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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chia Flour Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chia supplementation (Salvia hispanica L.) on blood pressure (BP) and its associated cardiometabolic factors in treated and untreated hypertensive individuals. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: the hypertensive-drug treated (CHIA-MD, n?=?10), hypertensive untreated (CHIA-NM, n?=?9) and placebo (PLA-MD, n?=?7) groups. The subjects consumed 35 g/day of either chia flour or a placebo for 12 weeks. The clinical and ambulatory BP, inflammation, oxidative stress and markers for nitric oxide were measured. While the PLA-MD group showed no changes in BP, there was a reduction in the mean clinical blood pressure (MBP) in the CHIA (111.5?±?1.9 to 102.7?±?1.5 mmHg, p?
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SHP2 SIGNALING IN POMC NEURONS IS IMPORTANT FOR LEPTIN'S ACTIONS ON BLOOD PRESSURE, ENERGY BALANCE AND GLUCOSE REGULATION.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Previous studies showed that Src homology-2 tyrosine phosphatase (Shp2) is an important regulator of body weight. In this study, we examined the impact of Shp2 deficiency specifically in proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) neurons on metabolic and cardiovascular function and on the chronic blood pressure (BP) and metabolic responses to leptin. Mice with Shp2 deleted in Pomc neurons (Shp2/Pomc-cre) and control mice (Shp2(flox/flox)) were implanted with telemetry probes and venous catheters for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and leptin infusion. After at least 5-days of stable control measurements, mice received leptin infusion (2 ?g/kg/day, iv) for 7 days. Compared to Shp2(flox/flox) controls, Shp2/Pomc-cre mice at 22 weeks of age were slightly heavier (34±1 vs 31±1 g), but consumed a similar amount of food (3.9±0.3 vs 3.8±0.2 g/day). Leptin infusion reduced food intake in Shp2(flox/flox) mice (2.6±0.5 g) and Shp2/Pomc-cre mice (3.2±0.3 g). Despite decreasing food intake leptin infusion increased MAP in control mice, whereas no significant change in MAP was observed in Shp2/Pomc-cre mice. Leptin infusion also decreased plasma glucose and insulin levels in controls (12±1 to 6±1 ?U/ml and 142±12 to 81±8 mg/100 ml) but not in Shp2/Pomc-cre mice. Leptin increased VO2 by 16 ± 2% in controls and 7 ± 1% in Shp2/Pomc-cre mice. These results indicate that Shp2 signaling in Pomc neurons contributes to the long-term BP and antidiabetic actions of leptin and may play a modest role in normal regulation of body weight.
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Clinical and epidemiological profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in João Pessoa - PB.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), considered by some authors as an epidemic of this century, relates directly to chronic diseases such diabetes (DM) and high blood pressure (HBP) and increase the life expectancy of the population. Objective: The aim of this study was to delineate epidemiological profile of patients on hemodialysis (HD) in a Brazilian capital. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of a random sample of convenience, using a questionnaire in 245 patients between August 2011 and March 2012. All patients interviewed were in HD program in three Nephrology services at the Unified Health System (UHS) in João Pessoa. Results: Of the respondents, 61% were male, 66% were married and 44.5% were white. Approximately 50% were aged 40-59 years and 51% were living out of João Pessoa. The main etiologies were HBP (38%) and DM (13%). Main comorbidities were diabetic retinopathy (15.5%) and peripheral neuropathy (13.5%). Ninety-two percent reported an episode of hospitalization. Temporary vascular access was used in 100% of patients in first dialysis. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate the importance of better monitoring of these pre-dialysis patients, which could reduce morbimortality.
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Chronic Central Nervous System MC3/4R Blockade Attenuates Hypertension Induced by Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition but not by Angiotensin II Infusion.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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We examined whether central melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3/4R) blockade attenuates the blood pressure (BP) responses to chronic L-NAME or angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with telemetry transmitters, venous catheters, and intracerebroventricular cannula into the lateral ventricle. After 5 days of control measurements, L-NAME (10 ?g/kg/min IV, groups 1 and 2) or Ang II (10 ng/kg/min IV, groups 3 and 4) were infused for 24 days, and starting on day 7 of L-NAME or Ang II infusion, the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119 (24 nmol/d, n=6/group; groups 1 and 3) or vehicle (saline 0.5 ?L/h, n=6/group; groups 2 and 4) was infused intracerebroventricularly for 10 days. A control normotensive group also received SHU-9119 for 10 days (n=5). L-NAME and Ang II increased BP by 40±3 and 56±5 mm?Hg, respectively, although heart rate was slightly reduced. MC3/4R blockade doubled food intake and reduced heart rate (?40 to ?50 bpm) in all groups. MC3/4R blockade caused only a small reduction in BP in normotensive group (4 mm?Hg) and no change in rats receiving Ang II, although markedly reducing BP by 21±4 mm?Hg in L-NAME-treated rats. After SHU-9119 infusion was stopped, food intake, heart rate, and BP gradually returned to values observed before SHU-9119 infusion was started. Ganglionic blockade at the end of L-NAME or Ang II infusion caused similar BP reduction in both groups. These results suggest that the brain MC3/4R contributes, at least in part, to the hypertension induced by chronic L-NAME infusion but not by Ang II.
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Sarcopenia According to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) Versus Dynapenia as a Risk Factor for Mortality in the Elderly.
J Nutr Health Aging
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Sarcopenia and dynapenia have been associated with poorer physical performance, disability and death. The aim of this study was to compare the association between sarcopenia and dynapenia with mortality.
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Enzyme encapsulation in magnetic chitosan-Fe3O4 microparticles.
J Microencapsul
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Abstract Two simple procedures for the preparation of magnetic chitosan enzyme microparticles have been investigated and used for the immobilisation of endophytic fungus Cercospora kikuchii lipase as model enzyme. In the first case, lipase was entrapped in Fe3O4-chitosan microparticles by cross-linking method, while in the second case magnetic immobilised derivatives were produced using spray drying. Immobilised enzymes showed high enzyme activity retention and stability during storage without significant loss of activity. Glutaraldehyde Fe3O4-chitosan powders presented a higher lipase activity retention and storage stability than the others preparations. However, the immobilised derivatives produced by cross-linking showed higher enzyme activity after reuse cycles. The results proved that the magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan microparticles are an effective support for the enzyme immobilisation since the immobilised lipase showed best properties than the free form.
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Movements of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) across their life history.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Spatial structuring and segregation by sex and size is considered to be an intrinsic attribute of shark populations. These spatial patterns remain poorly understood, particularly for oceanic species such as blue shark (Prionace glauca), despite its importance for the management and conservation of this highly migratory species. This study presents the results of a long-term electronic tagging experiment to investigate the migratory patterns of blue shark, to elucidate how these patterns change across its life history and to assess the existence of a nursery area in the central North Atlantic. Blue sharks belonging to different life stages (n = 34) were tracked for periods up to 952 days during which they moved extensively (up to an estimated 28.139 km), occupying large parts of the oceanic basin. Notwithstanding a large individual variability, there were pronounced differences in movements and space use across the species' life history. The study provides strong evidence for the existence of a discrete central North Atlantic nursery, where juveniles can reside for up to at least 2 years. In contrast with previously described nurseries of coastal and semi-pelagic sharks, this oceanic nursery is comparatively vast and open suggesting that shelter from predators is not its main function. Subsequently, male and female blue sharks spatially segregate. Females engage in seasonal latitudinal migrations until approaching maturity, when they undergo an ontogenic habitat shift towards tropical latitudes. In contrast, juvenile males generally expanded their range southward and apparently displayed a higher degree of behavioural polymorphism. These results provide important insights into the spatial ecology of pelagic sharks, with implications for the sustainable management of this heavily exploited shark, especially in the central North Atlantic where the presence of a nursery and the seasonal overlap and alternation of different life stages coincides with a high fishing mortality.
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Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species.
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Acute muscular sarcocystosis: an international investigation among ill travelers returning from tioman island, malaysia, 2011-2012.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Through 2 international traveler-focused surveillance networks (GeoSentinel and TropNet), we identified and investigated a large outbreak of acute muscular sarcocystosis (AMS), a rarely reported zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Sarcocystis, associated with travel to Tioman Island, Malaysia, during 2011-2012.
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Advancements in waste water characterization through NMR spectroscopy: review.
Magn Reson Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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There are numerous organic pollutants that lead to several types of ecosystem damage and threaten human health. Wastewater treatment plants are responsible for the removal of natural and anthropogenic pollutants from the sewage, and because of this function, they play an important role in the protection of human health and the environment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven to be a valuable analytical tool as a result of its versatility in characterizing both overall chemical composition as well as individual species in a wide range of mixtures. In addition, NMR can provide physical information (rigidity, dynamics, etc.) as well as permit in depth quantification. Hyphenation with other techniques such as liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction and mass spectrometry creates unprecedented capabilities for the identification of novel and unknown chemical species. Thus, NMR is widely used in the study of different components of wastewater, such as complex organic matter (fulvic and humic acids), sludge and wastewater. This review article summarizes the NMR spectroscopy methods applied in studies of organic pollutants from wastewater to provide an exhaustive review of the literature as well as a guide for readers interested in this topic. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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0016?Evaluation of the Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence Symptoms in Adolescent Female Soccer Players and their Impact on Quality of Life.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To evaluate the prevalence, reliability and severity of symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) in adolescent female soccer players and the impact of those symptoms on quality of life.
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Apophyseal ring fracture associated with two levels extruded disc herniation: case report and review of the literature.
Einstein (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Apophyseal ring fractures are rare injuries that may be associated with lumbar disc herniation in young patients. We report a unique case in the literature of a 15-year-old male patient who played football and was admitted at our service complaining of sciatica radiating into the left leg. An apophysial ring injury of L5 vertebral body was observed. This injury caused two extruded disc herniation in adjacent levels. Surgical procedure was indicated after failure of conservative treatment.
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Genetic parameter estimation for pre- and post-weaning traits in Brahman cattle in Brazil.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Beef cattle producers in Brazil use body weight traits as breeding program selection criteria due to their great economic importance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate different animal models, estimate genetic parameters, and define the most fitting model for Brahman cattle body weight standardized at 120 (BW120), 210 (BW210), 365 (BW365), 450 (BW450), and 550 (BW550) days of age. To estimate genetic parameters, single-, two-, and multi-trait analyses were performed using the animal model. The likelihood ratio test was verified between all models. For BW120 and BW210, additive direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment, and residual effects were considered, while for BW365 and BW450, additive direct genetic, maternal genetic, and residual effects were considered. Finally, for BW550, additive direct genetic and residual effects were considered. Estimates of direct heritability for BW120 were similar in all analyses; however, for the other traits, multi-trait analysis resulted in higher estimates. The maternal heritability and proportion of maternal permanent environmental variance to total variance were minimal in multi-trait analyses. Genetic, environmental, and phenotypic correlations were of high magnitude between all traits. Multi-trait analyses would aid in the parameter estimation for body weight at older ages because they are usually affected by a lower number of animals with phenotypic information due to culling and mortality.
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Insecticidal activity of Leptodactylus knudseni and Phyllomedusa vaillantii crude skin secretions against the mosquitoes Anopheles darlingi and Aedes aegypti.
J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Mosquitoes are important vectors of several diseases, including malaria and dengue, and control measures are mostly performed using chemical insecticides. Unfortunately, mosquito resistance to commonly applied insecticides is widespread. Therefore, a prospection for new molecules with insecticidal activity based on Amazon biodiversity using the anurans Leptodactylus knudseni and Phyllomedusa vaillantii was performed against the mosquito species Anopheles darlingi and Aedes aegypti.
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Neuroblastoma-like schwannoma of the lower labial mucosa: a rare morphologic variant of peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Neuroblastoma-like schwannoma is a rare variant of benign nerve sheath neoplasia, which is histologically characterized by small round neoplastic Schwann cells radially arranged around collagenous cores with a configuration of rosette-like structures. We report the first documented case of neuroblastoma-like schwannoma of the oral cavity in a 26-year-old male patient who presented with swelling in the lower labial mucosa.
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Elderly victims of falls seen by prehospital care: gender differences.
Rev Bras Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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To identify elderly who are victims of falls, according to gender, who received care from prehospital services of Maringá, Paraná.
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Sarcopenia according to the european working group on sarcopenia in older people (EWGSOP) versus Dynapenia as a risk factor for disability in the elderly.
J Nutr Health Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass (LMM), and dynapenia have been associated with adverse outcomes in elderly.
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Combined effects of ultrasound and immobilization protocol on butyl acetate synthesis catalyzed by CALB.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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It is well established that the performance of lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) as catalyst for esterification reactions may be improved by the use of ultrasound technology or by its immobilization on styrene-divinylbenzene beads (MCI-CALB). The present research evaluated the synthesis of butyl acetate using MCI-CALB under ultrasonic energy, comparing the results against those obtained using the commercial preparation, Novozym 435. The optimal conditions were determined using response surface methodology (RSM) evaluating the following parameters: reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio, amount of biocatalyst, and added water. The optimal conditions for butyl acetate synthesis catalyzed by MCI-CALB were: temperature, 48.8 °C; substrate molar ratio, 3.46:1 alcohol:acid; amount of biocatalyst, 7.5%; and added water 0.28%, both as substrate mass. Under these conditions, 90% of conversion was reached in 1.5 h. In terms of operational stability, MCI-CALB was reused in seven cycles while keeping 70% of its initial activity under ultrasonic energy. The support pore size and resistance are key points for the enzyme activity and stability under mechanical stirring. The use of ultrasound improved both activity and stability because of better homogeneity and reduced mechanical stress to the immobilized system.
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Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) displays increased attractiveness to infected individuals with Plasmodium vivax gametocytes.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Most hematophagous insects use host odours as chemical cues. The odour components, some physiological parameters and host attractiveness are affected by several conditions, including infection by parasites, e.g., plasmodia and, therefore, change the epidemiological scenario. This study evaluated the attractiveness of individuals with vivax malaria before, during (7 days) and after treatment (14 days) with specific antimalarial drugs.
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Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P < 0.05). Centrifugation promoted an increase in head and tail defects, thus reducing the percentage of viable sperm (P < 0.05). No other parameter assessed for both methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.
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Antidoping control in Brazil: history, current situation, and prospects for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Brazil will soon host two major sporting events: the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Given the importance of antidoping control during these competitions, it is important that the scientific community receive a status update on antidoping control in Brazil. In this brief communication, the authors present the status of antidoping control in Brazil from an historical perspective, both the benefits and difficulties to be faced by antidoping control during these events, and the legacy resulting from the efficacy of the drug testing performed during these competitions.
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Adverse cardiovascular effects from the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids as ergogenic resources.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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This review evaluates the documented cardiovascular functioning among anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users. AAS users manifest a reduction in HDL cholesterol, increased inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. Strong evidence associating AAS use with blood pressure at hypertensive levels, as well as hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction has also been reported. Both epidemiological and autopsy studies attest the relationship between AAS use and early mortality. The review's limitations are noted.
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The brain melanocortin system, sympathetic control, and obesity hypertension.
Physiology (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Excess weight gain is the most significant, preventable cause of increased blood pressure (BP) in patients with primary (essential) hypertension and increases the risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of the brain melanocortin system in causing increased sympathetic activity in obesity and other forms of hypertension. In addition, we highlight potential mechanisms by which the brain melanocortin system modulates metabolic and cardiovascular functions.
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Acute effects of cadmium on osmoregulation of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus: Enzymes activity and plasma ions.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that is very toxic to fish. It is commonly found in surface waters contaminated with industrial effluents. When dissolved in water, Cd can rapidly cause physiological changes in the gills and kidneys of freshwater fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of Cd on the osmoregulation of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to Cd at two concentrations [1 (Cd1) and 10 (Cd10) ?gL(-1)] for 24 and 96h. The effects of Cd were evaluated through the analysis of ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-)) and plasma osmolality, and by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in osmoregulation obtained from the gills and kidney. Fish exposed to Cd for 24 and 96h showed a decrease in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the gills and kidney. The activity of carbonic anhydrase decreased in the gills after 24h and in both tissues after 96h of Cd exposure. The gill Ca(2+)-ATPase activity also decreased with Cd exposure, with a concomitant drop in the plasma concentration of Ca(2+). Despite the hypocalcemia, there were no changes in the concentration of the ions Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) or in plasma osmolality. Among the enzymes involved in ion transport, H(+)-ATPase was the only enzyme that showed increased activity in gills, whereas its activity in kidney remained unchanged. The results of this study demonstrate that waterborne Cd at the maximum concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines for freshwater affects the gills and kidney functions of P. lineatus. Acute exposure to Cd resulted in the decrease of the activity of enzymes, which culminated with the loss of the fish's ability to regulate the levels of calcium in the blood, leading to hypocalcemia.
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A Fluorescence-Based Method for Cyanate Analysis in Ethanol/Water Media: Correlation between Cyanate Presence and Ethyl Carbamate Formation in Sugar Cane Spirit.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Based on the fluorescence properties of 2,4-(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione, a product of the reaction between cyanate and 2-aminobenzoic acid, a simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible method for the cyanate analysis in aqueous ethanolic media is proposed. In this method, ?exc and ?em are 310 and 410 nm, respectively, and the limits of detection and quantification are 2.2 × 10(-7) and 6.7 × 10(-7) mol/L, respectively. Under optimal conditions (pH = 4.5, 40% ethanol), a concentration of 5.0 × 10(-6) mol/L cyanate can be determined in a single measurement, at a 95% level of confidence, with an uncertainty of ± 0.13 × 10(-6) mol/L. Cyanide, thiocyanate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions, as well as urea and urethane in concentrations 1 × 10(3) higher than that of cyanate do not interfere with the measurement. The methodology was applied to cyanate analyses in the different fractions of the sugarcane distillate and the data strongly suggest a correlation between the presence of urea in wine, and the cyanate and ethyl carbamate concentrations in the spirit.
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Association between dental caries and obesity evaluated by air displacement plethysmography in 18-year-old adolescents in Pelotas, Brazil.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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To investigate the association between dental caries and obesity, evaluated by air displacement plethysmography, among 18-year-old adolescents from a birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil.
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Microsporidiosis acquired through solid organ transplantation: a public health investigation.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidial species most commonly recognized as a cause of renal, respiratory, and central nervous system infections in immunosuppressed patients, was identified as the cause of a temporally associated cluster of febrile illness among 3 solid organ transplant recipients from a common donor.
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Ultrastructural analysis of ?-lapachone-induced surface membrane damage in male adult Schistosoma mansoni BH strain worms.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The present study provides, for the first time, conclusions on the in vitro schistosomicidal properties of ?-lap. Adult male Schistosoma mansoni worms of the BH strain were used for the study. Motility, mortality, cell viability and alterations in the tegument were employed as schistosomicidal parameters. Alterations in motility were observed 6h after incubation in concentrations of 50 and 100 ?M. ?-lap decreased significantly the worm viability, reducing the formation of formazan in 17.7%, 27.4% and 54.8% at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 ?M, respectively. Mortality in concentrations of 50 and 100 ?M was of 67% and 100%, respectively, after 24h. The death of the parasite was preceded by progressive surface membrane damage, characterized by tegument peeling, spine reduction and erosion, blister formation and rupture, and the emergence of holes. In addition to this, in the anterior portion, intense general edema, areas of cracking with a wrinkled surface, furrows and a fibrous appearance were also observed. The results of the present study thus provide a sound basis for further in-depth studies of the schistosomicidal properties of ?-lap, both in the laboratory and in the field.
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Peripheral ameloblastoma with dystrophic calcification: an unusual feature in non-calcifying odontogenic tumors.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Peripheral ameloblastoma is a rare extraosseous counterpart of central ameloblastoma that occurs in soft tissues and may cause bone crest resorption. This study reports a peripheral ameloblastoma on the buccal gingiva of a 56-year-old man, which presented extensive squamous metaplasia areas, keratinization and dystrophic calcifications in the neoplastic islands. It is emphasized the need of a detailed imaging study and a long follow-up period to exclude bone involvement whenever peripheral ameloblastoma diagnosis is considered.
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Using mitochondrial genome sequences to track the origin of imported Plasmodium vivax infections diagnosed in the United States.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Although the geographic origin of malaria cases imported into the United States can often be inferred from travel histories, these histories may be lacking or incomplete. We hypothesized that mitochondrial haplotypes could provide region-specific molecular barcodes for tracing the origin of imported Plasmodium vivax infections. An analysis of 348 mitochondrial genomes from worldwide parasites and new sequences from 69 imported malaria cases diagnosed across the United States allowed for a geographic assignment of most infections originating from the Americas, southeast Asia, east Asia, and Melanesia. However, mitochondrial lineages from Africa, south Asia, central Asia, and the Middle East, which altogether contribute the vast majority of imported malaria cases in the United States, were closely related to each other and could not be reliably assigned to their geographic origins. More mitochondrial genomes are required to characterize molecular barcodes of P. vivax from these regions.
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Oral manifestations resulting from chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Acute lymphocytic leukemia is a type of cancer most common in children and it is characterized by excessive and disordered immature leukocytes in the bone marrow.
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Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia among elderly in Brazil: findings from the SABE study.
J Nutr Health Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in older residents in São Paulo, Brazil.
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Identifying problems for choosing suitable areas for installation of a new landfill through GIS technology: a case study.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Selecting a suitable place to install a new landfill is a hard work. Bauru is a Brazilian municipality where the local landfill currently in use has a life span that is almost over, and the selection of a new area for a future landfill is crucial and urgent. Here we use a geographic information system (GIS) approach to indicate possible suitable areas for installing the landfill. The considered criteria were: river network and the respective buffer zone, relief urban areas and their respective buffer zone, existence of Areas for Environmental Protection (AEPs), occurrence of wells and their respective buffer zones, existence of airports and their buffer zones, wind direction, and the road network and its respective buffer zone. Due the facts that (1) Bauru has an urban area relatively large in relation to whole municipal area, (2) Bauru has two airports, and (3) this area encompasses parts of three AEPs, the model showed that there are few areas suitable and moderately suitable in Bauru, and the greater part of the municipality is unsuitable to install a new landfill. Due to this important finding reported here, the local policymakers should consider the suitable or even moderately suitable areas for analysis in situ or look for other creative solutions for destination of the solid waste. We highly encourage the use of GIS in studies that seek suitable areas for future landfills, having found that SIG was a tool that allowed fast and precise work and generated an outcome sufficiently clear of interpretation.
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Effect of severe neonatal seizures on prepulse inhibition and hippocampal volume of rats tested in early adulthood.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Several lines of evidence indicate that the risk of developing schizophrenia is significantly enhanced following postnatal exposure to environmental insults occurring during the critical periods of early central nervous system development. The hippocampus is a brain structure that has been associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Neonatal epileptic seizures in rat pups can affect the construction of hippocampal networks. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in an operational measure of sensorimotor gating: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is the normal reduction in the startle response caused by a low intensity non-startling stimulus (prepulse) which is presented shortly before the startle stimulus (pulse). The aim of the present study was to investigate if prolonged epileptic seizures, occurring during postnatal brain development, alter prepulse inhibition (PPI) response of acoustic startle reflex and hippocampal volume of rats tested later in life (post-pubertal phase). Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was induced in postnatal days (PNDs) 7-9 in rat pups. On PND56, the animals were tested in the acoustic startle/PPI paradigm. Hippocampal volume was measured in histological brain slices using the Cavalieri's principle. Dorsal and ventral hippocampi were measured bilaterally. Our results demonstrate that animals subjected to SE presented deficits in PPI when tested in adulthood. Dorsal hippocampal volume was reduced in rats that experienced severe neonatal seizures.
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Maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy or lactation changes the somatic and neurological development of the offspring.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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The maternal exposure to high fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and breastfeeding have been considered an important inducer of alterations in offspring normal programming, both in animals and humans, and may disturb brain development. In the present study we investigated the somatic and sensory-motor development of the offspring from rat dams fed a HFD, compared with dams fed a control diet, during pregnancy or lactation. Indicators of the body growth, physical maturation, and reflex ontogeny were evaluated. Offspring of dams fed a HFD showed reduced weight and body growth, delayed physical maturation, and delayed maturation of the physiological reflexes, such as vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, and free-fall righting. Our findings suggest that maternal HFD during pregnancy or lactation modifies somatic and neurological development of the offspring, possibly increasing the risk of neuroendocrine and neuropsychiatric disorders later in life.
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Impact of surgeons' experience on accuracy of radiographic segmental kyphosis assessment in thoracolumbar fractures: a prospective observational study.
Patient Saf Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The thoracolumbar region is where most fractures of the spine are located. Segmental kyphosis is an important factor for treatment decisions. There are various methods for measuring segmental kyphosis in thoracolumbar fractures. Our objective was to evaluate if the experience of the surgeon has any influence on kyphosis measurement by analyzing three different categories of orthopedic surgeons and evaluate possible clinical impacts.
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Biochemical and functional characterization of Parawixia bistriata spider venom with potential proteolytic and larvicidal activities.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications.
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Retinal angiography and colour Doppler of retrobulbar vessels in Takayasu arteritis.
Can. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic, granulomatous, idiopathic, inflammatory disease that primarily affects large vessels. The objective of this study was to evaluate and describe the ocular manifestations of TA, correlating the resistivity and pressure in retrobulbar vessels by colour Doppler and retinal angiography.
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Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases.
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Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE - Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ? 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke, disables elderly men more, whereas early deficits regarding balance disable women more.
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Diagnostic and classification criteria of Takayasu arteritis.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic large vessel vasculitis that affects aorta, its main branches and pulmonary arteries. The inflammatory process results in stenosis, occlusion, dilation or aneurysm formation in the arterial wall. TA has been described in different parts of the world and affects predominantly young individuals (<50 years of age). Patients with TA may present constitutional symptoms, vascular pain (e.g. carotidynia) and typical features such as limb claudication, decreased or absent peripheral pulses, vascular bruits, hypertension, and reduction or discrepancies in blood pressure between arms. A proper diagnosis of TA is an important issue since delays may result in significant morbidity. The definition of TA was included in the 1994 and 2012 Chapel Hill Consensus Conference and TA was categorized as a large vessel vasculitis. The first diagnostic criteria for TA were developed by Ishikawa in 1988 and modified by Sharma et al., in 1995. Two sets of classification criteria were developed for TA to include patients in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials: the 1990 ACR Classification Criteria for TA and the Classification Criteria for childhood TA proposed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PRES) and by the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization (PRINTO) to be used for patients younger than 18 years. The Diagnostic and Classification Criteria in Vasculitis Study (DCVAS) is an international effort that is under way to develop a single classification system and a validated set of diagnostic criteria for systemic vasculitides using data-driven methods.
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Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote(®) was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations "physical activity and homocysteine", "training and homocysteine", and/or "exercise and homocysteine". After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.
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Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials.
Science
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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We introduce the concept of metamaterial analog computing, based on suitably designed metamaterial blocks that can perform mathematical operations (such as spatial differentiation, integration, or convolution) on the profile of an impinging wave as it propagates through these blocks. Two approaches are presented to achieve such functionality: (i) subwavelength structured metascreens combined with graded-index waveguides and (ii) multilayered slabs designed to achieve a desired spatial Green's function. Both techniques offer the possibility of miniaturized, potentially integrable, wave-based computing systems that are thinner than conventional lens-based optical signal and data processors by several orders of magnitude.
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Validation of self-reported information on dental caries in a birth cohort at 18 years of age.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil.
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Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease.
Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss.
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Oxygen-limited cellobiose fermentation and the characterization of the cellobiase of an industrial Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis strain.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The discovery of a novel yeast with a natural capacity to produce ethanol from lignocellulosic substrates (second-generation ethanol) is of great significance for bioethanol technology. While there are some yeast strains capable of assimilating cellobiose in aerobic laboratory conditions, the predominant sugar in the treatment of lignocellulosic material, little is known about this ability in real industrial conditions. Fermentations designed to simulate industrial conditions were conducted in synthetic medium with glucose, sucrose, cellobiose and hydrolyzed pre-treated cane bagasse as a different carbon source, with the aim of further characterizing the fermentation capacity of a promising Dekkera bruxellensis yeast strain, isolated from the bioethanol process in Brazil. As a result, it was found (for the first time in oxygen-limiting conditions) that the strain Dekkera bruxellensis GDB 248 could produce ethanol from cellobiose. Moreover, it was corroborated that the cellobiase activity characterizes the enzyme candidate in semi-purified extracts (?-glucosidase). In addition, it was demonstrated that GDB 248 strain had the capacity to produce a higher acetic acid concentration than ethanol and glycerol, which confirms the absence of the Custer effect with this strain in oxygen-limiting conditions. Moreover, it is also being suggested that D. bruxellensis could benefit Saccharomyces cerevisiae and outcompete it in the industrial environment. In this way, it was confirmed that D. bruxellensis GDB 248 has the potential to produce ethanol from cellobiose, and is a promising strain for the fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates.
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Necropsy findings in dogs that died during grooming or other pet service procedures.
J. Forensic Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Procedures involved in grooming, bathing, and other pet services can often lead animals to death. Of the necropsies of 1391 animals carried out at a private diagnostic laboratory in Sao Paulo, Brazil from 2004 to 2009, 94 were dogs that died during the above-mentioned procedures. Young male dogs and small breeds like Poodle Miniature, Yorkshire Terrier, and Lhasa Apso were most frequently observed. Blunt-force trauma was responsible for the deaths of 31% of the animals, with a higher incidence of trauma to the head, characterized chiefly by fractures and nervous tissue lesions. In the other 69% of cases, the animals showed signs of stress, and died due to pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. As we cannot rule out the intentional character in some situations, this article provides veterinary forensic support for veterinarians and pet owners, especially in lawsuits, helping in finding the cause of animals death in such pet services.
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High throughput sequencing of the Angiostrongylus cantonensis genome: a parasite spreading worldwide.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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SUMMARY Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents and a leading aetiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Definitive diagnosis is difficult, often relying on immunodiagnostic methods which utilize crude antigens. New immunodiagnostic methods based on recombinant proteins are being developed, and ideally these methods would be made available worldwide. Identification of diagnostic targets, as well as studies on the biology of the parasite, are limited by a lack of molecular information on Angiostrongylus spp. available in databases. In this study we present data collected from DNA random high-throughput sequencing together with proteomic analyses and a cDNA walking methodology to identify and obtain the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of unknown immunoreactive proteins. 28 080 putative ORFs were obtained, of which 3371 had homology to other deposited protein sequences. Using the A. cantonensis genomic sequences, 156 putative ORFs, matching peptide sequences obtained from previous proteomic studies, were considered novel, with no homology to existing sequences. Full-length coding sequences of eight antigenic target proteins were obtained. In this study we generated not only the complete nucleotide sequences of the antigenic protein targets but also a large amount of genomic data which may help facilitate future genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic or metabolomic studies on Angiostrongylus.
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Guidelines for the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome.
Rev Bras Reumatol
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, gestational morbidity and presence of elevated and persistently positive serum titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. The treatment of APS is still controversial, because any therapeutic decision potentially faces the risk of an insufficient or excessive antithrombotic coverage associated with anticoagulation and its major adverse effects. This guideline was elaborated from nine relevant clinical questions related to the treatment of APS by the Committee of Vasculopathies of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology. Thus, this study aimed at establishing a guideline that included the most relevant and controversial questions in APS treatment, based on the best scientific evidence available. The questions were structured by use of the PICO (patient, intervention or indicator, comparison and outcome) process, enabling the generation of search strategies for evidence in the major primary scientific databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane Library, Premedline via OVID). A manual search for evidence and theses was also conducted (BDTD and IBICT). The evidence retrieved was selected based on critical assessment by using discriminatory instruments (scores) according to the category of the therapeutic question (JADAD scale for randomized clinical trials and Newcastle-Ottawa scale for non-randomized studies). After defining the potential studies to support the recommendations, they were selected according to level of evidence and grade of recommendation, according to the Oxford classification.
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Differential control of metabolic and cardiovascular functions by melanocortin-4 receptors in proopiomelanocortin neurons.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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We examined the role of melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) in proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) neurons in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular functions. Using Cre-loxP technology, we selectively rescued MC4R in Pomc neurons of mice with whole body MC4R deficiency (MC4R-Pomc-Cre mice). Body weight, food intake, and whole body oxygen consumption (Vo2) were determined daily, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and body temperature were measured 24 h/day by telemetry. An intracerebroventricular cannula was placed in the right lateral ventricle for intracerebroventricular infusions. Littermate MC4R-deficient (LoxTB-MC4R) mice were used as controls. After control measurements, the MC4R antagonist (SHU-9119; 1 nmol/h) was infused intracerebroventricularly for 7 days. Compared with LoxTB-MC4R mice, MC4R-Pomc-Cre mice were less obese (47 ± 2 vs. 52 ± 2 g) and had increased energy expenditure (2,174 ± 98 vs. 1,990 ± 68 ml·kg?¹·min?¹), but food intake (4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.3 g/day), BP (112 ± 1 vs. 109 ± 3 mmHg), and HR [557 ± 9 vs. 551 ± 14 beats per minute (bpm)] were similar between groups. Chronic SHU-9119 infusion increased food intake (4.2 ± 0.2 to 6.1 ± 0.5 g/day) and body weight (47 ± 2 to 52 ± 2 g) in MC4R-Pomc-Cre mice, while no changes were observed in LoxTB-MC4R mice. Chronic SHU-9119 infusion also increased BP and HR by 5 ± 1 mmHg and 60 ± 8 bpm in MC4R-Pomc-Cre mice without altering BP or HR in LoxTB-MC4R mice. These results indicate that MC4Rs in Pomc neurons are important for regulation of energy balance. In contrast, while activation of MC4R in Pomc neurons facilitates the BP response to acute stress, our data do not support a major role of MC4R in Pomc neurons in regulating baseline BP and HR.
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Inhibitor ?B kinase 2 is a myosin light chain kinase in vascular smooth muscle.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation determines vascular contractile status. In addition to the classic Ca²?-dependent MLC kinase (MLCK), another unidentified kinase(s) also contributes to MLC phosphorylation in living cells. Inhibitor ?B kinase 2 (IKK2)-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts demonstrate abnormal morphology and migration, suggesting that IKK2 may be involved in MLC phosphorylation.
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The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.
Osvaldo Marinotti, Gustavo C Cerqueira, Luiz Gonzaga Paula de Almeida, Maria Inês Tiraboschi Ferro, Élgion Lúcio da Silva Loreto, Arnaldo Zaha, Santuza M R Teixeira, Adam R Wespiser, Alexandre Almeida E Silva, Aline Daiane Schlindwein, Ana Carolina Landim Pacheco, Artur Luiz da Costa da Silva, Brenton R Graveley, Brian P Walenz, Bruna de Araujo Lima, Carlos Alexandre Gomes Ribeiro, Carlos Gustavo Nunes-Silva, Carlos Roberto de Carvalho, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares, Claudia Beatriz Afonso de Menezes, Cleverson Matiolli, Daniel Caffrey, Demetrius Antonio M Araújo, Diana Magalhaes de Oliveira, Douglas Golenbock, Edmundo Carlos Grisard, Fabiana Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabíola Marques de Carvalho, Fernando Gomes Barcellos, Francisco Prosdocimi, Gemma May, Gilson Martins de Azevedo Junior, Giselle Moura Guimarães, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Itácio Q M Padilha, Jacqueline da Silva Batista, Jesus Aparecido Ferro, José M C Ribeiro, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Karina Maia Dabbas, Louise Cerdeira, Lucymara Fassarella Agnez-Lima, Marcelo Brocchi, Marcos Oliveira de Carvalho, Marcus de Melo Teixeira, Maria de Mascena Diniz Maia, Maria Helena S Goldman, Maria Paula Cruz Schneider, Maria Sueli Soares Felipe, Mariangela Hungria, Marisa Fabiana Nicolás, Maristela Pereira, Martín Alejandro Montes, Mauricio E Cantão, Michel Vincentz, Míriam Silva Rafael, Neal Silverman, Patrícia Hermes Stoco, Rangel Celso Souza, Renato Vicentini, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Rogério de Oliveira Neves, Rosane Silva, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho, Talles Eduardo Ferreira Maciel, Turán P Urményi, Wanderli Pedro Tadei, Erney Plessmann Camargo, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ?100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.
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Humidity effects on the wetting characteristics of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) during a lower critical solution transition.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is expected to find utility in tissue engineering and drug delivery, among other biomedical applications. These applications capitalize on the intrinsic lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymer: below the LCST, enthalpic gain from intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PNIPAM and water molecules dominates the solvation; above the LCST, entropic effects resulting from the intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl and amide groups of PNIPAM lead to water expulsion. The dependence of the LCST upon the molecular weight, solvent, and solution activity (i.e., solute concentration) has been studied extensively. However, what has not been previously explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer. Herein, we show that the relative humidity affects the water adsorption dynamics of PNIPAM as well as the magnitude of the transition that occurs at the LCST of the polymer. In short, the magnitude of the LCST transition decreases with an increasing relative humidity, and the time period over which adsorption occurs decreases with the temperature.
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?-Lapachone: A naphthoquinone with promising antischistosomal properties in mice.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The activity of ?-lapachone (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione, ?-lap) against different stages of Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in mice. Mice infected with 50 cercariae (BH strain) were intraperitoneally treated at a dose of 50mg/kg for 5 consecutive days, starting on the 1st, 14th, 28th and 45th days after infection, to evaluate the effect of ?-lap on skin schistosomula, lung schistosomula, young worms (before oviposition) and adult worms (after oviposition), respectively. All animals were euthanized 60 days after infection. ?-Lap significantly reduced (p<0.001) the number of worms in 29.78%, 37.2%, 24.2% and 40.22% when administered during the phases of skin schistosomula, lung schistosomula, young worms and adult worms, respectively. Significant reduction was also achieved in terms of female burden. In all groups, there was significant reduction in the number of eggs and granulomas in the hepatic tissue. When the intervention was performed during the phase of adult worms, ?-lap reduced the size of hepatic granulomas and changed the oogram pattern, lowering the percentage of immature eggs and increasing the percentage of mature and dead eggs. Our data indicate that ?-lap has moderate antischistosomal properties. Its molecule may also be used as a prototype for synthesis of new naphthoquinone derivatives with potential schistosomicidal properties. Further studies with different formulations containing ?-lap are needed to clearly establish the best dose and route of administration and its mechanism of action against schistosomes.
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Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.
Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior.
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Obesity and dental caries: systematic review.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.
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Giant cell arteritis: a multicenter observational study in Brazil.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To describe demographic features, disease manifestations and therapy in patients with giant cell arteritis from referral centers in Brazil.
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Control of metabolic and cardiovascular function by the leptin-brain melanocortin pathway.
IUBMB Life
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Obesity is recognized as a major worldwide health problem. Excess weight gain is the most common cause of elevated blood pressure (BP) and markedly increases the risk of metabolic, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Although the mechanisms linking obesity with hypertension have not been fully elucidated, increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity contributes to elevated BP in obese subjects. Recent evidence indicates that leptin and the central nervous system (CNS) melanocortin system, including melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R), play a key role in linking obesity with increased SNS activity and hypertension. Leptin, a peptide-hormone produced by adipose tissue, crosses the blood-brain barrier and activates brain centers that control multiple metabolic functions as well as SNS activity and BP via the CNS melanocortin system. The crosstalk between peripheral signals (e.g., leptin) and activation of CNS pathways (e.g., MC4R) that regulate energy balance, SNS activity and BP represents an important target for treating obesity and its metabolic and cardiovascular consequences.
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Prevalence of bipolar disorder in a HIV-infected outpatient population.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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This study assesses the prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD) among 196 HIV-infected adult outpatients attending in a specialized unit in Fortaleza, Brazil. Patients were interviewed with the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a socio-demographic questionnaire based on WHOs behavioral surveillance surveys. Positive MDQ screening was found in 13.2% (N=26) and the BD diagnosis was confirmed in 8.1% (N=16) of the sample. There is an almost four times higher prevalence of BD among the HIV-infected patients of the sample (8.1%) than in the general population from the USA (2.1%). The prevalence of BD type I in the HIV patients was 5.6% (N=11) which is almost six times higher than the US general population (1%). The odds ratios of sexual behaviors and substance abuse variables correlated with BD were calculated. The variables associated with the diagnoses of BD were sex with commercial partners, sex outside the primary relationship, alcohol use disorders, and illicit drug abuse. The most common psychiatric comorbidity in the BD group was substance abuse (61.5%). A better understanding of psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of HIV-positive patients may help in improving long-term outcome of these patients.
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Role of proopiomelanocortin neuron Stat3 in regulating arterial pressure and mediating the chronic effects of leptin.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Although signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key second messenger by which leptin regulates appetite and body weight, its role in specific neuronal populations in metabolic regulation and in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on blood pressure is unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that Stat3 signaling in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons mediates the chronic effects of leptin on mean arterial pressure (MAP), as well as on glucose regulation, energy expenditure, and food intake. Stat3(flox/flox) mice were crossed with POMC-Cre mice to generate mice with Stat3 deletion specifically in POMC neurons (Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre). Oxygen consumption (Vo2), carbon dioxide respiration (Vco2), motor activity, heat production, food intake, and MAP were measured 24 hours/d. After baseline measurements, leptin was infused (4 ?g/kg per min, IP) for 7 days. Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice were hyperphagic, heavier, and had increased respiratory quotients compared with control Stat3(flox/flox) mice. Baseline MAP was not different between the groups, and chronic leptin infusion reduced food intake similarly in both groups (27 versus 29%). Vo2, Vco2, and heat production responses to leptin were not significantly different in control and Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice. However, leptin-mediated increases in MAP were completely abolished, and blood pressure responses to acute air-jet stress were attenuated in male Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice. These results indicate that Stat3 signaling in POMC neurons is essential for leptin-mediated increases in MAP, but not for anorexic or thermogenic effects of leptin.
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Oral health-related quality of life and associated factors in Southern Brazilian elderly.
Gerodontology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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The aim of the present study was to describe oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and associated factors in elderly individuals treated at Family Health Units in urban areas of the city of Pelotas, Brazil.
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Predicting outcome after cardiopulmonary arrest in therapeutic hypothermia patients: clinical, electrophysiological and imaging prognosticators.
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Predicting outcome in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest is based on data validated by guidelines that were established before the era of therapeutic hypothermia. We sought to evaluate the predictive value of clinical, electrophysiological and imaging data on patients submitted to therapeutic hypothermia.
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Inflammasome-derived IL-1? production induces nitric oxide-mediated resistance to Leishmania.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Parasites of the Leishmania genus are the causative agents of leishmaniasis in humans, a disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. These parasites replicate intracellularly in macrophages, and the primary mechanisms underlying host resistance involve the production of nitric oxide (NO). In this study we show that the Nlrp3 inflammasome is activated in response to Leishmania infection and is important for the restriction of parasite replication both in macrophages and in vivo as demonstrated through the infection of inflammasome-deficient mice with Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum chagasi. Inflammasome-driven interleukin-1? (IL-1?) production facilitated host resistance to infection, as signaling through IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) and MyD88 was necessary and sufficient to trigger inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2)-mediated production of NO. In this manuscript we identify a major signaling platform for host resistance to Leishmania spp. infection and describe the molecular mechanisms underlying Leishmania-induced NO production.
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Chronic central ghrelin infusion reduces blood pressure and heart rate despite increasing appetite and promoting weight gain in normotensive and hypertensive rats.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Acute studies showed that ghrelin acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and sympathetic activity. However, the long-term CNS cardiovascular actions of ghrelin are still unclear. We tested whether chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of ghrelin causes sustained reductions in BP, HR and whether it alters baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) and autonomic input to the heart. A cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for ICV infusions via osmotic minipump (0.5 ?l/h). BP and HR were measured 24-h/day by telemetry. After 5 days of control measurements, ghrelin (0.21 nmol/h) or saline vehicle were infused ICV for 10 days followed by a 5-day post-treatment period. Chronic ICV ghrelin infusion increased food intake (22±3 to 26±1 g/day) leading to ~50 g body weight gain. BP fell slightly during ghrelin infusion while HR decreased by ~26 bpm. In control animals BP and HR increased modestly. ICV Ghrelin infusion caused a 50% reduction in sympathetic tone to the heart but did not alter BRS. We also tested if the depressor responses to ICV ghrelin infusion were enhanced in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) due to their high basal sympathetic tone. However, we observed similar BP and HR responses compared to normotensive rats. These results indicate that ghrelin, acting via direct actions on the CNS, has a sustained effect to lower HR and a modest impact to reduce BP in normotensive and hypertensive animals despite increasing appetite and body weight.
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Effect of semisolid formulation of persea americana mill (avocado) oil on wound healing in rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a semisolid formulation of avocado oil, SSFAO 50%, or avocado oil in natura, on incisional and excisional cutaneous wound models in Wistar rats. An additional objective was to quantify the fatty acids present in avocado oil. On the 14th day, a significant increase was observed in percentage wound contraction and reepithelialization in the groups treated with 50% SSFAO or avocado oil compared to the petroleum jelly control. Anti-inflammatory activity, increase in density of collagen, and tensile strength were observed inSSFAO 50% or avocado oil groups, when compared to control groups. The analysis of the components of avocado oil by gas chromatography detected the majority presence of oleic fatty acid (47.20%), followed by palmitic (23.66%), linoleic (13.46%) docosadienoic (8.88%), palmitoleic (3.58%), linolenic (1.60%), eicosenoic (1.29%), and myristic acids (0.33%). Our results show that avocado oil is a rich source of oleic acid and contains essential fatty acids. When used in natura or in pharmaceutical formulations for topical use, avocado oil can promote increased collagen synthesis and decreased numbers of inflammatory cells during the wound-healing process and may thus be considered a new option for treating skin wounds.
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Cognitive impairment in Brazilian patients with Behçets disease occurs independently of neurologic manifestation.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Neuro-Behçets disease (NBD) presents cognitive and behavioral symptoms possibly explained by secondary dysfunction of frontal and temporal cortices due to subcortical damage, as NBD commonly involves the brainstem and basal ganglia. Nonetheless, there are reports of cognitive impairment in patients without neurological manifestations.
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Role of leptin and central nervous system melanocortins in obesity hypertension.
Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. Excess weight gain is the most significant preventable cause of increased blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension and increases the risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases. Our goal is to review the mechanisms that link obesity with hypertension, with special emphasis on the role of leptin and the brain melanocortin system in driving sympathetic activation in obesity.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.