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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Relevance of Accuracy of Heartbeat Perception in Noncardiac and Cardiac Chest Pain.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The development and course of noncardiac chest pain are assumed to be influenced by interoceptive processes.
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Effects of mood induction on consumers with vs. without compulsive buying propensity: An experimental study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB propensity and controls on experimental proxies of buying behavior and to investigate 1) effects of neutral vs. negative mood inductions and 2) whether mood effects on buying behavior are specific to CB. Forty female consumers with CB propensity and 40 female controls were randomly assigned to a neutral or negative mood induction. Buying related behavior (likelihood to expose oneself to a shopping situation, urge and probability to buy, willingness to pay) was assessed. Consumers with CB propensity differed from controls in all buying behavior aspects except for willingness to pay. Neither main effects of mood nor group×mood interaction effects on buying behavior were found. However, consumers with CB propensity were emotionally more strongly affected by a negative mood induction. Although negative affect has previously been reported to precede buying episodes in CB, our findings do not indicate specific negative mood effects on buying, neither in CB nor in controls.
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Internal focus of attention in anxiety-sensitive females up-regulates amygdale activity: an fMRI study.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Cognitive behavioral models of panic disorder (PD) stress the importance of an increased attentional focus towards bodily symptoms in the onset and maintenance of this debilitating anxiety disorder. In this fMRI mental tracking paradigm, we looked at the effects of focusing one's attention internally (interoception) vs. externally (exteroception) in a well-studied group at risk for PD-that is anxiety-sensitive females (AS-high). We hypothesized that AS-high subjects compared to control subjects will present higher arousal and decreased valence scores during interoception and parallel higher activity in brain areas which are associated with fear and interoception. 24 healthy female students with high levels of anxiety sensitivity and 24 healthy female students with normal levels of anxiety sensitivity serving as control group were investigated by 3 T fMRI. Subjects either focused their attention on their heartbeats (internal condition) or on neutral tones (external condition). Task performance was monitored by reporting the number of heartbeats or tones after each block. State of arousal and emotional valence were also assessed. The high anxiety-sensitive group reported higher arousal scores compared to controls during the course of the experiment. Simultaneously, fMRI results indicated higher activation in anxiety-sensitive participants than in controls during interoception in a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions (thalamus, amygdala, parahippocampus) that overlaps with known fear circuitry structures. In particular, the activity of the right amygdala was up-regulated. Future prospective-longitudinal studies are needed to validate the role of the amygdala for transition to disorder. Attention to internal body functions up-regulates the activity of interoceptive and fear-relevant brain regions in anxiety-sensitive females, a high-risk group for the development of anxiety disorders.
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Improving heartbeat perception in patients with medically unexplained symptoms reduces symptom distress.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Distortions in interoceptive accuracy have been linked to somatoform disorders. In line with cognitive theories of symptom formation in somatoform disorders, decreases in interoceptive accuracy have recently been observed to co-occur with more severe symptom reports. The current study tested the hypothesis that experimentally increasing interoceptive accuracy should decrease symptom severity in somatoform disorders. Twenty-nine patients with somatoform disorders were instructed in a newly developed heartbeat perception training procedure. Heartbeat perception, as a proxy for interoceptive accuracy, was assessed with a mental tracking task. Although there were no significant differences between the training group and a waiting control group (n=23) regarding increases in heartbeat perception, health anxiety served as a moderator and significant reductions in state symptom reports were observed after training. These findings suggest a relation between lower interoceptive accuracy and the perception of bodily symptoms in somatoform disorders.
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Implicit affective evaluation of somatosensory sensations in patients with noncardiac chest pain.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Etiological models of noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) stress the importance of abnormal implicit affective evaluations of somatosensory sensations, but this has never been studied empirically. The aim was therefore to assess implicit affective evaluations of somatosensory stimuli in NCCP using an experimental design.
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Health anxiety--an indicator of higher interoceptive sensitivity?
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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According to cognitive-behavioral models, health anxiety arises from the misattribution of normal bodily sensations as signs of a severe illness. Consequently, higher levels of interoceptive accuracy might be critically involved in the development of health anxiety.
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Neural correlates of procedural variants in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a randomized, controlled multicenter FMRI study.
Psychother Psychosom
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). It is unknown, how variants of CBT differentially modulate brain networks involved in PD/AG. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of therapist-guided (T+) versus self-guided (T-) exposure on the neural correlates of fear conditioning in PD/AG.
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Gender-specific association of variants in the akr1c1 gene with dimensional anxiety in patients with panic disorder: additional evidence for the importance of neurosteroids in anxiety?
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Neurosteroids are synthesized both in brain and peripheral steroidogenic tissue from cholesterol or steroidal precursors. Neurosteroids have been shown to be implicated in neural proliferation, differentiation, and activity. Preclinical and clinical studies also suggest a modulatory role of neurosteroids in anxiety-related phenotypes. However, little is known about the contribution of genetic variants in genes relevant for the neurosteroidogenesis to anxiety disorders.
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Timing Matters: Change Depends on the Stage of Treatment in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Objective: The mechanisms of action underlying treatment are inadequately understood. This study examined 5 variables implicated in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG): catastrophic agoraphobic cognitions, anxiety about bodily sensations, agoraphobic avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and psychological flexibility. The relative importance of these process variables was examined across treatment phases: (a) psychoeducation/interoceptive exposure, (b) in situ exposure, and (c) generalization/follow-up. Method: Data came from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for PD/AG (n = 301). Outcomes were the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (Bandelow, 1995) and functioning as measured in the Clinical Global Impression scale (Guy, 1976). The effect of process variables on subsequent change in outcome variables was calculated using bivariate latent difference score modeling. Results: Change in panic symptomatology was preceded by catastrophic appraisal and agoraphobic avoidance across all phases of treatment, by anxiety sensitivity during generalization/follow-up, and by psychological flexibility during exposure in situ. Change in functioning was preceded by agoraphobic avoidance and psychological flexibility across all phases of treatment, by fear of bodily symptoms during generalization/follow-up, and by anxiety sensitivity during exposure. Conclusions: The effects of process variables on outcomes differ across treatment phases and outcomes (i.e., symptomatology vs. functioning). Agoraphobic avoidance and psychological flexibility should be investigated and therapeutically targeted in addition to cognitive variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Pentacene on Ag(111): correlation of bonding distance with intermolecular interaction and order.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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We report coverage and temperature dependent bonding distances of vacuum-sublimed pentacene (PEN) submonolayers on Ag(111) obtained by the X-ray standing wave technique. The average vertical bonding distance of 2.98 Å at room temperature for 0.50 monolayer (ML) coverage increases to 3.12 Å for 0.75 ML due to competing intermolecular and adsorbate-substrate interactions. In contrast, decreasing the temperature from 295 to 145 K does not impact the bonding distance despite the concomitant transition from a "liquidlike" to an ordered molecular arrangement. In combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, we could identify "soft chemisorption" with a subtle balance of molecule-molecule and substrate-molecule interactions as being responsible for this special adsorption behavior. Thus our study sheds light not only on the interface between PEN and Ag(111), but also on fundamental adsorption processes of organic adsorbates on metals in the context of chemi- and physisorption.
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Relationship between social anxiety and perceived trustworthiness.
Anxiety Stress Coping
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Four different patterns of biased ratings of facial expressions of emotions have been found in socially anxious participants: higher negative ratings of (1) negative, (2) neutral, and (3) positive facial expressions than nonanxious controls. As a fourth pattern, some studies have found no group differences in ratings of facial expressions of emotion. However, these studies usually employed valence and arousal ratings that arguably may be less able to reflect processing of social information. We examined the relationship between social anxiety and face ratings for perceived trustworthiness given that trustworthiness is an inherently socially relevant construct. Improving on earlier analytical strategies, we evaluated the four previously found result patterns using a Bayesian approach. Ninety-eight undergraduates rated 198 face stimuli on perceived trustworthiness. Subsequently, participants completed social anxiety questionnaires to assess the severity of social fears. Bayesian modeling indicated that the probability that social anxiety did not influence judgments of trustworthiness had at least three times more empirical support in our sample than assuming any kind of negative interpretation bias in social anxiety. We concluded that the deviant interpretation of facial trustworthiness is not a relevant aspect in social anxiety.
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Influence of alcohol on social anxiety: An investigation of attentional, physiological and behavioral effects.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders are highly comorbid. It remains unclear, however, if and how alcohol influences attentional processes and physical symptoms in social anxiety. In a balanced-placebo-design, high and normally socially anxious participants gave a speech while performing a task, which simultaneously measures internal and external attention. Only high anxious participants showed a preferential processing of external probes, which was eliminated by alcohol or the mere expectation of drinking alcohol. Furthermore, alcohol reduced facial blushing as well as self-reported social anxiety during public speaking. Decreases in anxiety were significantly associated with a reduction of the external focus in the high anxious group. Understanding alcohol as a substance influencing cognitive processes as well as physiological symptoms of anxiety further contributes to our understanding of alcohol use as a safety behavior in social anxiety disorder.
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The motive to drink due to social anxiety and its relation to hazardous alcohol use.
Psychol Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Although studies on social anxiety and alcohol-related problems are numerous, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate how the motive to drink due to social anxiety is associated with hazardous alcohol use over and above habitual alcohol use, social anxiety, and alcohol outcome expectancies. We also examine which factors define the motive to drink due to social anxiety and clarify the impact of the type of social situation. Drinking due to social anxiety, habitual alcohol use, and gender, but not social anxiety, were associated with hazardous alcohol use. Social anxiety increased the motive to drink due to social anxiety, but fear of cognitive performance deficits after drinking reduced it. Alcohol was used to reduce anxiety more frequently in situations where intake of alcohol is deemed socially acceptable. These findings suggest that the motive drinking due to social anxiety, not social anxiety per se, is related to hazardous alcohol use. The motive is weakened by the expectation of alcohol-induced cognitive deficits, as well as by the type of social situation in which alcohol is to be used.
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Specificity of homework compliance effects on treatment outcome in CBT: evidence from a controlled trial on panic disorder and agoraphobia.
J Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Although homework assignments are an integral component of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and relate to positive therapy outcomes, it is unclear whether specific homework types and their completion have specific effects on outcome.
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Molecular reorganization in organic field-effect transistors and its effect on two-dimensional charge transport pathways.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Charge transport in organic thin film transistors takes place in the first few molecular layers in contact with the gate dielectric. Here we demonstrate that the charge transport pathways in these devices are extremely sensitive to the orientational defects of the first monolayers, which arise from specific growth conditions. Although these defects partially heal during the growth, they cause depletion of charge carriers in the first monolayer, and drive the current to flow in the monolayers above the first one. Moreover, the residual defects induce lower crystalline order and charge mobility. These results, which are not intuitively explained by electrostatics arguments, have been obtained by combining in situ real time structural and electrical characterization together with ex situ AFM measurements, on thin films of a relevant n-type organic semiconductor, N,N-bis(n-octyl)-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis dicarboximide grown by sublimation in a quasi-layer-by-layer mode at different substrate temperatures.
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Tactile perceptual processes and their relationship to somatoform disorders.
J Abnorm Psychol
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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The Somatic Signal Detection Task (SSDT) is a recent paradigm serving to examine perceptual processes likely relevant for somatoform disorders. We tested whether touch illusions are more easily induced in individuals suffering from somatoform disorders (SFD) and whether their perceptual threshold for tactile stimuli is lower compared to healthy controls. Thirty-three participants with SFD and 32 healthy controls reported whether they recognized near-threshold tactile stimuli at their fingertip, which were presented in half of the test trials. With a probability of 0.5, an auxiliary visual stimulus was additionally presented. Tactile detection thresholds, tactile sensitivity, response bias, and the rate of false-positive perceptions of the tactile stimulus were assessed. In both groups, the light stimulus led to an amelioration of tactile sensitivity as well as to a more liberal response style. The SFD group was characterized by a more liberal response bias in the first half of the light-absent condition compared to the healthy controls. Within the SFD group, the report of somatoform (especially pseudoneurological) symptoms correlated positively with illusory tactile perceptions in the SSDT. Tactile thresholds in the SSDT were measured reliably (rtt = .86) and were significantly lower in the SFD group. The notion that general perceptual dispositions influence the formation of symptom perception may thus complement cognitive models of SFD.
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Cant suppress this feeling: automatic negative evaluations of somatosensory stimuli are related to the experience of somatic symptom distress.
Emotion
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Cognitive theories of medically unexplained ("somatoform") symptoms stress the importance of alterations in attention and memory processes. Accordingly, specific schemata are hypothesized to (mis-)guide the processing of somatosensory stimuli leading to the formation of symptom-like perceptions. The current study tested a possible association between altered automatic somatosensory evaluation processes and the tendency to experience somatoform symptoms in a nonclinical sample. In a first pilot study, a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) by Payne, Cheng, Govorun, and Stewart (2005) with aversive and nonaversive tactile stimuli (nonpainful electric vs. vibration stimulus) was successfully tested in 40 college students. In a second study (n = 50), automatic evaluations following aversive tactile stimuli were found to be positively associated (r = .35) with somatic symptom distress (PHQ). Moreover, negative affectivity significantly moderated this association (i.e., people high on negative affectivity revealed the strongest associations between somatic symptom distress and negative automatic evaluations in the tactile AMP). The findings support cognitive theories of somatoform symptom formation. The tactile AMP is suggested as a promising paradigm to study automatic evaluations of body sensations in people with somatoform disorders and related clinical conditions.
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Psychological treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia: a randomized controlled trial to examine the role of therapist-guided exposure in situ in CBT.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). Nevertheless, an understanding of its mechanisms and particularly the role of therapist-guided exposure is lacking. This study was aimed to evaluate whether therapist-guided exposure in situ is associated with more pervasive and long-lasting effects than therapist-prescribed exposure in situ.
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The relation between disgust-sensitivity, blood-injection-injury fears and vasovagal symptoms in blood donors: disgust sensitivity cannot explain fainting or blood donation-related symptoms.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Pages (1994) prominent theory for the explanation of fainting in blood-injection-injury situations holds that disgust sensitivity contributes to syncopal reactions. We investigated if blood donation-related vasovagal symptoms (1) or fainting related to blood donations (2) are associated with disgust sensitivity.
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On the stability of oligo(ethylene glycol) (C11EG6OMe) SAMs on gold: behavior at elevated temperature in contact with water.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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In this study the temperature dependent confor-mation of hexa(ethylene glycol) self-assembling monolayers (SAMs) under aqueous conditions (in situ) is investigated. To this end characteristic absorption modes in the fingerprint region (1050-1500 cm(-1)) were monitored with real-time polarization modulation infrared spectroscopy. We found a temperature induced conformational change from predominantly helical to helical/all-trans. The process may be divided into two temperature regimes. Up to 40 °C the process is reversible after drying the monolayers in air and successive reimmersion in water, indicating a strong binding of the water molecules to the SAM. At higher temperatures, the conformational change is irreversible. Additionally, a rapid change to a larger mode width and a shift of the mode position to higher wavenumbers (blue-shift) at about 50 °C indicates structural changes caused by decreasing crystallinity of the SAM. While the conformational changes up to 40 °C are supposed to originate from an increased conformational freedom in combination with a stronger interaction with water molecules, the irreversibility and rapid change of mode characteristics at higher temperatures indicate chemical degradation. Complementary measurements in air show a fast and virtually complete reversibility up to 40 °C underlining the effect of the interaction of the ethylene glycol moiety with water. At temperatures above 50 °C modes indicating ester and formate groups appear, supporting the idea of chemical degeneration. Moreover, the temperature behavior is coverage dependent. At incomplete coverage the structural order of the SAM starts decreasing at lower temperatures. This study shows, that the conformational and structural change of hexa(ethylene glycol) SAMs at elevated temperature is an interplay of conformational changes of the SAM, its interaction with water and at higher temperatures its chemical degradation. Our experiments also underline the importance of the in situ analysis on the film structure.
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(Dont) panic in the scanner! How panic patients with agoraphobia experience a functional magnetic resonance imaging session.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Although functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has gained increasing importance in investigating neural substrates of anxiety disorders, less is known about the stress eliciting properties of the scanner environment itself. The aim of the study was to investigate feasibility, self-reported distress and anxiety management strategies during an fMRI experiment in a comprehensive sample of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). Within the national research network PANIC-NET, n=89 patients and n=90 controls participated in a multicenter fMRI study. Subjects completed a retrospective questionnaire on self-reported distress, including a habituation profile and exploratory questions about helpful strategies. Drop-out rates and fMRI quality parameters were employed as markers of study feasibility. Different anxiety measures were used to identify patients particularly vulnerable to increased scanner anxiety and impaired data quality. Three (3.5%) patients terminated the session prematurely. While drop-out rates were comparable for patients and controls, data quality was moderately impaired in patients. Distress was significantly elevated in patients compared to controls; claustrophobic anxiety was furthermore associated with pronounced distress and lower fMRI data quality in patients. Patients reported helpful strategies, including motivational factors and cognitive coping strategies. The feasibility of large-scale fMRI studies on PD/AG patients could be proved. Study designs should nevertheless acknowledge that the MRI setting may enhance stress reactions. Future studies are needed to investigate the relationship between self-reported distress and fMRI data in patient groups that are subject to neuroimaging research.
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Heartbeat perception in social anxiety before and during speech anticipation.
Behav Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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According to current cognitive models of social phobia, individuals with social anxiety create a distorted image of themselves in social situations, relying, at least partially, on interoceptive cues. We investigated differences in heartbeat perception as a proxy of interoception in 48 individuals high and low in social anxiety at baseline and while anticipating a public speech. Results revealed lower error scores for high fearful participants both at baseline and during speech anticipation. Speech anticipation improved heartbeat perception in both groups only marginally. Eight of nine accurate perceivers as determined using a criterion of maximum difference between actual and counted beats were high socially anxious. Higher interoceptive accuracy might increase the risk of misinterpreting physical symptoms as visible signs of anxiety which then trigger negative evaluation by others. Treatment should take into account that in socially anxious individuals perceived physical arousal is likely to be accurate rather than false alarm.
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Real-time PMIRRAS studies of in situ growth of C11Eg6OMe on gold and immersion effects.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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We studied the growth of self-assembling monolayers of C(11)Eg(6)OMe on gold under aqueous conditions. With the help of polarisation modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS) we monitored the evolution of characteristic absorption modes in the fingerprint region (1050-1500 cm(-1)) during the later stages of the growth of the SAM. We observed a change from rather amorphous structure with mixed all-trans and helical conformation to an ordered structure with predominantly helical structure over time. Changes of mode positions, intensities and broadness can be described by a single exponential. In addition, we investigated the effect of hydration for SAMs with different degrees of crystallinity. To that end, we compared their spectra at certain ordering levels in contact with aqueous solution with the corresponding spectra in air. SAMs with a highly ordered crystalline structure in air show the same structure under aqueous conditions. However, SAMs which are still crystalline in air, but less perfect, show rather amorphous spectral features under aqueous conditions indicating a strong interaction with water. This implies that the ability of water to penetrate the EG moiety strongly depends on its structure which in turn is related inter alia to the surface coverage. Since the interaction with water plays an important role in the prevention of unspecific adsorption on oligo(ethylene glycols) this is important for its application. Our experiments also underline the importance of the in situ analysis of the film structure.
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Eye movement assessment in individuals with social phobia: differential usefulness for varying presentation times?
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Visual dot probe tasks are used to examine attentional biases towards threat faces in social phobia. Based on eye movement assessments, short presentation times of stimuli have been proposed to investigate initial attentional processes. However, it remains unclear if eye movements contribute to anxiety related biases as measured in dot probe tasks when presentation times below 200 ms are used. In this study the electrooculogram (EOG) was recorded in a sample of 17 participants with social phobia and 13 controls performing a visual dot probe task in two presentation time conditions. In the 175 ms condition, half of the participants moved their eyes in only 10% of the trials. Significantly more participants moved their eyes in the 600 ms condition and individuals with social phobia directed their gaze more often to the threat faces than to the neutral faces. Eye movement measures were not related to reaction time measures but the number of initial eye movements towards threatening faces correlated with measures of social anxiety. For dot probe paradigms, the additional use of eye movement measures seems to be particularly appropriate for longer presentation times. The dissociation between attentional bias scores as measured with reaction time versus eye movement measures and their relation to different presentation times underlines the need for both measures when conducting visual probe studies.
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Dimensional structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale according to the analysis of data obtained with a German version.
J Anxiety Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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The Social Interaction and Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is widely used to assess social interaction anxiety. Yet its dimensional structure is still not well-defined. Especially, the conceptual pertinence of three negatively keyed items has been challenged. In this study, dimensionality of the answers of a student sample to a German SIAS version was first analyzed exploratorily. Subsequently, we tested confirmatorily several measurement models specifying different SIAS dimensions, and investigated how these relate to extraversion. The most reasonable model was cross-validated relying on data from healthy controls and social phobia sufferers. All analyses involved methods suited for an adequate handling of ordinal data. The findings confirm that three negatively keyed items are dubious indicators of social interaction anxiety. Thus, only the remaining 17 items should be used for this purpose in future studies. Analyses of their psychometric properties show, in addition, that they apparently tap three different facets of social interaction anxiety.
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Changes in pain-related coping strategies and their importance for treatment outcome following multimodal inpatient treatment: does sex matter?
J Pain
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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While sex differences in pain-related coping have been widely reported, little is known on sex differences in changes in coping following multimodal pain treatment and how these changes relate to treatment outcome. The present prospective study therefore aimed to investigate sex differences in coping strategies between boys and girls with chronic pain prior to multimodal inpatient treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sixty-four boys and 103 girls with various pain disorders were evaluated. Core outcomes (pain intensity and pain-related disability) and coping were assessed via validated questionnaires. At admission, boys and girls used similar coping strategies. Three months following treatment, boys and girls decreased passive pain coping and seeking social support while they maintained the degree of positive self-instruction. Girls displayed higher seeking social support than boys and of importance, only for girls, a reduction in seeking social support was related to decreases in pain intensity. In both groups, the changes in coping were related to positive treatment outcome. Results suggest that both groups may benefit from reductions in passive pain coping and seeking social support. The causal quality of this relationship remains to be determined in future studies. Gender-role expectations and family interactions may account for the sex differences demonstrated for seeking social support.
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Coincidence of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and panic disorder: two case reports.
Ann Gen Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Panic disorder (PD) is characterised by sudden attacks of intense fear with somatic symptoms including palpitations and tachycardia. Reciprocally, palpitations caused by paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) are commonly associated with anxiety and may therefore be misdiagnosed as PD. As demonstrated by two case reports, PSVT and PD can occur comorbidly in a chronological sequence, with PSVT possibly precipitating and maintaining PD via interoceptive processes or, alternatively, with PD increasing the risk for PSVT by elevating stress levels. As both PSVT and PD require different treatments, potentially helpful differential clinical diagnostic criteria are proposed.
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Neural correlates of aversive conditioning: development of a functional imaging paradigm for the investigation of anxiety disorders.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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The purpose of the present study was to establish a short paradigm for the examination of classical aversive conditioning processes for application in patients with anxiety disorders. We measured behavioral, autonomic and neural correlates of the paradigm in healthy subjects, applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and measurement of skin conductance. Therefore, neutral visual stimuli were paired with an unpleasant white noise as unconditioned stimulus. Twenty healthy subjects performed three experimental phases of learning: familiarization, acquisition and extinction. Subjective ratings of valence and arousal after each phase of conditioning as well as skin conductance measurement indicated successful conditioning. During acquisition, fMRI results showed increased activation for the conditioned stimulus (CS+(unpaired)) when compared with the non-conditioned stimulus (CS-) in the right amygdala, the insulae, the anterior cingulate cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus, all regions known to be involved in emotional processing. In addition, a linearly decreasing activation in the right amygdala/hippocampus for the CS- across the acquisition phase was found. There were no significant differences between CS+ and CS- during extinction. In conclusion, the applicability of this paradigm for the evaluation of neural correlates in conditioning and extinction processes has been proven. Thus, we present a promising paradigm for the examination of the fear-circuit in patients with anxiety disorders and additionally effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions.
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Blushing propensity in social anxiety disorder: influence of serotonin transporter gene variation.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Blushing is considered to be one of the prime pathophysiological markers of social anxiety disorder, potentially mediated by serotonergic function. Therefore, in the present study 62 patients with social anxiety disorder and 62 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were investigated for the influence of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene variation (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) on blushing propensity as measured by the blushing propensity scale (BPS). The less active 5-HTTLPR genotypes were nominally significantly associated with increased blushing propensity in patients with social anxiety disorder as compared to controls with an equidirectional trend for the less active 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 haplotypes. Even when statistically controlled for influence of depression, this association remained significant. In summary, the present pilot study suggests a potential role of functional serotonin transporter gene variation in blushing propensity warranting replication and encouraging genetic analyses of further intermediate phenotypes of social anxiety disorder.
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Role of the substrate in electronic structure, molecular orientation, and morphology of organic thin films: diindenoperylene on rutile TiO2(110).
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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The results of our multitechnique investigation performed on diindenoperylene thin films deposited on rutile TiO2(110) show island growth, with crystallites nucleating preferentially along the [110] substrate crystallographic axis. The findings evidence that the films properties at the interface are common to those found for a number of organic molecules deposited on the same substrate, revealing that the structural and morphological properties of organic thin films on rutile TiO2(110) are completely driven by its surface morphology.
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Influence of alcohol on the processing of emotional facial expressions in individuals with social phobia.
Br J Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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Individuals with social phobia are at an increased risk to develop alcohol problems. However, the mechanism responsible for this association is unclear. It has been suggested that alcohol reduces anxiety by impairing initial appraisal of threatening stimuli. Information that is especially threatening, however, may be resistant to such an effect of alcohol. We tested the influence of alcohol on the appraisal of five emotional facial expressions.
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Do blood phobia patients hyperventilate during exposure by breathing faster, deeper, or both?
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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Recently we found that patients with blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia tend to hyperventilate when exposed to feared stimuli. Hyperventilation results from increases in minute ventilation above levels required by metabolic demand and can result from increases in either frequency or depth of breathing, or a combination of both.
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[The research network PANIC-NET: improving the treatment of panic disorder - from a better understanding of fear circuit mechanisms to more effective psychological treatment and routine care].
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG) is one of the most costly and disabling anxiety disorders with a large range of secondary mental health problems. According to numerous clinical trials, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) represents the most effective psychotherapeutic intervention for PD/AG. Little is known about the exact mechanisms of CBT and their neurobiological effects on the fear network. Within the PANIC-NET a unique, large multilevel and multicenter research project was implemented. By carrying out a randomized controlled clinical trial, different CBT components (exposure vs. cognitive techniques) were investigated in 360 patients in order to identify the core active ingredients of CBT. Furthermore, experimental add-on therapy with D-Cycloserine was tested. In an integrated approach, fear-circuit mechanisms were investigated employing psychophysiological techniques, functional neuro-imaging using 3T-fMRI and molecular genetic approaches.
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Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy.
Thin Solid Films
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure.
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The impact of visual flow stimulation on anxiety, dizziness, and body sway in individuals with and without fear of heights.
Behav Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Individuals with acrophobia experience anxiety and dizziness when exposed to heights. It may be that their balance system is disturbed and that they therefore have to rely more strongly on visual information. We tested this hypothesis by exposing 20 individuals with high fear of heights and 20 healthy control participants to nine different visual flow stimuli through a head mounted display, thereby inducing a conflict between visual input and somatosensory information. Anxiety and dizziness were assessed repeatedly by means of self-reports, while resultant body sway was measured continuously with a force plate individuals stood on. Individuals with fear of heights felt more anxious and dizzier, and also showed stronger body sway than healthy control participants. Merely receiving visual balance information contradictory to somatosensory balance information is sufficient to induce anxiety, dizziness, and body sway in individuals with fear of heights. An underlying balance dysfunction may contribute to the development of height phobia.
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A spectralanalytic approach to emotional responses evoked through picture presentation.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Frontal EEG asymmetry has been linked to emotional and motivational reactivity. A frequently applied method to provoke specific asymmetry profiles is the presentation of affective film clips. Although these films might elicit strong emotional reactions, the exact time course and peak of an affective response remains unclear. In an alternative attempt, stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), known to reliably alter emotional states, are utilized. These stimuli are less likely to cause excessive variations in affective responding. However, relevant studies have most often been unable to find the predicted effects. One reason for such failures might be the inadequate knowledge about the minimum number of stimuli needed for psychometrically stable results. In the present study, an adequate split-half reliability for the experimental procedure was assured and substantial effects of affective picture category were found. This pattern of results was robust for both Cz and linked ears as reference. Thus, presenting pictures with an adequate recording length might be a reliable alternative for inducing affective reactions in alpha asymmetry research.
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Internet-delivered attention modification training as a treatment for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial.
Behav Res Ther
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Attentional biases toward social threat are a well-known phenomenon in social phobia. Recently, computer-delivered trainings have been developed to modify these patterns of attention and thereby reduce anxiety symptoms. Distribution of such attention trainings (ATs) via internet might be a promising approach in overcoming obstacles in health care utilization. However, there is no evidence supporting the effectiveness of internet-based ATs in clinical populations. The current trial examined effects of an internet-based AT on self-report measures, behavioral data and diagnostic status in individuals with social phobia (N = 56). Participants were randomly assigned to either AT using a modified dot probe paradigm or a control condition without attention modification. After training and at a 4-month follow-up, both groups showed small, albeit significant reductions in social anxiety and depression, but there was no evidence for superiority of the AT condition. The present findings question the effectiveness of internet-based ATs in social phobia. Future studies need to investigate effective variants of internet-based ATs before they can be widely applied.
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Internal and external attention in speech anxiety.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
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Cognitive models of social phobia propose that socially anxious individuals engage in heightened self-focused attention. Evidence for this assumption was provided by dot probe and feedback tasks measuring attention and reactions to internal cues. However, it is unclear whether similar patterns of attentional processing can be revealed while participants actually engage in a social situation. The current study used a novel paradigm, simultaneously measuring attention to internal and external stimuli in anticipation of and during a speech task.
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Does disgust increase parasympathetic activation in individuals with a history of fainting? A psychophysiological analysis of disgust stimuli with and without blood-injection-injury association.
J Anxiety Disord
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People with blood-injection-injury fear can faint when being confronted with blood, injections or injuries. Page (1994) holds that people with blood-injury phobia faint, because they are disgust sensitive and disgust facilitates fainting by eliciting parasympathetic activity. We tested the following two hypotheses: (1) Disgusting pictures elicit more disgust in blood-injection-injury-anxious people with a history of fainting than they do in controls. (2) Disgust causes parasympathetic activation. Subjects were 24 participants with high blood-injection-injury fear and a history of fainting in anxiety relevant situations and 24 subjects with average blood-injection-injury fear and no fainting history. We analyzed self-reported feelings of disgust, anxiety and faintness and reactions in heart rate, skin conductance, blood pressure and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the confrontation with disgusting pictures with and without blood content. We did not find any evidence that the blood-injection-injury anxious subjects were more disgust sensitive than the control subjects and we also did not find any evidence that disgust elicits parasympathetic activation.
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Effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy on neural correlates of fear conditioning in panic disorder.
Biol. Psychiatry
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Learning by conditioning is a key ability of animals and humans for acquiring novel behavior necessary for survival in a changing environment. Aberrant conditioning has been considered a crucial factor in the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/A). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for PD/A. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of CBT on conditioning processes in PD/A are unknown.
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Meta-analysis argues for a female-specific role of MAOA-uVNTR in panic disorder in four European populations.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
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Panic disorder (PD) is a common mental disorder, ranking highest among the anxiety disorders in terms of disease burden. The pathogenesis of PD is multifactorial with significant heritability, however only a few convincing risk genes have been reported thus far. One of the most promising candidates is the gene encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), due to its key role in monoaminergic neurotransmission, established validity of animal models, and the efficacy of MAO inhibitors in the treatment of PD. A promoter repeat polymorphism in MAOA (MAOA-uVNTR) impacts on gene expression; high-expression alleles have been reported to increase the risk for PD. To further scrutinize the role of this polymorphism, we performed a formal meta-analysis on MAOA-uVNTR and PD using original data from four published European (Estonian, German, Italian, and Polish) samples and genotypes from three hitherto unpublished German PD samples, resulting in the largest (n?=?1,115 patients and n?=?1,260 controls) genetic study on PD reported to date. In the unpublished samples, evidence for association of MAOA-uVNTR with PD was obtained in one of the three samples. Results of the meta-analysis revealed a significant and female-specific association when calculating an allelic model (OR?=?1.23, P?=?0.006). This sex-specific effect might be explained by a gene-dose effect causing higher MAOA expression in females. Taken together, our meta-analysis therefore argues that high-expression MAOA-uVNTR alleles significantly increase the risk towards PD in women. However, epigenetic mechanisms might obfuscate the genetic association, calling for ascertainment in larger samples as well as assessment of the MAOA promoter methylation status therein.
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Gender differences in associations of glutamate decarboxylase 1 gene (GAD1) variants with panic disorder.
PLoS ONE
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Panic disorder is common (5% prevalence) and females are twice as likely to be affected as males. The heritable component of panic disorder is estimated at 48%. Glutamic acid dehydrogenase GAD1, the key enzyme for the synthesis of the inhibitory and anxiolytic neurotransmitter GABA, is supposed to influence various mental disorders, including mood and anxiety disorders. In a recent association study in depression, which is highly comorbid with panic disorder, GAD1 risk allele associations were restricted to females.
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Dynamics of defensive reactivity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia: implications for the etiology of panic disorder.
Biol. Psychiatry
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The learning perspective of panic disorder distinguishes between acute panic and anxious apprehension as distinct emotional states. Following animal models, these clinical entities reflect different stages of defensive reactivity depending upon the imminence of interoceptive or exteroceptive threat cues. The current study tested this model by investigating the dynamics of defensive reactivity in a large group of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG).
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Depression does not affect the treatment outcome of CBT for panic and agoraphobia: results from a multicenter randomized trial.
Psychother Psychosom
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Controversy surrounds the questions whether co-occurring depression has negative effects on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outcomes in patients with panic disorder (PD) and agoraphobia (AG) and whether treatment for PD and AG (PD/AG) also reduces depressive symptomatology.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.