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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Promoter Activation by CII, a Potent Transcriptional Activator from Bacteriophage 186.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The lysogeny promoting protein CII from bacteriophage 186 is a potent transcriptional activator, capable of mediating at least a 400-fold increase in transcription over basal activity. Despite being functionally similar to its counterpart in phage ?, it shows no homology at the level of protein sequence and does not belong to any known family of transcriptional activators. It also has the unusual property of binding DNA half-sites that are separated by 20 base pairs, center to center. Here we investigate the structural and functional properties of CII using a combination of genetics, in vitro assays, and mutational analysis. We find that 186 CII possesses two functional domains, with an independent activation epitope in each. 186 CII owes its potent activity to activation mechanisms that are dependent on both the ?(70) and ? C-terminal domain (?CTD) components of RNA polymerase, contacting different functional domains. We also present evidence that like ? CII, 186 CII is proteolytically degraded in vivo, but unlike ? CII, 186 CII proteolysis results in a specific, transcriptionally inactive, degradation product with altered self-association properties.
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Road rules for traffic on DNA-systematic analysis of transcriptional roadblocking in vivo.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Genomic DNA is bound by many proteins that could potentially impede elongation of RNA polymerase (RNAP), but the factors determining the magnitude of transcriptional roadblocking in vivo are poorly understood. Through systematic experiments and modeling, we analyse how roadblocking by the lac repressor (LacI) in Escherichia coli cells is controlled by promoter firing rate, the concentration and affinity of the roadblocker protein, the transcription-coupled repair protein Mfd, and promoter-roadblock spacing. Increased readthrough of the roadblock at higher RNAP fluxes requires active dislodgement of LacI by multiple RNAPs. However, this RNAP cooperation effect occurs only for strong promoters because roadblock-paused RNAP is quickly terminated by Mfd. The results are most consistent with a single RNAP also sometimes dislodging LacI, though we cannot exclude the possibility that a single RNAP reads through by waiting for spontaneous LacI dissociation. Reducing the occupancy of the roadblock site by increasing the LacI off-rate (weakening the operator) increased dislodgement strongly, giving a stronger effect on readthrough than decreasing the LacI on-rate (decreasing LacI concentration). Thus, protein binding kinetics can be tuned to maintain site occupation while reducing detrimental roadblocking.
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Potent transcriptional interference by pausing of RNA polymerases over a downstream promoter.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Elongating RNA polymerases (RNAPs) can interfere with transcription from downstream promoters by inhibiting DNA binding by RNAP and activators. However, combining quantitative measurement with mathematical modeling, we show that simple RNAP elongation cannot produce the strong asymmetric interference observed between a natural face-to-face promoter pair in bacteriophage lambda. Pausing of elongating polymerases over the RNAP-binding site of the downstream promoter is demonstrated in vivo and is shown by modeling to account for the increased interference. The model successfully predicts the effects on interference of treatments increasing or reducing pausing. Gene regulation by pausing-enhanced occlusion provides a general and potentially widespread mechanism by which even weak converging or tandem transcription, either coding or noncoding, can bring about strong in cis repression.
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A comparative analysis of the bifunctional Cox proteins of two heteroimmune P2-like phages with different host integration sites.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The Cox protein of the coliphage P2 is multifunctional; it acts as a transcriptional repressor of the Pc promoter, as a transcriptional activator of the P(LL) promoter of satellite phage P4, and as a directionality factor for site-specific recombination. The Cox proteins constitute a unique group of directionality factors since they couple the developmental switch with the integration or excision of the phage genome. In this work, the DNA binding characteristics of the Cox protein of WPhi, a P2-related phage, are compared with those of P2 Cox. P2 Cox has been shown to recognize a 9 bp sequence, repeated at least 6 times in different targets. In contrast to P2 Cox, WPhi Cox binds with a strong affinity to the early control region that contains an imperfect direct repeat of 12 nucleotides. The removal of one of the repeats has drastic effects on the capacity of WPhi to bind to the Pe-Pc region. Again in contrast to P2 Cox, WPhi Cox has a lower affinity to attP compared to the Pe-Pc region, and a repeat of 9 bp can be found that has 5 bp in common with the repeat in the Pe-Pc region. WPhi Cox, however, is essential for excisive recombination in vitro. WPhi Cox, like P2 Cox, binds cooperatively with integrase to attP. Both Cox proteins induce a strong bend in their DNA targets upon binding.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.