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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Onset of common mental disorders and suicidal behavior following women¿s first exposure to gender based violence: a retrospective, population-based study.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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BackgroundWomen exposed to gender-based violence (GBV) experience a high rate of common mental disorders and suicidal behaviour (¿mental disturbance¿). Little is known however about the timing of onset of mental disturbance following first exposure to GBV amongst women with no prior mental disorder.MethodsThe analysis was undertaken on the Australian National Mental Health and Wellbeing Survey dataset (N =8841). We assessed lifetime prevalence and first onset of common mental disorder and suicidal behaviour (mental disturbance) and exposure to GBV and its first occurrence based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3 (WMH-CIDI 3.0). We used the Kaplan-Meier method to derive cumulative incident curves for first onset mental disturbance. The two derived subgroups were women who experienced GBV without prior mental disturbance; and women never exposed to GBV stratified to match the former group on age and socio-economic status.ResultsFor women with no prior mental disorder, the cumulative incidence curves showed a high incidence of all mental disturbances following first GBV, compared to women without exposure to GBV (all log rank tests <0.0001). Nearly two fifths (37%) of any lifetime mental disturbance had onset in the year following first GBV in women exposed to abuse. For these women, over half (57%) of cases of lifetime PTSD had onset in the same time interval. For GBV exposed women, half of all cases of mental disturbance (54%) and two thirds of cases of PTSD (66.9%) had onset in the five years following first abuse. In contrast, there was a low prevalence of onset of mental disturbance in the comparable imputed time to event period for women never exposed to GBV (for any mental disturbance, 1% in the first year, 12% in five years; for PTSD 3% in the first year, 7% in five years).ConclusionsAmongst women without prior mental disturbance, common mental disorders and suicidal behaviour have a high rate of onset in the one and five year intervals following exposure to GBV. There is a particularly high incidence of PTSD in the first year following GBV.
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The temporal relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and problem alcohol use following traumatic injury.
J Abnorm Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Chronic alcohol abuse is a major public health concern following trauma exposure; however, little is known about the temporal association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and problem alcohol use. The current study examined the temporal relationship between PTSD symptom clusters (re-experiencing, effortful avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal) and problem alcohol use following trauma exposure. This study was a longitudinal survey of randomly selected traumatic injury patients interviewed at baseline, 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months following injury. Participants were 1,139 injury patients recruited upon admission from 4 Level 1 trauma centers across Australia. Participants were assessed using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Results indicated that high levels of re-experiencing, effortful avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms at 12 months were associated with greater increases (or smaller decreases) in problem alcohol use between 12 and 24 months. Findings also suggested that high levels of problem alcohol use at 12 months were associated with greater increases (or smaller decreases) in emotional numbing symptoms between 12 and 24 months. These findings highlight the critical importance of the chronic period following trauma exposure in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and problem alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Impact of the diagnostic changes to post-traumatic stress disorder for DSM-5 and the proposed changes to ICD-11.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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There have been changes to the criteria for diagnosing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5 and changes are proposed for ICD-11.
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Psychiatric outcomes amongst adult survivors of childhood burns.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Research on the adult psychiatric outcomes of childhood burns is limited.
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THE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL HEALTH AND DISABILITY AFTER INJURY.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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This longitudinal study investigated the temporal relationship patterns between disability and mental health after injury, with a focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety.
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Tracing the long-term legacy of childhood lead exposure: a review of three decades of the port Pirie cohort study.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Several prospective cohort studies have demonstrated that childhood lead levels show small but statistically significant adjusted associations with subsequent development in later childhood and adolescence. The Port Pirie Cohort study is one of the few prospective cohort studies to follow participants into adulthood. This paper reviews all childhood and adulthood findings of the Port Pirie Cohort study to date. Cohort members (initially, 723 infants born in/around the lead-smelting town of Port Pirie) showed a wide range of childhood blood lead levels, which peaked around 2 years old (M=21.3?g/dL, SD=1.2). At all childhood assessments, postnatal lead levels - particularly those reflecting cumulative exposure - showed small significant associations with outcomes including cognitive development, IQ, and mental health problems. While associations were substantially attenuated after adjusting for several childhood covariates, many remained statistically significant. Furthermore, average childhood blood lead showed small significant associations with some adult mental health problems for females, including anxiety problems and phobia, though associations only approached significance following covariate adjustment. Overall, there did not appear to be any age of greatest vulnerability or threshold of effect, and at all ages, females appeared more susceptible to lead-associated deficits. Together, these findings suggest that the associations between early childhood lead exposure and subsequent developmental outcomes may persist. However, as the magnitude of these effects was small, they are not discernible at the individual level, posing more of a population health concern. It appears that the combination of multiple early childhood factors best predicts later development. As such, minimising lead exposure in combination with improving other important early childhood factors such as parent-child interactions may be the best way to improve developmental outcomes.
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Do people with chronic pain have impaired executive function? A meta-analytical review.
Clin Psychol Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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A widely held belief within the clinical community is that chronic pain is associated with cognitive impairment, despite the absence of a definitive systematic review or meta-analysis on the topic. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to establish the current evidence concerning the difference in executive function between people with chronic pain and healthy controls. Six databases were searched for citations related to executive function and chronic pain from inception to June 24, 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility and extracted relevant data according to the Cochrane Collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twenty five studies were included in the review and twenty two studies in the meta-analysis. A small to moderate impairment in executive function performance was found in people with chronic pain across cognitive components, although all studies had a high risk of bias. The current evidence suggests impairment of executive function in people with chronic pain, however, important caveats exist. First, executive function involves many cognitive components and there is no standard test for it. Second, moderators of executive function, such as medication and sleep, were seldom controlled for in studies of executive function performance.
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Deployment-related mental health support: comparative analysis of NATO and allied ISAF partners.
Eur J Psychotraumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For years there has been a tremendous gap in our understanding of the mental health effects of deployment and the efforts by military forces at trying to minimize or mitigate these. Many military forces have recently systematized the mental support that is provided to support operational deployments. However, the rationale for doing so and the consequential allocation of resources are felt to vary considerably across North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) International Security Assistance (ISAF) partners. This review aims to compare the organization and practice of mental support by five partnering countries in the recent deployment in Afghanistan in order to identify and compare the key methods and structures for delivering mental health support, describe bottlenecks and illustrate new developments.
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PTSD in the military: special considerations for understanding prevalence, pathophysiology and treatment following deployment.
Eur J Psychotraumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Given the unique context of warzone engagement, which may include chronic threat, multiple and lengthy deployments, and loss, there is a need to understand whether and to what extent knowledge about PTSD derived from studies of civilian trauma exposure is generalizeable to the military. This special issue on PTSD in the military addresses a range of issues and debates related to mental health in military personnel and combat veterans. This article provides an overview of the issues covered in selected contributions that have been assembled for a special volume to consider issues unique to the military. Several leading scholars and military experts have contributed papers regarding: 1) prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems in different NATO countries, 2) the search for biomarkers of PTSD and the potential applications of such findings, and 3) prevention and intervention approaches for service members and veterans. The volume includes studies that highlight the divergence in prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems across nations and that discuss potential causes and implications. Included studies also provide an overview of research conducted in military or Veteran's Affairs settings, and overarching reviews of military-wide approaches to research, promotion of resilience, and mental health interventions in the Unites States and across NATO and allied ISAF partners.
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The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.
Eur J Psychotraumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population.
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Blast-related traumatic brain injury.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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A bomb blast may cause the full severity range of traumatic brain injury (TBI), from mild concussion to severe, penetrating injury. The pathophysiology of blast-related TBI is distinctive, with injury magnitude dependent on several factors, including blast energy and distance from the blast epicentre. The prevalence of blast-related mild TBI in modern war zones has varied widely, but detection is optimised by battlefield assessment of concussion and follow-up screening of all personnel with potential concussive events. There is substantial overlap between post-concussive syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder, and blast-related mild TBI seems to increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-concussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain are a clinical triad in this patient group. Persistent impairment after blast-related mild TBI might be largely attributable to psychological factors, although a causative link between repeated mild TBIs caused by blasts and chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been established. The application of advanced neuroimaging and the identification of specific molecular biomarkers in serum for diagnosis and prognosis are rapidly advancing, and might help to further categorise these injuries.
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A multisite analysis of the fluctuating course of posttraumatic stress disorder.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accounts for approximately 25% of PTSD cases. Current models do not adequately explain the delayed increases in PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure.
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The use of biomarkers in the military: from theory to practice.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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This paper provides a summary of relevant issues covered in the conference, "The Use of Biomarkers in the Military: Theory to Practice" held at the New York Academy of Science on September 14, 2012. The conference covered the state of the science in identification of PTSD biomarkers, including, the definition of different classes of biomarkers pertaining to PTSD. The aim of the satellite conference was to bring together researchers who have been supported by the Department of Defense, Veterans Administration, National Institutes of Health, and other agencies around the world, who are interested in the identification of biomarkers for PTSD risk, diagnosis, symptom severity and treatment response, for a discussion of salient issues regarding biomarker development for PTSD, as well as special considerations for the use of biomarkers in the military.
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Prospective associations between childhood low-level lead exposure and adult mental health problems: The Port Pirie cohort study.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Low-level environmental lead exposure during childhood is associated with poorer emotional/behavioural functioning in later childhood and adolescence. Scarce research has examined whether these apparent effects persist into adulthood. This study is the first to examine prospective associations between lead exposure across early childhood and several common adult mental health problems. Childhood data (including blood lead concentrations) and adult data (from mental health questionnaires and psychiatric interviews) were available for 210 participants (44% males, mean age=26.3 years) from the Port Pirie cohort study (1979-1982 birth cohort). Participants had a mean childhood (to 7 years) average blood lead concentration of 17.2?g/dL. Among females, childhood blood lead showed small significant positive associations with lifetime diagnoses of drug and alcohol abuse and social phobia, and with anxiety, somatic and antisocial personality problems. For example: for a 10?g/dL blood lead increase, females were 2.84 times (95% CI 1.10, 7.30) more likely to have an alcohol abuse diagnosis. However, adjustment for childhood covariates - particularly stimulation within the home environment - rendered these associations non-significant. No significant or sizeable unadjusted or adjusted associations were seen for males. The associations between early lead exposure and emotional/behavioural functioning in children might persist into adulthood, at least for females. However, it is unclear whether such results arise from residual confounding, or other mechanisms. Interventions that focus on improving the childhood home environment may have a long-term positive impact on adult mental health outcomes. However, more prospective research using large and representative samples is needed to substantiate these results.
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Disability after injury: the cumulative burden of physical and mental health.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Injury is one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The factors that drive long-term disability after injury are poorly understood.
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Evidence for working memory deficits in chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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People with chronic pain commonly report impaired cognitive function. However, to date, there has been no systematic evaluation of the body of literature concerning cognitive impairment and pain. Nor have modern meta-analytical methods been used to verify and clarify the extent to which cognition may be impaired. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate and critically appraise the literature concerning working memory function in people with chronic pain. The study was conducted along Cochrane collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines. A sensitive search strategy was designed and conducted with the help of an expert librarian using 6 databases. Twenty-four observational studies evaluating behavioural and/or physiological outcomes in a chronic pain group and a control group met the inclusion criteria. All studies had a high risk of bias, owing primarily to lack of assessor blinding to outcome. High heterogeneity within the field was found with the inclusion of 24 papers using 21 different working memory tests encompassing 9 different working memory constructs and 9 different chronic pain populations. Notwithstanding high heterogeneity, pooled results from behavioural outcomes reflected a consistent, significant moderate effect in favour of better performance by healthy controls and, with the exception of one study, pooled results from physiological outcomes reflected no evidence for an effect. Future research would benefit from the use of clearly defined constructs of working memory, as well as standardised methods of testing.
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Exploration of delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder after severe injury.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The first aim of this work was to conduct a rigorous longitudinal study to identify rates of delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of patients with severe injury. The second aim was to determine what variables differentiated delayed-onset PTSD from chronic PTSD.
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The expectancy of threat and peritraumatic dissociation.
Eur J Psychotraumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Peritraumatic dissociation is one of the most critical acute responses to a traumatic experience, partly because it predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite this, there is little understanding about the factors that influence peritraumatic dissociation. This study investigated the extent to which peritraumatic dissociation is predicted by the amount of perceived warning that participants had of the impact of the trauma.
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Predictors of mental health service utilisation in a non-treatment seeking epidemiological sample of Australian adults.
Community Ment Health J
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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This study sought to replicate Parslow and Jorms (Aust N Z J Psychiatry 34(6): 997-1008, 2000) research on need, enabling and predisposing factors as predictors of mental health service use, with the addition of childhood trauma as a predisposing factor. It utilised a non-treatment seeking epidemiological sample of Australian adults (N = 822) to examine 25 variables covering psychiatric disorder, socio-demographics, physical health problems, and childhood trauma as predictors of mental health visits to general practitioners (GPs), mental health specialists and non-mental health specialists. A consistent multivariate predictor of mental health visits to all types of professionals was psychological distress. Presence of an affective disorder, age, and number of health problems were additional predictors of visiting a GP. Being female, divorced, and exposure to childhood trauma predicted use of a mental health specialist, while rural living was associated with lower use of these services. Results highlight the importance of general psychological distress and need factors in seeking help for mental health, and reinforce the lifelong disadvantage arising from adverse childhood experiences and the need to address these issues in adult mental health services.
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The capacity of acute stress disorder to predict posttraumatic psychiatric disorders.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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One rationale for establishing the acute stress disorder diagnosis was to identify recently trauma-exposed people who may develop later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study conducted a multi-site assessment of the extent to which ASD predicts subsequent PTSD, and also major depressive disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder, 12 months after trauma.
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Lifetime prevalence of gender-based violence in women and the relationship with mental disorders and psychosocial function.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Intimate partner physical violence, rape, sexual assault, and stalking are pervasive and co-occurring forms of gender-based violence (GBV). An association between these forms of abuse and lifetime mental disorder and psychosocial disability among women needs to be examined.
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Risk of adverse health outcomes associated with frequency and duration of deployment with the Australian Defence Force.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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The operational tempo of the Australian Defence Force has increased over the last two decades. We examine the relationship between health of personnel and the frequency and duration of their deployment. Self-reported health measures (number of symptoms, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist) were compared for people who had never deployed to those who had deployed only once and for those who had deployed at least twice with at least one deployment to East Timor and one deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq. Comparisons were also made between people who had deployed for at least one month and those who had deployed for longer periods. Frequency of deployment but not duration of deployment was associated with poorer health.
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Trauma at the hands of another: longitudinal study of differences in the posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile following interpersonal compared with noninterpersonal trauma.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Survivors of traumatic events of an interpersonal nature typically have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than survivors of noninterpersonal traumatic events. Little is known about potential differences in the nature or trajectory of PTSD symptoms in survivors of these different types of traumatic events. The current study aimed to identify the specific symptom profile of survivors of interpersonal and noninterpersonal trauma, and to examine changes in differences in the symptom profile over time.
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Psychotic symptoms in young adults exposed to childhood trauma--a 20 year follow-up study.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis.
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An examination of the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder in relation to the anxiety and depressive disorders.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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The nature and structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been the subject of much interest in recent times. This research has been represented by two streams, the first representing a substantive body of work which focuses specifically on the factor structure of PTSD and the second exploring PTSDs relationship with other mood and anxiety disorders. The present study attempted to bring these two streams together by examining structural models of PTSD and their relationship with dimensions underlying other mood and anxiety disorders. PTSD, anxiety and mood disorder data from 989 injury survivors interviewed 3-months following their injury were analyzed using a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to identify the optimal structural model. CFA analyses indicated that the best fitting model included PTSDs re-experiencing (B1-5), active avoidance (C1-2), and hypervigilance and startle (D4-5) loading onto a Fear factor (represented by panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia) and the PTSD dysphoria symptoms (numbing symptoms C3-7 and hyperarousal symptoms D1-3) loading onto an Anxious Misery/Distress factor (represented by depression, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder). The findings have implications for informing potential revisions to the structure of the diagnosis of PTSD and the diagnostic algorithm to be applied, with the aim of enhancing diagnostic specificity.
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Peritraumatic dissociation mediates the relationship between acute panic and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.
Behav Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Although peritraumatic dissociation predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is understood about the mechanism of this relationship. This study examines the role of panic during trauma in the relationship between peritraumatic dissociation and subsequent PTSD. Randomized eligible admissions to 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia (n=244) were assessed during hospital admission and within one month of trauma exposure for panic, peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD symptoms, and subsequently re-assessed for PTSD three months after the initial assessment (n=208). Twenty (9.6%) patients met criteria for PTSD at 3-months post injury. Structural equation modeling supported the proposition that peritraumatic derealization (a subset of dissociation) mediated the effect of panic reactions during trauma and subsequent PTSD symptoms. The mediation model indicated that panic reactions are linked to severity of subsequent PTSD via derealization, indicating a significant indirect relationship. Whereas peritraumatic derealization is associated with chronic PTSD symptoms, this relationship is influenced by initial acute panic responses.
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Assessing the prevalence of trauma exposure in epidemiological surveys.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2010
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Estimates of the prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) in population surveys have increased over time. There is limited empirical evidence on the impact of changes in measurement practices on these estimates. The present study examined the effect of increasing the number of events assessed on the prevalence of exposure longitudinally.
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Cortisol response to acute trauma and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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This study sought to characterize the variability of the acute cortisol response following trauma and its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Forty eight participants were recruited within 24h of a traumatic accident requiring hospital admission. A saliva sample was collected at 08.00 h and 16.00 h 2 days, 1 month and 6 months after hospital admission, together with 24-h urine collection. Participants completed a dexamethasone suppression test (0.5mg DEX at 21.00 h) at each follow up, together with self-report questionnaires. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was administered at 1 and 6 months to identify PTSD. Prevalence of PTSD was 27% at 1 month and 21% at 6 months. PTSD symptoms at 6 months were negatively correlated with salivary cortisol at 08.00 h on day 2 (r=-0.36, p=0.04), but positively correlated with 16.00 h cortisols (r=0.41, p=0.03). A lower rise in cortisol at 08.00 h on day 2 was associated with an increase in risk of PTSD at both 1 month (OR=1.411 (1.017, 1.957)) and 6 months (OR=1.411 (1.066, 1.866)). At 1 month, 70% of participants with PTSD suppressed cortisol to more than 90% of pre-dex levels compared with 25% without PTSD (?(2)=6.77, p=0.034). Urinary cortisol excretion was not different between groups at any time point. The findings support a hypothesis that sensitization of the HPA axis and enhanced suppression of cortisol following the dexamethasone suppression test are established early in the disease process.
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An integrative assessment of brain and body function at rest in panic disorder: a combined quantitative EEG/autonomic function study.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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We conducted a quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) and autonomic assessment of panic disorder (PD). The study samples comprised 52 individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for PD (with or without agoraphobia) and 104 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched controls. EEG data were acquired from 16 scalp sites during resting eyes-open (REO) and eyes-closed (REC) conditions, and spectral power was assessed within 4 frequency bands: theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta. The main findings were an overall reduction of spectral power in PD, compared to controls (Group main effect, p=.011), which was most apparent during REC (Group Condition interaction, p=.014), and within the alpha-1 frequency band (8-11 Hz; Group Band interaction, p=.014). Alpha-1 desynchronization occurs in response to increases in non-specific information processing, and aspects of attention such as alertness. Other findings were region-specific alterations of spectral power at frontal and temporal scalp sites, including a frontal alpha-1 asymmetry (R
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The association between menstrual cycle and traumatic memories.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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Women in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle have been shown to have stronger emotional memories than other women. We investigated the extent to which experiencing a traumatic event during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with stronger traumatic flashback memories.
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Posttraumatic intrusive symptoms across psychiatric disorders.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Reexperiencing symptoms are a key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the pattern of reexperiencing symptoms in non-PTSD posttraumatic disorders. This study recruited 1084 traumatically injured patients during hospital admission and conducted follow-up assessment 12 months later (N = 817, 75%). Twelve months after injury, 22% of patients reported a psychiatric disorder they had never experienced prior to the traumatic injury. One-third of patients with a non-PTSD disorder satisfied the PTSD reexperiencing criteria. Whereas patients with a non-PTSD disorder were more likely to experience intrusive memories, nightmares, psychological distress and physiological reactivity to reminders, only patients with PTSD were likely to experience flashback memories (OR: 11.41, 95% CI: 6.17-21.09). The only other symptom that was distinctive to PTSD was dissociative amnesia (OR: 4.50, 95% CI: 2.09-9.71). Whereas intrusive memories and reactions are common across posttraumatic disorders, flashbacks and dissociative amnesia are distinctive to PTSD.
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Requiring both avoidance and emotional numbing in DSM-V PTSD: will it help?
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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The proposed DSM-V criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specifically require both active avoidance and emotional numbing symptoms for a diagnosis. In DSM-IV, since both are included in the same cluster, active avoidance is not essential. Numbing symptoms overlap with depression, which may result in spurious comorbidity or overdiagnosis of PTSD. This paper investigated the impact of requiring both active avoidance and emotional numbing on the rates of PTSD diagnosis and comorbidity with depression.
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Switching between executive and default mode networks in posttraumatic stress disorder: alterations in functional connectivity.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Working memory processing and resting-state connectivity in the default mode network are altered in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because the ability to effortlessly switch between concentration on a task and an idling state during rest is implicated in both these alterations, we undertook a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a block design to analyze task-induced modulations in connectivity.
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Smoking prevalence, its determinants and short-term health implications in the Australian Defence Force.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2010
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The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of smoking, identify the effects of deployment on smoking behavior and risk factors for smoking, and determine the short-term health outcomes associated with smoking in Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel. Participants were randomly sampled from ADF members who deployed to the Solomon Islands between 2003 and 2005 and from a nondeployed comparison group. In total, 435 of 995 (44%) eligible individuals completed the study questionnaires. The prevalence of current smoking was highest in those who had completed less formal education and those who served in the Navy. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of current or former smokers smoked more while on overseas deployment. Current smokers were more likely to report current wheeze, shortness of breath, and persistent cough compared with nonsmokers. The ADF should continue to address cigarette smoking through its health promotion and health review programs and implement activities to reduce cigarette smoking on deployment.
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The relationship between urinary melatonin metabolite excretion and posttraumatic symptoms following traumatic injury.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2010
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Associations between 24-hour urinary 6-sulphatoxy melatonin excretion and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were assessed 2 days, 1 month and 6 months after traumatic injury requiring hospitalisation.
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Is trauma a causal agent of psychopathologic symptoms in posttraumatic stress disorder? Findings from identical twins discordant for combat exposure.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is unique in that its criteria are embedded with a presumed causal agent, viz, a traumatic event. This assumption has come under scrutiny as a number of recent studies have suggested that many symptoms of PTSD may not necessarily be the result of trauma and may merely represent general psychiatric symptoms that would have existed even in the absence of a trauma event but are subsequently misattributed to it. The current study tests this hypothesis.
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Does access to compensation have an impact on recovery outcomes after injury?
Med. J. Aust.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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To conduct a descriptive study investigating the effect of access to motor vehicle accident (MVA) compensation on recovery outcomes at 24 months after injury.
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Should A2 be a diagnostic requirement for posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-V?
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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The requirement that trauma survivors experience fear, helplessness or horror (Criterion A2) as a part of their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis was introduced into DSM-IV. The imminent re-definition of PTSD in DSM-V highlights the need for empirical studies to validate the utility of the A2 requirement. We aimed to identify (i) how often A2 was associated with PTSD (B-F criteria) at 3 months after trauma and (ii) what was the peritraumatic emotional experience for those who met PTSD criteria but were A2 negative. In a prospective design cohort study we assessed the peritraumatic emotional experience of 535 injury patients in four Australian hospitals. These patients were followed up 3 months later and assessed for PTSD using a structured clinical interview. The majority of those who developed PTSD (B-F criterion) at 3 months met A2 criteria. A substantial minority, however (23%), did not meet A2 criteria. Those PTSD patients who were A2 negative fell into three groups: (i) those who experienced subthreshold levels of A2; (ii) those who experienced intense peritrauma emotional responses other than fear, helplessness or horror; and (iii) those who were amnesic to their peritrauma emotional experience. These findings do not support the inclusion of A2 as diagnostic requirement for DSM-V.
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Does neuroimaging research examining the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder require medication-free patients?
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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In an attempt to avoid unknown influence, most neuroimaging studies examining the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exclude patients taking medications. Here we review the empirical evidence for relevant medications having a confounding effect on task performance or cerebral blood flow (CBF) in this population. The evidence for potentially confounding effects of psychotherapy in PTSD are also discussed.
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A longitudinal analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and their relationship with Fear and Anxious-Misery disorders: implications for DSM-V.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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This paper examined the hypothesis that PTSD-unique symptom clusters of re-experiencing, active avoidance and hyperarousal were more related to the fear/phobic disorders, while shared PTSD symptoms of dysphoria were more closely related to Anxious-Misery disorders (MDD/GAD). Confirmatory factor and correlation analyses examining PTSD, anxiety and mood disorder data from 714 injury survivors interviewed 3, 12 and 24-months following their injury supported this hypothesis with these relationships remaining robust from 3-24 months posttrauma. Of the nine unique fear-oriented PTSD symptoms, only one is currently required for a DSM-IV diagnosis. Increasing emphasis on PTSD fear symptoms in DSM-V, such as proposed DSM-V changes to mandate active avoidance, is critical to improve specificity, ensure inclusion of dimensionally distinct features and facilitate tailoring of treatment.
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The long-term costs of traumatic stress: intertwined physical and psychological consequences.
World Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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The gradual emergence of symptoms following exposure to traumatic events has presented a major conceptual challenge to psychiatry. The mechanism that causes the progressive escalation of symptoms with the passage of time leading to delayed onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves the process of sensitization and kindling. The development of traumatic memories at the time of stress exposure represents a major vulnerability through repeated environmental triggering of the increasing dysregulation of an individuals neurobiology. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates how the increased allostatic load associated with PTSD is associated with a significant body of physical morbidity in the form of chronic musculoskeletal pain, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and cardiovascular disease. This increasing body of literature suggests that the effects of traumatic stress need to be considered as a major environmental challenge that places individuals physical and psychological health equally at risk. This broader perspective has important implications for developing treatments that address the underlying dysregulation of cortical arousal and neurohormonal abnormalities following exposure to traumatic stress.
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Sleep disturbance immediately prior to trauma predicts subsequent psychiatric disorder.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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This study investigated the extent to which sleep disturbance in the period immediately prior to a traumatic event predicted development of subsequent psychiatric disorder.
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Posttraumatic stress disorder after injury: does admission to intensive care unit increase risk?
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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This study aimed to index the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after injury requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission to investigate whether an ICU admission after injury increases risk for PTSD and to identify predictors of PTSD after ICU admission.
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Default network connectivity during a working memory task.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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The default network exhibits correlated activity at rest and has shown decreased activation during performance of cognitive tasks. There has been little investigation of changes in connectivity of this network during task performance. In this study, we examined task-related modulation of connectivity between two seed regions from the default network posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the rest of the brain in 12 healthy adults. The purpose was to determine (1) whether connectivity within the default network differs between a resting state and performance of a cognitive (working memory) task and (2) whether connectivity differs between these nodes of the default network and other brain regions, particularly those implicated in cognitive tasks. There was little change in connectivity with the other main areas of the default network for either seed region, but moderate task-related changes in connectivity occurred between seed regions and regions outside the default network. For example, connectivity of the mPFC with the right insula and the right superior frontal gyrus decreased during task performance. Increased connectivity during the working memory task occurred between the PCC and bilateral inferior frontal gyri, and between the mPFC and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cuneus, superior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus and cerebellum. Overall, the areas showing greater correlation with the default network seed regions during task than at rest have been previously implicated in working memory tasks. These changes may reflect a decrease in the negative correlations occurring between the default and task-positive networks at rest.
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The psychiatric sequelae of traumatic injury.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Traumatic injury affects millions of people each year. There is little understanding of the extent of psychiatric illness that develops after traumatic injury or of the impact of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) on psychiatric illness. The authors sought to determine the range of new psychiatric disorders occurring after traumatic injury and the influence of mild TBI on psychiatric status.
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When wait lists are not feasible, nothing is a thing that does not need to be done.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Clinical psychology practices initially grew through the use of case studies, uncontrolled trials, and eventually through randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The use of a wait-list control group is standard practice in such trials of treatment regimens for psychopathological conditions. However, as knowledge advances regarding the successful treatment of such conditions, best practice guidelines are being developed. These guidelines have predominantly been based on the results of RCTs and use aggregating mechanisms, such as meta-analysis, to derive their conclusions. The authors argue here for statistical methods that allow for comparisons to existing data from wait-list controls for which the continued use of wait-list conditions has become problematic. Using posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as an example, this article proposes various methods for obviating the need for a wait-list control under such circumstances. After conducting separate meta-analyses for both treatment and control conditions, the authors found that wait-list conditions do provide some benefit to participants with PTSD, but current best practice treatment conditions elicit far superior effect sizes. The various methods for evaluating a study without a wait-list control are proposed and demonstrated.
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The impact of traumatic stressors in civilian occupational settings.
J Public Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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We use the literature reporting prevalence and aetiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders as a catalyst to discuss for organisations the policy implications for prevention and intervention of psychiatric morbidity. We searched PubMed and Google to identify studies and reports of mental health and behavioural problems in occupations including police, fire, and emergency service workers. The prevalence of PTSD ranged from 6 per cent to 32 per cent. Biological markers of PTSD, such as neuroendocrine activity, appear less useful than psychological markers, such as levels of hostility and self-efficacy, to predict PTSD. Prevalence of PTSD was generally less than that found among victims themselves, but higher than general community prevalence. Theoretically, if prevention and intervention strategies were working effectively, there should be a minimal rate of psychiatric morbidity attributable to these individuals workplaces. Against this background, there is a case for routine screening on an annual basis for those at risk.
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Post-traumatic amnesia and the nature of post-traumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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The prevalence and nature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is controversial because of the apparent paradox of suffering PTSD with impaired memory for the traumatic event. In this study, 1167 survivors of traumatic injury (MTBI: 459, No TBI: 708) were assessed for PTSD symptoms and post-traumatic amnesia during hospitalization, and were subsequently assessed for PTSD 3 months later (N = 920). At the follow-up assessment, 90 (9.4%) patients met criteria for PTSD (MTBI: 50, 11.8%; No-TBI: 40, 7.5%); MTBI patients were more likely to develop PTSD than no-TBI patients, after controlling for injury severity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-2.94). Longer post-traumatic amnesia was associated with less severe intrusive memories at the acute assessment. These findings indicate that PTSD may be more likely following MTBI, however, longer post-traumatic amnesia appears to be protective against selected re-experiencing symptoms.
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Impact of childhood exposure to a natural disaster on adult mental health: 20-year longitudinal follow-up study.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Studies examining the impact of childhood disaster exposure on the development of adult psychopathology report increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychopathology.
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Distant memories: a prospective study of vantage point of trauma memories.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2009
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Adopting an observer perspective to recall trauma memories may function as a form of avoidance that maintains posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a prospective study to analyze the relationship between memory vantage point and PTSD symptoms. Participants (N= 947) identified the vantage point of their trauma memory and reported PTSD symptoms within 4 weeks of the trauma; 730 participants repeated this process 12 months later. Initially recalling the trauma from an observer vantage point was related to more severe PTSD symptoms at that time and 12 months later. Shifting from a field to an observer perspective a year after trauma was associated with greater PTSD severity at 12 months. These results suggest that remembering trauma from an observer vantage point is related to both immediate and ongoing PTSD symptoms.
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Evidence-based medicine evaluation of electrophysiological studies of the anxiety disorders.
Clin EEG Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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We provide a systematic, evidence-based medicine (EBM) review of the field of electrophysiology in the anxiety disorders. Presently, electrophysiological studies of anxiety focus primarily on etiological aspects of brain dysfunction. The review highlights many functional similarities across studies, but also identifies patterns that clearly differentiate disorder classifications. Such measures offer clinical utility as reliable and objective indicators of brain dysfunction in individuals and indicate potential as biomarkers for the improvement of diagnostic specificity and for informing treatment decisions and prognostic assessments. Common to most of the anxiety disorders is basal instability in cortical arousal, as reflected in measures of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). Resting electroencephalographic (EEG) measures tend to correlate with symptom sub-patterns and be exacerbated by condition-specific stimulation. Also common to most of the anxiety disorders are condition-specific difficulties with sensory gating and the allocation and deployment of attention. These are clearly evident from evoked potential (EP) and event-related potential (ERP) electrical measures of information processing in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and the phobias. OtherERP measures clearly differentiate the disorders. However, there is considerable variation across studies, with inclusion and exclusion criteria, medication status and control group selection not standardized within condition or across studies. Study numbers generally preclude analysis for confound removal or for the derivation of diagnostic biomarker patterns at this time. The current trend towards development of databases of brain and cognitive function is likely to obviate these difficulties. In particular, electrophysiological measures of function are likely to play a significant role in the development and subsequent adaptations of DSM-V and assist critically in securing improvements in nosological and treatment specificity.
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A study of the protective function of acute morphine administration on subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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To index the extent to which acute administration of morphine is protective against development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
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Impact of depression heterogeneity on attention: an auditory oddball event related potential study.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Major depressive disorder is associated with a reduced ability to attend and concentrate, however, the extent to which attentional impairment is dependent on subtype remains to be clarified.
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Military deployment: the impact on children and family adjustment and the need for care.
Curr Opin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2009
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Over a million children and their families have now experienced the stress of the deployment of a family member during the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Whereas there is an extensive clinical literature about the developmental challenges facing children and issues of family adjustment, there is a lack of systematic research. This review summarizes the findings of recent publications.
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The stressor Criterion-A1 and PTSD: a matter of opinion?
J Anxiety Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Considerable controversy exists with regard to the interpretation and definition of the stressor "A1" criterion for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). At present, classifying an event as either traumatic (satisfying DSM-IV Criterion-A1 for PTSD), or non-traumatic (life event) is determined by the raters subjective interpretation of the diagnostic criteria. This has implications in research and clinical practice. Utilizing a sample of 860 Australian adults, this study is the first to provide a detailed examination of the impact of event categorization on the prevalence of trauma and PTSD. Overall, events classified as non-traumatic were associated with higher rates of PTSD. Unanimous agreement between raters occurred for 683 (79.4%) events. As predicted, the categorization method employed (single rater, multiple rater-majority, multiple rater-unanimous) substantially altered the prevalence of Criterion-A1 events and PTSD, raising doubts about the functionality of PTSD diagnostic criteria. Factors impacting on the categorization process and suggestions for minimizing discrepancies in future research are discussed.
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Functional connectivity reveals inefficient working memory systems in post-traumatic stress disorder.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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We applied a covariance-based multivariate analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate abnormalities in working memory (WM) systems in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients (n=13) and matched controls (n=12) were scanned with fMRI while updating or maintaining trauma-neutral verbal stimuli in WM. A multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate large-scale brain networks associated with these experimental tasks. For the control group, the first network reflected brain activity associated with WM updating and principally involved bilateral prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex. Controls second network was associated with WM maintenance and involved regions typically activated during storage and rehearsal of verbal material, including lateral premotor and inferior parietal cortex. In contrast, PTSD patients appeared to activate a single fronto-parietal network for both updating and maintenance tasks. This is indicative of abnormally elevated activity during WM maintenance and suggests inefficient allocation of resources for differential task demands. A second network in PTSD, which was not activated in controls, showed regions differentially activated between WM tasks, including the anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, fusiform and supplementary motor area. These activations may be linked to hyperarousal and abnormal reactivity, which are characteristic of PTSD.
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The latent structure of the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire.
J Trauma Stress
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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This paper has been retracted due to a publishers error: the order of the authors was incorrect. The Editor and Publisher of the Journal of Traumatic Stress apologize to the authors and our readership. The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) is a widely used measure of peritraumatic dissociation, and is presumably a unidimensional construct. Two hundred forty-seven individuals admitted to five hospitals after traumatic injury were administered the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the PDEQ. Factor analysis indicated that the PDEQ involved two factors containing four items each: one factor (altered awareness) indexes alterations in awareness and the other (derealization) reflects distortions in perceptions of the self and the world. Only the derealization factor was associated with acute stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Cross-validation with independent data provided only partial support for the 2-factor structure model. These data indicate that peritraumatic dissociation may involve two distinct constructs.
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Temporal relationships between Gulf War deployment and subsequent psychological disorders in Royal Australian Navy Gulf War veterans.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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Although much has been published on the effects of the 1990/1991 Gulf War on the psychological health of veterans, few studies have addressed the pattern and timing of post-war development of psychological disorders. Our study aims to identify the most common psychological disorders that first appeared post-Gulf War, the period of peak prevalence and the sequence of multiple psychological disorders.
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Fronto-temporal alterations within the first 200 ms during an attentional task distinguish major depression, non-clinical participants with depressed mood and healthy controls: a potential biomarker?
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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Attentional impairment in depression is a cardinal feature of depression and has been proposed as a candidate endophenotype for major depressive disorder. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by oddball signal detection tasks provide objective markers of selective stimulus processing, and are pertinent endophenotypic markers for depression. While previous studies have sought to determine objective markers for attentional impairment in depression, evidence is inconsistent and may involve heterogeneity in relatively small samples. Here, we brought together oddball ERP recording with source localization of neural correlates of selective attention in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 78) and participants with depressed mood (PDM; n = 127) relative to healthy controls (CTL; n = 116). The key finding was a dimensional exaggeration of the P200 (140-270 ms) to both target (signal) and non-target (noise) stimuli, most pronounced in MDD, followed by PDM, relative to CTL. This exaggeration was coupled with slower and more variable response times, suggesting that neural systems are attempting to compensate for a difficulty in discriminating signal from noise. P200 alterations were localised to limbic (hippocampal), temporal and ventral prefrontal regions, key components of the signal detection network. A subsequent reduction and delay in the P300 was also revealed for MDD indicating that the pronounced lack of discrimination in clinical depression may also lead to impaired stimulus evaluation. This P200 increase in depression could provide a potential mechanism for the attentional impairment frequently observed in depression and consequent alterations in the P300 may differentiate clinically significant depression.
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The role of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in predicting disability after injury.
Med. J. Aust.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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To examine the relationship between psychological response to injury at 1 week and 3 months, and disability at 12 months.
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Event-related potentials to auditory stimuli in monozygotic twins discordant for combat: association with PTSD.
Psychophysiology
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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Studies have demonstrated ERP abnormalities related to concentration difficulties in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We used an identical-twin, case-control design to investigate whether these abnormalities reflect pre-trauma vulnerability or the acquired consequence of PTSD. Vietnam combat veterans and their non-combat-exposed, identical twins completed a three-tone oddball task. Veterans with PTSD had delayed target N2 latencies compared to veterans without PTSD. In a small nonmedicated, nonsmoking subsample, veterans with PTSD also had significantly diminished target P3b amplitudes. A mixed-model, random-effects analysis on the nonmedicated, nonsmoking subsample that included the combat-unexposed co-twins showed a significant Diagnosis x Combat Exposure interaction for target P3b amplitude. Results replicate increased N2 latency and diminished P3b amplitude in PTSD and suggest that diminished P3b amplitude is an acquired condition in PTSD.
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Early stage assessment and course of acute stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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Although it has been established that acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder occur after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) the qualitative differences in symptom presentation between injury survivors with and without a MTBI have not been explored in depth. This study aimed to compare the ASD and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom presentation of injury survivors with and without MTBI. One thousand one hundred sixteen participants between the ages of 17 to 65 years (mean age: 38.97 years, SD: 14.23) were assessed in the acute hospital after a traumatic injury. Four hundred seventy-five individuals met the criteria for MTBI. Results showed a trend toward higher levels of ASD in the MTBI group compared with the non-MTBI group. Those with a MTBI and ASD had longer hospital admissions and higher levels of distress associated with their symptoms. Although many of the ASD symptoms that the MTBI group scored significantly higher were also part of a postconcussive syndrome, higher levels of avoidance symptoms may suggest that this group is at risk for longer term poor psychological adjustment. Mild TBI patients may represent a injury group at risk for poor psychological adjustment after traumatic injury.
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Working memory function in post-traumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have demonstrated reduced P3 amplitude during target detection and working memory (WM) processes. This study investigated effects of psychotropic medication (primarily antidepressants) on these ERP components.
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Prior trauma and psychiatric history as risk factors for intentional and unintentional injury in Australia.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Preliminary evidence suggests that injury survivors are at increased risk for having experienced traumatic events before their injury or having a lifetime psychiatric history. We aimed to extend the previous research by examining in the same sample whether trauma history or lifetime psychiatric history represented risk pathways to injury for intentional or unintentional injury survivors. We also aimed to describe the co-occurrence between trauma history and psychiatric history in unintentionally injured survivors.
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Event-related potential and autonomic signs of maladaptive information processing during an auditory oddball task in panic disorder.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Various empirical data suggest that individuals with Panic Disorder (PD) fail to appropriately assign significance to sensory stimuli within the internal and external milieu, including those stimuli which are patently threat-neutral. The failure to appropriately discriminate signal stimuli from among noise signals [Gordon, E., Liddell, B.J., Brown, K.J., Bryant, R., Clark, C.R., Das, P., et al. 2007. Integrating objective gene-brain-behavior markers of psychiatric disorders. J. Integr. Neurosci. 6, 1-34.] results in disturbances of information processing and attentional deployment, which manifests across multiple levels of functioning (e.g., brain, behaviour, autonomic). The present event-related potential (ERP) study, therefore, investigated attentive information processing in PD, using a standard two-tone auditory oddball paradigm, to assess patients response to infrequent target tones (i.e., signals) and frequent non-target tones (i.e., noise). Simultaneously-recorded autonomic data provided converging measures of the concomitants of disordered information processing. PD patients (n=50) showed increased N1 amplitude to frequent non-target tones and reduced P3 amplitude to infrequent targets, compared to matched controls (n=98). There were no between-group differences for N1 targets, N2 or P2. Patients additionally showed increased heart rate, fewer spontaneous skin conductance responses (trend) to significant stimuli, and reduced P3 latency compared to controls, although the latter result was accounted for by patients who frequently experienced depersonalization and/or derealisation during panic. Patients showed several disturbances of attentive information processing in a simple auditory discrimination task: Increased N1 to repeated stimuli suggests impaired stimulus filtering, whereas reduced P3 amplitude and latency represent the under-allocation of neural resources for infrequent, goal-relevant stimuli, and their increased speed of processing, respectively. These disturbances likely contribute to patients aversive outcomes in stimulus-rich environments.
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The latent structure of the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire.
J Trauma Stress
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) is a widely used measure of peritraumatic dissociation, and is presumably a unidimensional construct. Two hundred forty-seven individuals admitted to five hospitals after traumatic injury were administered the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the PDEQ. Factor analysis indicated that the PDEQ involved two factors containing four items each: one factor (altered awareness) indexes alterations in awareness and the other (derealization) reflects distortions in perceptions of the self and the world. Only the derealization factor was associated with acute stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Cross-validation with independent data provided only partial support for the 2-factor structure model. These data indicate that peritraumatic dissociation may involve two distinct constructs.
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Exploration of Delayed-Onset Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Severe Injury.
Psychosom Med
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ObjectiveThe first aim of this work was to conduct a rigorous longitudinal study to identify rates of delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of patients with severe injury. The second aim was to determine what variables differentiated delayed-onset PTSD from chronic PTSD.MethodsRandomly selected patients with injury who were admitted to four hospitals around Australia were recruited to the study (N = 834) and assessed in the acute care hospital, at 3 months, and at 12 months. A structured clinical interview was used to assess PTSD at each time point.ResultsSeventy-three patients (9%; n = 73) had PTSD at 12 months. Of these, 39 (53%) were classified as having delayed-onset PTSD. Furthermore, 22 (56%) patients with delayed-onset PTSD had minimal PTSD symptoms at 3 months (i.e., they did not have partial/subsyndromal PTSD at 3 months). The variables that differentiated delayed-onset PTSD from chronic PTSD were greater injury severity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.26), lower anxiety severity at 3 months (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.61-0.87), and greater pain severity at 3 months (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.06-1.84).ConclusionsDelayed-onset PTSD occurred frequently in this sample. Approximately half of the patients with delayed-onset PTSD had minimal PTSD symptoms at 3 months; therefore, their delayed-onset PTSD could not be accounted for by a small number of fluctuating symptoms. As we move toward DSM-V, it is important that research continues to explore the factors that underpin the development of delayed-onset PTSD.
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Health surveillance of deployed military personnel occasionally leads to unexpected findings.
BMC Med
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be caused by life threatening illness, such as cancer and coronary events. The study by Forbes et al. made the unexpected finding that military personnel evacuation with medical illness have similar rates of PTSD to those evacuated with combat injuries. It may be that the illness acts as a nonspecific stressor that interacts with combat exposures to increase the risk of PTSD. Conversely, the inflammatory consequence of systemic illness may augment the effects to traumatic stress and facilitate the immunological abnormalities that are now being associated with PTSD and depression. The impact of the stress on cytokine systems and their role in the onset of PTSD demands further investigation. Military personnel evacuated due to physical illness require similar screening and monitoring for the risk of PTSD to those injured who are already known to be at high risk.
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Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments.
BMC Psychiatry
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The association between stressful events on warlike deployments and subsequent mental health problems has been established. Less is known about the effects of stressful events on peacekeeping deployments.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.