of dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DAT SPECT). Thirteen patients that fulfilled criteria for possible or probable MSA-C and presented no parkinsonian signs, and 12 age-matched healthy controls underwent ((123)I-2-?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane ([(123)I]FP-CIT) SPECT. Patients were also evaluated through the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mean duration of the cerebellar syndrome was 3.8 ± 1.7 years. DAT SPECT showed a significant decrease of striatal [(123)I]FP-CIT uptake ratios in patients (p < 0.001). Radiotracer uptake reduction was 21% in the entire striatum, 19% in putamen, and 24% in caudate nuclei. Striatal binding ratios were within the normal range in 3 patients. We did not find correlation between striatal uptake and disease duration, age of patients, UMSARS-II score, and pontine diameter. [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT shows that most but not all MSA-C patients without parkinsonism have subclinical nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation which is not related to disease duration, cerebellar dysfunction, or pontine atrophy.
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Usefulness of the SINBAR electromyographic montage to detect the motor and vocal manifestations occurring in REM sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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In a previous study we showed that simultaneous electromyographic (EMG) recording of the mentalis, flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor digitorum brevis (SINBAR EMG montage) detected the highest rates of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phasic EMG activity in subjects with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). As a next step, in the present study we evaluated the usefulness of the SINBAR EMG montage to detect the movements and vocalizations occurring in RBD.
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Scales to assess sleep impairment in Parkinsons disease: critique and recommendations.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2010
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There is a broad spectrum of sleep disturbances observed in Parkinsons disease (PD). A variety of scales have been applied to the evaluation of PD sleep and wakefulness, but only a small number have been assessed specifically for clinimetric properties in the PD population. The movement disorder society has commissioned this task force to examine these scales and to assess their use in PD. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of sleep scales in PD and to determine which scales qualified for a detailed critique. The task force members, all of whom have extensive experience in assessing sleep in PD reviewed each of the scales using a structured proforma. Scales were categorized into recommended, suggested and listed according to predefined criteria. A total of 48 potential scales were identified from the search and reviewed. Twenty-nine were excluded because they did not meet review criteria or were variations of scales already included, leaving 19 scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force based on the rating criteria. Only six were found to meet criteria for recommendation or suggestion by the task force: the PD sleep scale (PDSS) and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) are recommended for rating overall sleep problems to screen and to measure severity, the SCOPA-sleep (SCOPA) is recommended for rating overall sleep problems both to screen and to measure severity, and for rating daytime sleepiness; the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) is recommended for rating daytime sleepiness to screen and to measure severity; the inappropriate sleep composite score (ISCS) is suggested for rating severe daytime sleepiness or sleep attacks to screen and to measure severity; and the Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS) is suggested for rating sleepiness and to measure severity at a specific moment. The task force does not recommend the development of new scales, but emphasizes the need for educational efforts to train physicians in sleep interview techniques and polysomnography.
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Decreased striatal dopamine transporter uptake and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity as risk markers of synucleinopathy in patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: a prospective study [corrected].
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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Patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) may develop neurodegenerative conditions associated with substantia nigra dysfunction such as Parkinsons disease. In patients with Parkinsons disease, ¹²³I-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane (¹²³I-FP-CIT) SPECT detects striatal dopamine dysfunction resulting from nigral pathology whereas transcranial sonography (TCS) shows increased substantia nigra echogenic size, even before parkinsonism is clinically evident. We postulated that these neuroimaging changes could occur in a proportion of IRBD individuals who might then be at increased risk for development of a neurodegenerative disorder associated with substantia nigra dysfunction.
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Different profiles of Alzheimers disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in controls and subjects with subjective memory complaints.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as A?(42), total-tau and phosphorylated-tau(181) reflect neuropathological changes of Alzheimers disease (AD). We studied these biomarkers in 24 controls and 19 subjects with subjective memory complaints, and we distinguished different CSF profiles: normal (group 1, 55.8%), only pathologic A?(42) (group 2, 27.9%), pathologic A?(42) plus pathologic total-tau and/or phosphorylated-tau(181) (group 3, 7%), and only pathologic total-tau and phosphorylated-tau(181) (group 4, 9.3%). Group 2 could represent an earlier phase of preclinical AD than group 3, and group 4 an unknown etiology.
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Refractory nonconvulsive status epilepticus in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Epileptic Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare human transmissible spongiform subacute encephalopathy. The most common clinical manifestations of CJD include rapidly progressive dementia, behavioural changes, cerebellar dysfunction and myoclonus. Other seizure types are rare and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (SE) is exceptional. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented a psychotic episode followed by akinetic mutism and refractory nonconvulsive SE. The final diagnosis was CJD. Continuous video-EEG monitoring revealed the ictal pattern of nonconvulsive SE to be periodic sharp wave complexes characteristic of CJD. [Published with video sequences].
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White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD).
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Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing narcolepsy. To further define the genetic basis of narcolepsy risk, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 562 European individuals with narcolepsy (cases) and 702 ethnically matched controls, with independent replication in 370 cases and 495 controls, all heterozygous for DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602. We found association with a protective variant near HLA-DQA2 (rs2858884; P < 3 x 10(-8)). Further analysis revealed that rs2858884 is strongly linked to DRB1*03-DQB1*02 (P < 4 x 10(-43)) and DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 (P < 3 x 10(-7)). Cases almost never carried a trans DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 haplotype (odds ratio = 0.02; P < 6 x 10(-14)). This unexpected protective HLA haplotype suggests a virtually causal involvement of the HLA region in narcolepsy susceptibility.
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Electroencephalographic slowing heralds mild cognitive impairment in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) may show electroencephalographic (EEG) slowing reflecting cortical dysfunction and are at risk for developing neurological conditions characterized by cognitive dysfunction including mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinsons disease with associated dementia. We hypothesized that those IRBD patients who later developed MCI had pronounced cortical EEG slowing at presentation.
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Cerebrospinal hypocretin, daytime sleepiness and sleep architecture in Parkinsons disease dementia.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2009
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Excessive daytime sleepiness is common in Parkinsons disease and has been associated with Parkinsons disease-related dementia. Narcoleptic features have been observed in Parkinsons disease patients with excessive daytime sleepiness and hypocretin cell loss has been found in the hypothalamus of Parkinsons disease patients, in association with advanced disease. However, studies on cerebrospinal fluid levels of hypocretin-1 (orexin A) in Parkinsons disease have been inconclusive. Reports of sleep studies in Parkinsons disease patients with and without excessive daytime sleepiness have also been disparate, pointing towards a variety of causes underlying excessive daytime sleepiness. In this study, we aimed to measure cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels in Parkinsons disease patients with and without dementia and to study their relationship to dementia and clinical excessive daytime sleepiness, as well as to describe potentially related sleep architecture changes. Twenty-one Parkinsons disease patients without dementia and 20 Parkinsons disease patients with dementia, along with 22 control subjects without sleep complaints, were included. Both Epworth sleepiness scale, obtained with the help of the caregivers, and mini-mental state examination were recorded. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels were measured in all individuals using a radio-immunoassay technique. Additionally, eight Parkinsons disease patients without dementia and seven Parkinsons disease patients with dementia underwent video-polysomnogram and multiple sleep latencies test. Epworth sleepiness scale scores were higher in Parkinsons disease patients without dementia and Parkinsons disease patients with dementia than controls (P < 0.01) and scores >10 were more frequent in Parkinsons disease patients with dementia than in Parkinsons disease patients without dementia (P = 0.04). Cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels were similar among groups (controls = 321.15 +/- 47.15 pg/ml; without dementia = 300.99 +/- 58.68 pg/ml; with dementia = 309.94 +/- 65.95 pg/ml; P = 0.67), and unrelated to either epworth sleepiness scale or mini-mental state examination. Dominant occipital frequency awake was slower in Parkinsons disease patients with dementia than Parkinsons disease patients without dementia (P = 0.05). Presence of slow dominant occipital frequency and/or loss of normal non-rapid eye movement sleep architecture was more frequent among Parkinsons disease patients with dementia (P = 0.029). Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is more frequent in Parkinsons disease patients with dementia than Parkinsons disease patients without dementia, but lumbar cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and unrelated to severity of sleepiness or the cognitive status. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid does not accurately reflect the hypocretin cell loss known to occur in the hypothalamus of advanced Parkinsons disease. Alternatively, mechanisms other than hypocretin cells dysfunction may be responsible for excessive daytime sleepiness and the sleep architecture alterations seen in these patients.
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Excessive muscle activity increases over time in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by excessive electromyographic (EMG) activity due to dysfunction of the brainstem structures modulating REM sleep atonia. Patients with idiopathic RBD often develop a neurodegenerative disease, such as Parkinson disease, over the years, suggesting progression of an underlying pathologic process in the brainstem. It is unknown if the excessive EMG activity in REM sleep changes over time in patients with idiopathic RBD.
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Midbrain hyperechogenicity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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Recent studies have reported an increased risk to develop Parkinsons disease (PD) in patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD). Midbrain hyperechogenicity is a common transcranial sonography (TCS) finding in PD and has been suggested as a PD risk-marker in nonparkinsonian subjects. The objective of this study is to assess midbrain echogenicity by TCS in patients with iRBD and compare the findings with the healthy controls. TCS was performed in 55 iRBD patients and in 165 age and sex-matched controls. The area of echogenicity in the SN region in the iRBD group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.001). About 19 (37.3%) of patients with iRBD were found to have SN hyperechogenicity when compared with 16 (10.7%) of the controls (P < 0.001). This is the first case-control study assessing midbrain echogenicity in a large iRBD cohort compared to age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The finding of an increased prevalence of hyperechogenicity in a subgroup of individuals with a priori increased risk for PD supports the potential role of hyperechogenicity as a risk marker for PD. The prospective follow-up of this iRBD cohort is needed to establish if those with midbrain hyperechogenicity will go on to develop clinically defined PD or not.
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The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of REM sleep behavior disorder in neurodegenerative diseases.
Sleep Med Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by vigorous movements associated with unpleasant dreams and increased electromyographic activity during REM sleep. Polysomnography with audiovisual recording is needed to confirm the diagnosis of RBD and to exclude other sleep disorders that can mimic its symptoms including obstructive sleep apnea, nocturnal hallucinations and confusional awakenings. RBD may be idiopathic or related to neurodegenerative diseases, particularly multiple system atrophy, Parkinsons disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. RBD may be the first manifestation of these disorders, antedating the onset of parkinsonism, cerebellar syndrome, dysautonomia, and dementia by several years. RBD should thus be considered an integral part of the disease process. When effective, neuroprotective strategies should be considered in subjects with idiopathic RBD. Patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, though, such as spinocerebellar ataxias, may also present with RBD. When clinically required, clonazepam at bedtime is effective in decreasing the intensity of dream-enacting behaviors and unpleasant dreams in both the idiopathic and secondary forms. When part of a neurodegenerative disorder the development of RBD is thought to reflect the location and extent of the underlying lesions involving the REM sleep centers of the brain (e.g., locus subceruleus, amygdala, etc.), leading to a complex multiple neurotransmitter dysfunction that involves GABAergic, glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems. RBD is mediated neither by direct abnormal alpha-synuclein inclusions nor by striatonigral dopaminergic deficiency alone.
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Obstructive sleep apnea in narcolepsy.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are two conditions associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). They may coexist in the same patient but the frequency of this association and its clinical significance is unknown. The presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a narcoleptic patient may interfere with the diagnosis of narcolepsy. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of OSA in narcolepsy.
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European guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome: report of a joint task force by the European Federation of Neurological Societies, the European Neurological Society and the European Sleep Research Society.
Eur. J. Neurol.
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Since the publication of the first European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines in 2005 on the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS; also known as Willis-Ekbom disease), there have been major therapeutic advances in the field. Furthermore, the management of RLS is now a part of routine neurological practice in Europe. New drugs have also become available, and further randomized controlled trials have been undertaken. These guidelines were undertaken by the EFNS in collaboration with the European Neurological Society and the European Sleep Research Society.
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A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a multicenter validation study.
Mov. Disord.
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Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinsons disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response.
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Normative EMG values during REM sleep for the diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep
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Correct diagnosis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is important because it can be the first manifestation of a neurodegenerative disease, it may lead to serious injury, and it is a well-treatable disorder. We evaluated the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the Sleep Innsbruck Barcelona (SINBAR) montage (mentalis, flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum brevis) and other muscles to obtain normative values for the correct diagnosis of RBD for clinical practice.
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Sleep-disordered breathing in neurodegenerative diseases.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
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Sleep disorders are common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), hereditary ataxias, and Alzheimers disease (AD). Type, frequency, and severity of sleep disturbances vary depending on each of these diseases. Cell loss of the brainstem nuclei that modulates respiration, and dysfunction of bulbar and diaphragmatic muscles increase the risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in MSA and ALS. The most relevant SDB in MSA is stridor, whereas in ALS nocturnal hypoventilation due to diaphragmatic weakness is the most common sleep breathing abnormality. Stridor and nocturnal hypoventilation are associated with reduced survival in MSA and ALS. In contrast, sleep apnea seems not to be more prevalent in PD than in the general population. In some PD patients, however, coincidental obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be the cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). SDB can also occur in some hereditary ataxias, such as stridor in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease). The presence of concomitant OSA in patients with AD can have deleterious effects on nocturnal sleep, may result in EDS, and might aggravate the cognitive deficits inherent to the disease. However, whether OSA is more frequent in patients with AD than in the general population is uncertain. Recognition of SDB in neurodegenerative disease is important because they are associated with significant morbidity and potential effective treatments are available.
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