This study investigates the effect of Fe(3+) on the electronic structure of nanocrystalline ceria. Systematic synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy was utilized. The oxygen vacancies can be engineered and their number varied with the degree of iron doping. Comparing the local electronic structure around Ce sites with that around Fe sites reveals two stages of defect engineering. The concentration of Ce(3+) and the distribution of defects differ between lower and higher degrees of doping. Charge is transferred between Ce and Fe when the doping level is less than 5%, but this effect is not significant at a doping level of over 5%. This transfer of charge is verified by energy loss spectroscopy. These Fe-modified ceria nanoparticles exhibit core-shell-like structures at low doping levels and this finding is consistent with the results of scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy. More Fe is distributed at the surface for doping levels less than 5%, whereas the homogeneity of Fe in the system increases for doping levels higher than 5%. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that Ce, rather than Fe, is responsible for the ferromagnetism. Interestingly, Ce(3+) is not essential for producing the ferromagnetism. The oxygen vacancies and the defect structure are suggested to be the main causes of the ferromagnetism. The charge transfer and defect structure Fe(3+)-Vo-Ce(3+) and Fe(3+)-Vo-Fe(3+) are critical for the magnetism, and the change in saturated magnetization can be understood as being caused by the competition between interactions that originate from magnetic polarons and from paired ions.
Dopant-induced structural differences and defects in Sm doped CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) exhibiting room temperature ferromagnetism were investigated by complementary spectroscopic analysis, including X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure analysis, Raman spectroscopy and atomically resolved Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (STEM-EELS). The CeO2 NPs were prepared by precipitation methods with Sm/Ce ratios ranging from 0 to 0.17 and with typical sizes from 2 to 4 nanometers. These results demonstrated that the nature and the distributions of defects strongly depend on the concentrations of the dopants. Two regimes in the formation of these (Ce1-x, Smx)O2-? NPs were observed. At lower dopant levels (x < 7%), Sm(3+) atoms mainly replace the Ce atoms in the (Ce(3+)-O(2-) vacancy) complexes which are present in ceria NPs. The dopants are unambiguously observed and localized as diluted by real space STEM-EELS spectromicroscopy done with atomic sensitivity. Nevertheless, this substitution induces a strong structural rearrangement and some Sm dopants are also observed as interstitials in association with Ce vacancies. At higher doping concentrations (x > 7%), a Sm rich phase in association with a high amount of oxygen vacancies is observed at the surface of the particles. It results in the formation of core-shell type nanoparticles with crystallographic continuities where a Sm doped CeO2-? core is surrounded by a layer of typical (Ce0.7, Sm0.3)2O3 composition.
Based on nickel hexacyanidochromate and cobalt hexacyanidoferrate Prussian blue analogues, two series of photomagnetic/ferromagnetic sub-50 nm core multishell coordination nanoparticles have been synthesized in a surfactant-free one-pot multistep procedure with good control over the dispersity (10% standard deviation) and good agreement with the targeted size at each step. The composition and the valence state of each shell have been probed by different techniques that have revealed the predominance of Co(II)-NC-Fe(III) pairs in a series synthesized without alkali while Co(III)-NC-Fe(II) photoswitchable pairs have been successfully obtained in the photoactive coordination nanoparticles by control of Cs(+) insertion. When compared, the photoinduced behavior of the latter compound is in good agreement with that of the model one. Exchange coupling favors a uniform reversal of the magnetization of the heterostructured nanoparticles, with a large magnetization brought by a soft ferromagnetic shell and a large coercivity due to a harder photomagnetic shell. Moreover, a persistent increase of the photoinduced magnetization is observed for the first time up to the ordering temperature (60 K) of the ferromagnetic component because of a unique synergy.
This study reports on the electronic structure of Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs), determined by coupled X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy. A comparison of the local electronic structure around the Ce site with that around the Fe site indicates that the Fe substitutes for the Ce. The oxygen K-edge spectra that originated from the hybridization between cerium 4f and oxygen 2p states are sensitive to the oxidation state and depend strongly on the concentration of Fe doping. The Ce M(4,5)-edges and the Fe L(2,3)-edges reveal the variations of the charge states of Ce and Fe upon doping, respectively. The band gap is further obtained from the combined absorption-emission spectrum and decreased upon Fe doping, implying Fe doping introduces vacancies. The oxygen vacancies are induced by Fe doping and the spectrum reveals the charge transfer between Fe and Ce. Fe(3+) doping has two major effects on the formation of ferromagnetism in CeO2 nanoparticles. The first, at an Fe content of below 5%, is that the formation of Fe(3+)-Vo-Ce(3+) introduces oxygen deficiencies favoring ferromagnetism. The other, at an Fe content of over 5%, is the formation of Fe(3+)-Vo-Fe(3+), which favors antiferromagnetism, reducing the Ms. The defect structures Fe(3+)-Vo-Ce(3+) and Fe(3+)-Vo-Fe(3+) are crucial to the magnetism in these NPs and the change in Ms can be described as the effect of competitive interactions of magnetic polarons and paired ions.
The electric field control of functional properties is an important goal in oxide-based electronics. To endow devices with memory, ferroelectric gating is interesting, but usually weak compared to volatile electrolyte gating. Here, we report a very large ferroelectric field-effect in perovskite heterostructures combining the Mott insulator CaMnO3 and the ferroelectric BiFeO3 in its "supertetragonal" phase. Upon polarization reversal of the BiFeO3 gate, the CaMnO3 channel resistance shows a fourfold variation around room temperature, and a tenfold change at ~200 K. This is accompanied by a carrier density modulation exceeding one order of magnitude. We have analyzed the results for various CaMnO3 thicknesses and explain them by the electrostatic doping of the CaMnO3 layer and the presence of a fixed dipole at the CaMnO3/BiFeO3 interface. Our results suggest the relevance of ferroelectric gates to control orbital- or spin-ordered phases, ubiquitous in Mott systems, and pave the way toward efficient Mott-tronics devices.
Ferroelectric tunnel junctions enable a nondestructive readout of the ferroelectric state via a change of resistance induced by switching the ferroelectric polarization. We fabricated submicrometer solid-state ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on a recently discovered polymorph of BiFeO3 with giant axial ratio ("T-phase"). Applying voltage pulses to the junctions leads to the highest resistance changes (OFF/ON ratio >10,000) ever reported with ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Along with the good retention properties, this giant effect reinforces the interest in nonvolatile memories based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions. We also show that the changes in resistance scale with the nucleation and growth of ferroelectric domains in the ultrathin BiFeO3 (imaged by piezoresponse force microscopy), thereby suggesting potential as multilevel memory cells and memristors.
New, ultrasmall nanoparticles with sizes below 5?nm have been obtained. These small rigid platforms (SRP) are composed of a polysiloxane matrix with DOTAGA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1-glutaric anhydride-4,7,10-triacetic acid)-Gd(3+) chelates on their surface. They have been synthesised by an original top-down process: 1)?formation of a gadolinium oxide Gd2O3 core, 2)?encapsulation in a polysiloxane shell grafted with DOTAGA ligands, 3)?dissolution of the gadolinium oxide core due to chelation of Gd(3+) by DOTAGA ligands and 4)?polysiloxane fragmentation. These nanoparticles have been fully characterised using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to demonstrate the dissolution of the oxide core and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mass spectrometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, (29)Si solid-state NMR, (1)H?NMR and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) to determine the nanoparticle composition. Relaxivity measurements gave a longitudinal relaxivity r1 of 11.9?s(-1) ?mM(-1) per Gd at 60?MHz. Finally, potentiometric titrations showed that Gd(3+) is strongly chelated to DOTAGA (complexation constant log?110 =24.78) and cellular tests confirmed the that nanoconstructs had a very low toxicity. Moreover, SRPs are excreted from the body by renal clearance. Their efficiency as contrast agents for MRI has been proved and they are promising candidates as sensitising agents for image-guided radiotherapy.
Artificial multiferroic tunnel junctions combining a ferroelectric tunnel barrier of BaTiO(3) with magnetic electrodes display a tunnel magnetoresistance whose intensity can be controlled by the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect, called tunnel electromagnetoresistance (TEMR), and the corollary magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms at the BaTiO(3)/Fe interface were recently reported through macroscopic techniques. Here, we use advanced spectromicroscopy techniques by means of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to probe locally the nanoscale structural and electronic modifications at the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface. Atomically resolved real-space spectroscopic techniques reveal the presence of a single FeO layer between BaTiO(3) and Fe. Based on this accurate description of the studied interface, we propose an atomistic model of the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface further validated by comparing experimental and simulated STEM images with atomic resolution. Density functional theory calculations allow us to interpret the electronic and magnetic properties of these interfaces and to understand better their key role in the physics of multiferroics nanostructures.
Anisotropic nanoparticles of the Fe(pyrazine)Pt(CN)(4) network were prepared embedded in various matrices that revealed to have a dramatic effect on the cooperative spin crossover phenomena. By a judicious choice of the nature of the matrix and the control of interparticle distances, a hysteresis of 15 K was achieved close to room temperature for such nano-objects.
Nanolithography techniques in a scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam are very attractive tools for a number of synthetic processes, including the fabrication of ferromagnetic nano-objects, with potential applications in magnetic storage or magnetic sensing. One of the most versatile techniques is the focused electron beam induced deposition, an efficient method for the production of magnetic structures highly resolved at the nanometric scale. In this work, this method has been applied to the controlled growth of magnetic nanostructures using Co2(CO)8. The chemical and structural properties of these deposits have been studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy at the nanometric scale. The obtained results allow us to correlate the chemical and structural properties with the functionality of these magnetic nanostructures.
The global geochemical carbon cycle involves exchanges between the Earths interior and the surface. Carbon is recycled into the mantle via subduction mainly as carbonates and is released to the atmosphere via volcanism mostly as CO(2). The stability of carbonates versus decarbonation and melting is therefore of great interest for understanding the global carbon cycle. For all these reasons, the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of these minerals are needed up to core mantle boundary conditions. However, the nature of C-bearing minerals at these conditions remains unclear. Here we show the existence of a new Mg-Fe carbon-bearing compound at depths greater than 1,800 km. Its structure, based on three-membered rings of corner-sharing (CO(4))(4-) tetrahedra, is in close agreement with predictions by first principles quantum calculations [Oganov AR, et al. (2008) Novel high-pressure structures of MgCO(3), CaCO(3) and CO(2) and their role in Earths lower mantle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 273:38-47]. This high-pressure polymorph of carbonates concentrates a large amount of Fe((III)) as a result of intracrystalline reaction between Fe((II)) and (CO(3))(2-) groups schematically written as 4FeO + CO(2) ? 2Fe(2)O(3) + C. This results in an assemblage of the new high-pressure phase, magnetite and nanodiamonds.
Anisotropic coordination nanoparticles of the photomagnetic network Cs(I)(2)Cu(II)(7)[Mo(IV)(CN)(8)](4) are obtained through a surfactant-free high-yield synthetic procedure in water. These particles are organised as Langmuir-Blodgett films with a preferential orientation of the nano-objects within the film that exhibit a magnetic bistability below 20 K with a very large coercivity due to an efficient photo-transformation.
Negatively charged nanocrystals of the magnetic coordination network CsNiCr(CN)(6) were prepared in water through a seed-mediated growth with a few atomic layers accuracy and final sizes tailored from 6 to 30 nm. A lower limit of the magnetic single-domain critical size was determined to be around 15 nm possessing a blocking temperature above 20 K.
The development of hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles is of interest for applications such as drug delivery, DNA and protein recognition, and medical diagnostics. However, the characterization of such nanoparticles remains a significant challenge due to the heterogeneous nature of these particles. Here, we report the direct visualization and quantification of the organic and inorganic components of a lipid-coated silica particle that contains a smaller semiconductor quantum dot. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy was used to determine the thickness and chemical signature of molecular coating layers, the element atomic ratios, and the exact positions of different elements in single nanoparticles. Moreover, the lipid ratio and lipid phase segregation were also quantified.
Recently, the organisation of magnetic molecules on carbon nanotubes has raised much interest due to their possible interesting contribution to molecular spintronics. In this paper, we describe the assembly on SWNTs of a magnetic polyoxometalate encompassing a single cobalt ion (CoPOM) and its isostructural diamagnetic zinc analogue (ZnPOM). The simple magnetic behaviour of CoPOM and the availability of its diamagnetic counterpart render these POM@NTs systems interesting model compounds for the study of molecular electronics devices based on carbon nanotubes and magnetic molecules. The success and rate of the grafting have been investigated by electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, Raman scattering and magnetisation measurements. These characterisations altogether demonstrate the preservation of the structural and magnetic properties of the molecules upon functionalisation and the existence of an electronic communication between the molecules and the nanotubes.
Here, we demonstrate that non-dipole allowed d-d excitations in NiO can be measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in transmission electron microscopes (TEM). Strong excitations from (3)A(2g) ground states to (3)T(1g) excited states are measured at 1.7 and 3 eV when transferred momentum are beyond 1.5 A(-1). We show that these d-d excitations can be collected with a nanometrical resolution in a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) by setting a good compromise between the convergence angle of the electron probe and the collected transferred momentum. This work opens new possibilities for the study of strongly correlated materials on a nanoscale.
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