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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Androgen deprivation decreases prostate specific antigen in the absence of tumor: implications for interpretation of PSA results.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used as an outcome measure for relapsed disease in prostate cancer. Nonetheless, there are considerable concerns about its indiscriminate use as a surrogate endpoint for cell growth or survival. We hypothesized that treatment with a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analog would decrease PSA levels even in the absence of malignant disease.
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Lipocalin 2 deactivates macrophages and worsens pneumococcal pneumonia outcomes.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Macrophages play a key role in responding to pathogens and initiate an inflammatory response to combat microbe multiplication. Deactivation of macrophages facilitates resolution of the inflammatory response. Deactivated macrophages are characterized by an immunosuppressive phenotype, but the lack of unique markers that can reliably identify these cells explains the poorly defined biological role of this macrophage subset. We identified lipocalin 2 (LCN2) as both a marker of deactivated macrophages and a macrophage deactivator. We show that LCN2 attenuated the early inflammatory response and impaired bacterial clearance, leading to impaired survival of mice suffering from pneumococcal pneumonia. LCN2 induced IL-10 formation by macrophages, skewing macrophage polarization in a STAT3-dependent manner. Pulmonary LCN2 levels were tremendously elevated during bacterial pneumonia in humans, and high LCN2 levels were indicative of a detrimental outcome from pneumonia with Gram-positive bacteria. Our data emphasize the importance of macrophage deactivation for the outcome of pneumococcal infections and highlight the role of LCN2 and IL-10 as determinants of macrophage performance in the respiratory tract.
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Surface cooling for induction of mild hypothermia in conscious healthy volunteers - a feasibility trial.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Animal and human studies suggest beneficial outcome effects of mild hypothermia for stroke, for acute myocardial infarction, and for cardiogenic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of non-invasive surface cooling for induction and maintenance of mild hypothermia (32 to 34°C) in healthy, conscious volunteers.
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Increased platelet aggregation and in vivo platelet activation after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration. A randomised controlled trial.
Thromb. Haemost.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and is widely used to accelerate neutrophil recovery after chemotherapy. Interestingly, specific G-CSF receptors have been demonstrated not only on myeloid cells, but also on platelets. Data on the effects of G-CSF on platelet function are limited and partly conflicting. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of G-CSF on platelet aggregation and in vivo platelet activation. Seventy-eight, healthy volunteers were enrolled into this randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects received 5 ?g/kg methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (r-metHuG-CSF, filgrastim) or placebo subcutaneously for four days. We determined platelet aggregation with a whole blood impedance aggregometer with various, clinically relevant platelet agonists (adenosine diphosphate [ADP], collagen, arachidonic acid [AA], ristocetin and thrombin receptor activating peptide 6 [TRAP]). Filgrastim injection significantly enhanced ADP (+40%), collagen (+60%) and AA (+75%)-induced platelet aggregation (all p<0.01 as compared to placebo and p<0.001 as compared to baseline). In addition, G-CSF enhanced ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (+18%) whereas TRAP-induced platelet aggregation decreased slightly (-14%) in response to filgrastim. While baseline aggregation with all agonists was only slightly but insignificantly higher in women than in men, this sex difference was enhanced by G-CSF treatment, and became most pronounced for ADP after five days (p<0.001). Enhanced platelet aggregation translated into a 75% increase in platelet activation as measured by circulating soluble P-selectin. G-CSF enhances platelet aggregation and activation in humans. This may put patients suffering from cardiovascular disease and cancer at risk for thrombotic events.
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Single dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor markedly enhances shear-dependent platelet function in humans.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been associated with the induction of a hypercoagulable state in patients as well as peripheral blood stem donors. Interestingly, sparse data exist on the kinetics of platelet and coagulation activation in response to G-CSF and it is unknown if G-CSF augments shear-dependent platelet function. These two issues are addressed in the current trial. Thirty-six healthy volunteers were enrolled into this study. All subjects received a single-dose of 5 microg/kg filgrastim intravenously. The effects of recombinant G-CSF on platelet and coagulation function were assessed by the platelet function analyzer PFA-100 (collagen/epinephrine (CEPI-CT), collagen/ADP (CADP-CT) closure times), von Willebrand factor activity (vWF : RiCO) ELISA, tissue factor (TF)-mRNA expression on circulating leukocytes and rotation thrombelastography (ROTEM). G-CSF time-dependently enhanced shear dependent platelet function measured by the PFA-100: CEPI-CT declined by 48% and CADP-CT by 31% with nadir values after 24 h (p < 0.001 as compared to baseline) and returned to near-baseline values after 72 hours. In accordance, VWF : RiCO increased by 59% after 24 h (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline 48 h later. TF-mRNA peaked after 4 hours (>6 fold increase p < 0.001) and reached near-baseline values after 24 hours. Nadir closure times were seen after 24 hours (-15%; p < 0.001). Single-dose administration of 5 microg/kg G-CSF significantly enhances shear-dependent platelet function and strongly induces leukocyte TF-mRNA, which translates into shortened clotting times ex vivo.
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Platelet hyperfunction is decreased by additional aspirin loading in patients presenting with myocardial infarction on daily aspirin therapy.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Currently 162-325 mg aspirin is recommended for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. We tested the effect of an additional loading dose of 250 mg aspirin at the onset of acute coronary syndrome in patients who were already on chronic therapy with 100 mg aspirin.
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The aptamer ARC1779 is a potent and specific inhibitor of von Willebrand Factor mediated ex vivo platelet function in acute myocardial infarction.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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ARC1779 is an aptamer, which blocks binding of the von Willebrand Factor (VWF) A1 domain to platelet GPIb receptors. VWF is increased in the elderly an in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), as reflected by increased shear-dependent platelet function. We hypothesized that ARC1779 concentration-dependently inhibits ex vivo platelet function, and that this concentration effect relationship may be shifted in patients with AMI. We studied ex vivo dose response curves for ARC1779 on VWF activity, shear-dependent platelet function, and agonist-induced platelet aggregation. We included patients with AMI on standard treatment (n = 40), young (n = 20) and elderly controls (n = 20) in this ex vivo dosing study. AMI patients displayed approximately 2-fold increased plasma levels of VWF activity as compared to controls. ARC1779 inhibited VWF activity (IC90: approximately 3-4 microg/mL) and shear dependent platelet function (Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100), IC50: approximately 0.5-0.9 microg/mL and Cone and Plate Analyzer (CPA), IC50: approximately 0.1-0.4 microg/mL in citrated blood) at comparable concentrations in all groups. In contrast to GPIIb/IIIa antagonists, ARC1779 did not inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen or arachidonic acid at concentrations (10 microg/mL) that fully inhibited VWF dependent platelet function. ARC1779 potently and specifically inhibits VWF activity and VWF dependent platelet function, even in the setting of AMI where VWF activity is increased.
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Pronounced platelet hyperfunction in patients with cardiac arrest achieving restoration of spontaneous circulation.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Markers of platelet activation are increased in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Hyperfunctional platelets may contribute to impairment of microcirculatory function and overall poor outcome despite restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Patients with myocardial infarction have hyperfunctional platelets, which predict the degree of myocardial necrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that platelets may be even more activated in patients whose myocardial infarction leads to cardiac arrest and compared them with patients whose cardiac arrest was due to a noncardiac origin.
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Hemostasis in cardiac arrest patients treated with mild hypothermia initiated by cold fluids.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Application of mild hypothermia (32-33 degrees C) has been shown to improve neurological outcome in patients with cardiac arrest. However, hypothermia affects hemostasis, and even mild hypothermia is associated with bleeding and increased transfusion requirements in surgery patients. On the other hand, crystalloid hemodilution has been shown to induce a hypercoagulable state. The study aim was to elucidate in which way the induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia by a bolus infusion of cold crystalloids affects the coagulation system of patients with cardiac arrest.
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In vivo profile of the human leukocyte microRNA response to endotoxemia.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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To gain insight into microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the regulation of the human innate immune response, we screened for differentially expressed miRNAs in circulating leukocytes in an in vivo model of acute inflammation triggered by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Leukocyte RNA was isolated from venous blood samples obtained from healthy male volunteers before and 4h after LPS-infusion. After fluorescence labeling, RNA samples were hybridized to microarrays containing capture probes for measuring the abundance of more than 600 human miRNAs. Target genes were predicted for differentially expressed miRNAs and then compared to changes in genome-wide expression levels, which had been established in a previous study. Data analysis revealed that five miRNAs consistently responded to LPS-infusion, four of which were down-regulated (miR-146b, miR-150, miR-342, and let-7g) and one was up-regulated (miR-143). The miR-150 and mir-342 response was confirmed by real-time PCR. By correlating to measured LPS-induced changes of the leukocyte transcriptome, we next searched for predicted target genes, whose stability might be under (co-) control by these miRNAs. We found that the rapid transcriptional activation during acute inflammation of select genes, such as the gene encoding interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2 (IRAK2) might be facilitated by decreased levels of LPS-responsive miRNAs. The increased level of miR-143 might be associated with the pronounced down-regulation of the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene expression during LPS endotoxemia, and could further be involved in the translational silencing of several other predicted inflammation-related target genes. This is the first in vivo study to demonstrate relative abundance of miRNA levels in peripheral blood leukocytes during acute LPS-induced inflammation. The miRNAs and their potential target genes identified herein contribute to the understanding of the complex transcriptional program of innate immunity initiated by pathogens.
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Effects of pantoprazole and esomeprazole on platelet inhibition by clopidogrel.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Clopidogrel is activated by CYP2C19, which also metabolizes proton pump inhibitors (PPI). As proton pump inhibitors are metabolized to varying degrees by CYP2C19, we hypothesized that the reported negative omeprazole-clopidogrel drug interaction may not be a class effect.
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Seasonal variability and influence of outdoor temperature on body temperature of cardiac arrest victims.
Resuscitation
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Mild therapeutic hypothermia is a major advance in post-resuscitation-care. Some questions remain unclear regarding the time to initiate cooling and the time to achieve target temperature below 34 °C. We examined whether seasonal variability of outside temperature influences the body temperature of cardiac arrest victims, and if this might have an effect on outcome.
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Effects of prasugrel on platelet inhibition during systemic endotoxaemia: a randomized controlled trial.
Clin. Sci.
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P2Y(12) receptor antagonists have become a mainstay for the treatment of CVD (cardiovascular diseases). However, they have rarely been evaluated under pathophysiological conditions apart from arterial diseases. We hypothesized interactions between prasugrel and enhanced vWF (von Willebrand Factor) release in a model of systemic inflammation, and compared the pharmacodynamic effects of prasugrel against placebo on agonist-induced platelet aggregation and shear-induced platelet plug formation. A total of 20 healthy male volunteers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled two-way crossover trial. Each volunteer received either placebo or a 60 mg loading dose of prasugrel 2 h before endotoxin or placebo infusion. Platelet inhibition was measured with MEA (multiple electrode aggregometry), the PFA-100 system and the VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein) phosphorylation assay. Prasugrel blunted various platelet aggregation pathways, including those induced by ADP (-81%), AA (arachidonic acid) (-60%), ristocetin (-75%; P<0.001 for all) and, to a lesser degree, collagen or TRAP (thrombin-receptor-activating peptide). Prasugrel decreased shear-induced platelet plug formation, but vWF release during endotoxaemia partly antagonized the inhibitory effect of prasugrel as measured with the PFA-100 system. Endotoxaemia acutely decreased ristocetin and TRAP-induced platelet aggregation, and enhanced ristocetin-induced aggregation after 24 h. Strong in vivo blockade of P2Y(12) inhibits a broad spectrum of platelet aggregation pathways. However, vWF release may reduce prasugrels effects under high-shear conditions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.