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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
ALOX12 in human toxoplasmosis.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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ALOX12 is a gene encoding arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a member of a nonheme lipoxygenase family of dioxygenases. ALOX12 catalyzes the addition of oxygen to arachidonic acid, producing 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which can be reduced to the eicosanoid 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 12-HETE acts in diverse cellular processes, including catecholamine synthesis, vasoconstriction, neuronal function, and inflammation. Consistent with effects on these fundamental mechanisms, allelic variants of ALOX12 are associated with diseases including schizophrenia, atherosclerosis, and cancers, but the mechanisms have not been defined. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes morbidity and mortality and stimulates an innate and adaptive immune inflammatory reaction. Recently, it has been shown that a gene region known as Toxo1 is critical for susceptibility or resistance to T. gondii infection in rats. An orthologous gene region with ALOX12 centromeric is also present in humans. Here we report that the human ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis (rs6502997 [P, <0.000309], rs312462 [P, <0.028499], rs6502998 [P, <0.029794], and rs434473 [P, <0.038516]). A human monocytic cell line was genetically engineered using lentivirus RNA interference to knock down ALOX12. In ALOX12 knockdown cells, ALOX12 RNA expression decreased and levels of the ALOX12 substrate, arachidonic acid, increased. ALOX12 knockdown attenuated the progression of T. gondii infection and resulted in greater parasite burdens but decreased consequent late cell death of the human monocytic cell line. These findings suggest that ALOX12 influences host responses to T. gondii infection in human cells. ALOX12 has been shown in other studies to be important in numerous diseases. Here we demonstrate the critical role ALOX12 plays in T. gondii infection in humans.
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Genomic analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas identifies three molecular subgroups and recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal brain cancer that arises in the brainstem of children, with no effective treatment and near 100% fatality. The failure of most therapies can be attributed to the delicate location of these tumors and to the selection of therapies on the basis of assumptions that DIPGs are molecularly similar to adult disease. Recent studies have unraveled the unique genetic makeup of this brain cancer, with nearly 80% found to harbor a p.Lys27Met histone H3.3 or p.Lys27Met histone H3.1 alteration. However, DIPGs are still thought of as one disease, with limited understanding of the genetic drivers of these tumors. To understand what drives DIPGs, we integrated whole-genome sequencing with methylation, expression and copy number profiling, discovering that DIPGs comprise three molecularly distinct subgroups (H3-K27M, silent and MYCN) and uncovering a new recurrent activating mutation affecting the activin receptor gene ACVR1 in 20% of DIPGs. Mutations in ACVR1 were constitutively activating, leading to SMAD phosphorylation and increased expression of the downstream activin signaling targets ID1 and ID2. Our results highlight distinct molecular subgroups and novel therapeutic targets for this incurable pediatric cancer.
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Disruption of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific genes impairs in vivo fitness.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate intracellular pathogen that infects many ruminant species. The acquisition of foreign genes via horizontal gene transfer has been postulated to contribute to its pathogenesis, as these genetic elements are absent from its putative ancestor, M. avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH), an environmental organism with lesser pathogenicity. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of MAP transposon libraries were analyzed to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contribution of individual genes to bacterial survival during infection.
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Variation at the DPP4 locus influences apolipoprotein B levels in South Asians and exhibits heterogeneity in Europeans related to BMI.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Dyslipidaemia, a common feature of type 2 diabetes, is characterised by an increase in atherogenic particles, quantifiable through apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels. Genetic studies of lipid levels have focused on Europeans; a study in South Asians could identify novel genes.
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Somatic point mutations occurring early in development: a monozygotic twin study.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The identification of somatic driver mutations in cancer has enabled therapeutic advances by identifying drug targets critical to disease causation. However, such genomic discoveries in oncology have not translated into advances for non-cancerous disease since point mutations in a single cell would be unlikely to cause non-malignant disease. An exception to this would occur if the mutation happened early enough in development to be present in a large percentage of a tissues cellular population. We sought to identify the existence of somatic mutations occurring early in human development by ascertaining base-pair mutations present in one of a pair of monozygotic twins, but absent from the other and assessing evidence for mosaicism. To do so, we genome-wide genotyped 66 apparently healthy monozygotic adult twins at 506 786 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in white blood cells. Discrepant SNPs were verified by Sanger sequencing and a selected subset was tested for mosaicism by targeted high-depth next-generation sequencing (20 000-fold coverage) as a surrogate marker of timing of the mutation. Two de novo somatic mutations were unequivocally confirmed to be present in white blood cells, resulting in a frequency of 1.2×10(-7) mutations per nucleotide. There was little evidence of mosaicism on high-depth next-generation sequencing, suggesting that these mutations occurred early in embryonic development. These findings provide direct evidence that early somatic point mutations do occur and can lead to differences in genomes between otherwise identical twins, suggesting a considerable burden of somatic mutations among the trillions of mitoses that occur over the human lifespan. Keywords: somatic mutation; monozygotic twins; genome-wide genotyping; next-generation sequencing; genetic discordance.
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Control of spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model using central nervous system-excluded CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The purpose of this study was the generation of central nervous system (CNS)-excluded cannabinoid receptor agonists to test the hypothesis that inhibition of spasticity, due to CNS autoimmunity, could be controlled by affecting neurotransmission within the periphery. Procedures included identification of chemicals and modeling to predict the mode of exclusion; induction and control of spasticity in the ABH mouse model of multiple sclerosis; conditional deletion of CB1 receptor in peripheral nerves; side-effect profiling to demonstrate the mechanism of CNS-exclusion via drug pumps; genome-wide association study in N2(129×ABH) backcross to map polymorphic cannabinoid drug pump; and sequencing and detection of cannabinoid drug-pump activity in human brain endothelial cell lines. Three drugs (CT3, SAB378 and SAD448) were identified that control spasticity via action on the peripheral nerve CB1 receptor. These were peripherally restricted via drug pumps that limit the CNS side effects (hypothermia) of cannabinoids to increase the therapeutic window. A cannabinoid drug pump is polymorphic and functionally lacking in many laboratory (C57BL/6, 129, CD-1) mice used for transgenesis, pharmacology, and toxicology studies. This phenotype was mapped and controlled by 1-3 genetic loci. ABCC1 within a cluster showing linkage is a cannabinoid CNS-drug pump. Global and conditional CB1 receptor-knockout mice were used as controls. In summary, CNS-excluded CB1 receptor agonists are a novel class of therapeutic agent for spasticity.-Pryce, G., Visintin, C., Ramagopalan, S. V., Al-Izki, S., De Faveri, L. E., Nuamah, R. A., Mein, C. A., Montpetit, A., Hardcastle, A. J., Kooij, G., de Vries, H. E., Amor, S., Thomas, S. A., Ledent, C., Marsicano, G., Lutz, B., Thompson, A. J., Selwood, D. L., Giovannoni, G., Baker, D. Control of spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model using central nervous system-excluded CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists.
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Fusion of TTYH1 with the C19MC microRNA cluster drives expression of a brain-specific DNMT3B isoform in the embryonal brain tumor ETMR.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) are rare, deadly pediatric brain tumors characterized by high-level amplification of the microRNA cluster C19MC. We performed integrated genetic and epigenetic analyses of 12 ETMR samples and identified, in all cases, C19MC fusions to TTYH1 driving expression of the microRNAs. ETMR tumors, cell lines and xenografts showed a specific DNA methylation pattern distinct from those of other tumors and normal tissues. We detected extreme overexpression of a previously uncharacterized isoform of DNMT3B originating at an alternative promoter that is active only in the first weeks of neural tube development. Transcriptional and immunohistochemical analyses suggest that C19MC-dependent DNMT3B deregulation is mediated by RBL2, a known repressor of DNMT3B. Transfection with individual C19MC microRNAs resulted in DNMT3B upregulation and RBL2 downregulation in cultured cells. Our data suggest a potential oncogenic re-engagement of an early developmental program in ETMR via epigenetic alteration mediated by an embryonic, brain-specific DNMT3B isoform.
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Genetic information and the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes in a high-risk multiethnic population: the EpiDREAM genetic study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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To determine if 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Europeans are also associated with T2DM in South Asians and Latinos and if they can add to the prediction of incident T2DM in a high-risk population.
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Buccals are likely to be a more informative surrogate tissue than blood for epigenome-wide association studies.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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There is increasing evidence that interindividual epigenetic variation is an etiological factor in common human diseases. Such epigenetic variation could be genetic or non-genetic in origin, and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) are underway for a wide variety of diseases/phenotypes. However, performing an EWAS is associated with a range of issues not typically encountered in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), such as the tissue to be analyzed. In many EWASs, it is not possible to analyze the target tissue in large numbers of live humans, and consequently surrogate tissues are employed, most commonly blood. But there is as yet no evidence demonstrating that blood is more informative than buccal cells, the other easily accessible tissue. To assess the potential of buccal cells for use in EWASs, we performed a comprehensive analysis of a buccal cell methylome using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Strikingly, a buccal vs. blood comparison reveals > 6X as many hypomethylated regions in buccal. These tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) are strongly enriched for DNaseI hotspots. Almost 75% of these tDMRs are not captured by commonly used DNA methylome profiling platforms such as Reduced Representational Bisulfite Sequencing and the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and they also display distinct genomic properties. Buccal hypo-tDMRs show a statistically significant enrichment near SNPs associated to disease identified through GWASs. Finally, we find that, compared with blood, buccal hypo-tDMRs show significantly greater overlap with hypomethylated regions in other tissues. We propose that for non-blood based diseases/phenotypes, buccal will be a more informative tissue for EWASs.
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MEDNIK syndrome: a novel defect of copper metabolism treatable by zinc acetate therapy.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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MEDNIK syndrome-acronym for mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, neuropathy, ichthyosis, keratodermia-is caused by AP1S1 gene mutations, encoding ?1A, the small subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, which plays a crucial role in clathrin coat assembly and mediates trafficking between trans-Golgi network, endosomes and the plasma membrane. MEDNIK syndrome was first reported in a few French-Canadian families sharing common ancestors, presenting a complex neurocutaneous phenotype, but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. A Sephardic-Jewish patient, carrying a new AP1S1 homozygous mutation, showed severe perturbations of copper metabolism with hypocupremia, hypoceruloplasminemia and liver copper accumulation, along with intrahepatic cholestasis. Zinc acetate treatment strikingly improved clinical conditions, as well as liver copper and bile-acid overload. We evaluated copper-related metabolites and liver function retrospectively in the original French-Canadian patient series. Intracellular copper metabolism and subcellular localization and function of copper pump ATP7A were investigated in patient fibroblasts. Copper metabolism perturbation and hepatopathy were confirmed in all patients. Studies in mutant fibroblasts showed abnormal copper incorporation and retention, reduced expression of copper-dependent enzymes cytochrome-c-oxidase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and aberrant intracellular trafficking of Menkes protein ATP7A, which normalized after rescue experiments expressing wild-type AP1S1 gene. We solved the pathogenetic mechanism of MEDNIK syndrome, demonstrating that AP1S1 regulates intracellular copper machinery mediated by copper-pump proteins. This multisystem disease is characterized by a unique picture, combining clinical and biochemical signs of both Menkes and Wilsons diseases, in which liver copper overload is treatable by zinc acetate therapy, and can now be listed as a copper metabolism defect in humans. Our results may also contribute to understand the mechanism(s) of intracellular trafficking of copper pumps.
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Mutations in SETD2 and genes affecting histone H3K36 methylation target hemispheric high-grade gliomas.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Recurrent mutations affecting the histone H3.3 residues Lys27 or indirectly Lys36 are frequent drivers of pediatric high-grade gliomas (over 30% of HGGs). To identify additional driver mutations in HGGs, we investigated a cohort of 60 pediatric HGGs using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and compared them to 543 exomes from non-cancer control samples. We identified mutations in SETD2, a H3K36 trimethyltransferase, in 15% of pediatric HGGs, a result that was genome-wide significant (FDR = 0.029). Most SETD2 alterations were truncating mutations. Sequencing the gene in this cohort and another validation cohort (123 gliomas from all ages and grades) showed SETD2 mutations to be specific to high-grade tumors affecting 15% of pediatric HGGs (11/73) and 8% of adult HGGs (5/65) while no SETD2 mutations were identified in low-grade diffuse gliomas (0/45). Furthermore, SETD2 mutations were mutually exclusive with H3F3A mutations in HGGs (P = 0.0492) while they partly overlapped with IDH1 mutations (4/14), and SETD2-mutant tumors were found exclusively in the cerebral hemispheres (P = 0.0055). SETD2 is the only H3K36 trimethyltransferase in humans, and SETD2-mutant tumors showed a substantial decrease in H3K36me3 levels (P < 0.001), indicating that the mutations are loss-of-function. These data suggest that loss-of-function SETD2 mutations occur in older children and young adults and are specific to HGG of the cerebral cortex, similar to the H3.3 G34R/V and IDH mutations. Taken together, our results suggest that mutations disrupting the histone code at H3K36, including H3.3 G34R/V, IDH1 and/or SETD2 mutations, are central to the genesis of hemispheric HGGs in older children and young adults.
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Rare variants in the CYP27B1 gene are associated with multiple sclerosis.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease. Genetic linkage analysis and genotyping of candidate genes in families with 4 or more affected individuals more heavily loaded for susceptibility genes has not fully explained familial disease clustering.
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Endonucleases: tools to correct the dystrophin gene.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Various endonucleases can be engineered to induce double-strand breaks (DSBs) in chosen DNA sequences. These DSBs are spontaneously repaired by nonhomologous-end-joining, resulting in micro-insertions or micro-deletions (INDELs). We detected, characterized and quantified the frequency of INDELs produced by one meganuclease (MGN) targeting the RAG1 gene, six MGNs targeting three introns of the human dystrophin gene and one pair of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting exon 50 of the human dystrophin gene. The experiments were performed in human cells (i.e. 293?T cells, myoblasts and myotubes).
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What can exome sequencing do for you?
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have brought a paradigm shift in how medical researchers investigate both rare and common human disorders. The ability cost-effectively to generate genome-wide sequencing data with deep coverage in a short time frame is replacing approaches that focus on specific regions for gene discovery and clinical testing. While whole genome sequencing remains prohibitively expensive for most applications, exome sequencing--a technique which focuses on only the protein-coding portion of the genome--places many advantages of the emerging technologies into researchers hands. Recent successes using this technology have uncovered genetic defects with a limited number of probands regardless of shared genetic heritage, and are changing our approach to Mendelian disorders where soon all causative variants, genes and their relation to phenotype will be uncovered. The expectation is that, in the very near future, this technology will enable us to identify all the variants in an individuals personal genome and, in particular, clinically relevant alleles. Beyond this, whole genome sequencing is also expected to bring a major shift in clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and understanding of diseases, ultimately enabling personalised medicine based on ones genome. This paper provides an overview of the current and future use of next generation sequencing as it relates to whole exome sequencing in human disease by focusing on the technical capabilities, limitations and ethical issues associated with this technology in the field of genetics and human disease.
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Comparison of genome-wide array genomic hybridization platforms for the detection of copy number variants in idiopathic mental retardation.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Clinical laboratories are adopting array genomic hybridization as a standard clinical test. A number of whole genome array genomic hybridization platforms are available, but little is known about their comparative performance in a clinical context.
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Genome-wide assessment of imprinted expression in human cells.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Parent-of-origin-dependent expression of alleles, imprinting, has been suggested to impact a substantial proportion of mammalian genes. Its discovery requires allele-specific detection of expressed transcripts, but in some cases detected allelic expression bias has been interpreted as imprinting without demonstrating compatible transmission patterns and excluding heritable variation. Therefore, we utilized a genome-wide tool exploiting high density genotyping arrays in parallel measurements of genotypes in RNA and DNA to determine allelic expression across the transcriptome in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and skin fibroblasts derived from families.
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Familial ventricular aneurysms and septal defects map to chromosome 10p15.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2010
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Although ventricular septal defects (VSD) are the most common congenital heart lesion, familial clustering has been described only in rare instances. The aim of this study was to identify genetic factors and chromosomal regions contributing to VSD.
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NALP1 influences susceptibility to human congenital toxoplasmosis, proinflammatory cytokine response, and fate of Toxoplasma gondii-infected monocytic cells.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2010
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NALP1 is a member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family of proteins that form inflammasomes. Upon cellular infection or stress, inflammasomes are activated, triggering maturation of proinflammatory cytokines and downstream cellular signaling mediated through the MyD88 adaptor. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that stimulates production of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines that are important in innate immunity. In this study, susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis were identified in the NALP1 gene. To investigate the role of the NALP1 inflammasome during infection with T. gondii, we genetically engineered a human monocytic cell line for NALP1 gene knockdown by RNA interference. NALP1 silencing attenuated progression of T. gondii infection, with accelerated host cell death and eventual cell disintegration. In line with this observation, upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-18, and IL-12 upon T. gondii infection was not observed in monocytic cells with NALP1 knockdown. These findings suggest that the NALP1 inflammasome is critical for mediating innate immune responses to T. gondii infection and pathogenesis. Although there have been recent advances in understanding the potent activity of inflammasomes in directing innate immune responses to disease, this is the first report, to our knowledge, on the crucial role of the NALP1 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of T. gondii infections in humans.
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Fine mapping of the insulin-induced gene 2 identifies a variant associated with LDL cholesterol and total apolipoprotein B levels.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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In a whole-genome scan, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs7566605) upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) was shown to influence body mass index and obesity in the Framingham Heart Study, with replication of these results in an additional 4 of 5 studies. However, other studies could not replicate the association. Because INSIG2 plays an important role in cholesterol biosynthesis, we hypothesized that human INSIG2 variants might play a role in the regulation of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels.
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Meta-analysis of Dense Genecentric Association Studies Reveals Common and Uncommon Variants Associated with Height.
Matthew B Lanktree, Yiran Guo, Muhammed Murtaza, Joseph T Glessner, Swneke D Bailey, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Guillaume Lettre, Halit Ongen, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Toby Johnson, Haiqing Shen, Christopher P Nelson, Norman Klopp, Jens Baumert, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Nathan Pankratz, James S Pankow, Sonia Shah, Kira Taylor, John Barnard, Bas J Peters, Cliona M Maloney, Maximilian T Lobmeyer, Alice Stanton, M Hadi Zafarmand, Simon P R Romaine, Amar Mehta, Erik P A van Iperen, Yan Gong, Tom S Price, Erin N Smith, Cecilia E Kim, Yun R Li, Folkert W Asselbergs, Larry D Atwood, Kristian M Bailey, Deepak Bhatt, Florianne Bauer, Elijah R Behr, Tushar Bhangale, Jolanda M A Boer, Bernhard O Boehm, Jonathan P Bradfield, Morris Brown, Peter S Braund, Paul R Burton, Cara Carty, Hareesh R Chandrupatla, Wei Chen, John Connell, Chrysoula Dalgeorgou, Anthonius de Boer, Fotios Drenos, Clara C Elbers, James C Fang, Caroline S Fox, Edward C Frackelton, Barry Fuchs, Clement E Furlong, Quince Gibson, Christian Gieger, Anuj Goel, Diederik E Grobbee, Claire Hastie, Philip J Howard, Guan-Hua Huang, W Craig Johnson, Qing Li, Marcus E Kleber, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Charles Kooperberg, Bonnie Ky, Andrea LaCroix, Paul Lanken, Mark Lathrop, Mingyao Li, Vanessa Marshall, Olle Melander, Frank D Mentch, Nuala J Meyer, Keri L Monda, Alexandre Montpetit, Gurunathan Murugesan, Karen Nakayama, Dave Nondahl, Abiodun Onipinla, Suzanne Rafelt, Stephen J Newhouse, F George Otieno, Sanjey R Patel, Mary E Putt, Santiago Rodriguez, Radwan N Safa, Douglas B Sawyer, Pamela J Schreiner, Claire Simpson, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Christine Suver, Gary Swergold, Nancy K Sweitzer, Kelly A Thomas, Barbara Thorand, Nicholas J Timpson, Sam Tischfield, Martin Tobin, Maciej Tomaszewski, Maciej Tomaszweski, W M Monique Verschuren, Chris Wallace, Bernhard Winkelmann, Haitao Zhang, Dongling Zheng, Li Zhang, Joseph M Zmuda, Robert Clarke, Anthony J Balmforth, John Danesh, Ian N Day, Nicholas J Schork, Paul I W de Bakker, Christian Delles, David Duggan, Aroon D Hingorani, Joel N Hirschhorn, Marten H Hofker, Steve E Humphries, Mika Kivimäki, Debbie A Lawlor, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Jessica L Mega, Braxton D Mitchell, David A Morrow, Jutta Palmen, Susan Redline, Denis C Shields, Alan R Shuldiner, Patrick M Sleiman, George Davey Smith, Martin Farrall, Yalda Jamshidi, David C Christiani, Juan P Casas, Alistair S Hall, Pieter A Doevendans, Jason D Christie, Gerald S Berenson, Sarah S Murray, Thomas Illig, Gerald W Dorn, Thomas P Cappola, Eric Boerwinkle, Peter Sever, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Mark Caulfield, Philippa J Talmud, Eric Topol, James C Engert, Kai Wang, Anna Dominiczak, Anders Hamsten, Sean P Curtis, Roy L Silverstein, Leslie A Lange, Marc S Sabatine, Mieke Trip, Danish Saleheen, John F Peden, Karen J Cruickshanks, Winfried März, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Olaf H Klungel, Cisca Wijmenga, Anke Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Eric E Schadt, Julie A Johnson, Gail P Jarvik, George J Papanicolaou, , Struan F A Grant, Patricia B Munroe, Kari E North, Nilesh J Samani, Wolfgang Koenig, Tom R Gaunt, Sonia S Anand, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Nicole Soranzo, Garret A FitzGerald, Alex Reiner, Robert A Hegele, Hakon Hakonarson, Brendan J Keating.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and uncommon SNPs with adult height in 114,223 individuals from 47 studies and six ethnicities. A total of 64 loci contained a SNP associated with height at array-wide significance (p < 2.4 × 10(-6)), with 42 loci surpassing the conventional genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 × 10(-8)). Common variants with minor allele frequencies greater than 5% were observed to be associated with height in 37 previously reported loci. In individuals of European ancestry, uncommon SNPs in IL11 and SMAD3, which would not be genotyped with the use of standard genome-wide genotyping arrays, were strongly associated with height (p < 3 × 10(-11)). Conditional analysis within associated regions revealed five additional variants associated with height independent of lead SNPs within the locus, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. Although underpowered to replicate findings from individuals of European ancestry, the direction of effect of associated variants was largely consistent in African American, South Asian, and Hispanic populations. Overall, we show that dense coverage of genes for uncommon SNPs, coupled with large-scale meta-analysis, can successfully identify additional variants associated with a common complex trait.
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Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes. Their use has been associated with peripheral edema and congestive heart failure-outcomes that may have a genetic etiology.
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A human ALDH1A2 gene variant is associated with increased newborn kidney size and serum retinoic acid.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Nephron number varies widely between 0.3 and 1.3 million per kidney in humans. During fetal life, the rate of nephrogenesis is influenced by local retinoic acid (RA) level such that even moderate maternal vitamin A deficiency limits the final nephron number in rodents. Inactivation of genes in the RA pathway causes renal agenesis in mice; however, the impact of retinoids on human kidney development is unknown. To resolve this, we tested for associations between variants of genes involved in RA metabolism (ALDH1A2, CYP26A1, and CYP26B1) and kidney size among normal newborns. Homozygosity for a common (1 in 5) variant, rs7169289(G), within an Sp1 transcription factor motif of the ALDH1A2 gene, showed a significant 22% increase in newborn kidney volume when adjusted for body surface area. Infants bearing this allele had higher umbilical cord blood RA levels compared to those with homozygous wild-type ALDH1A2 rs7169289(A) alleles. Furthermore, the effect of the rs7169289(G) variant was evident in subgroups with or without a previously reported hypomorphic RET 1476(A) proto-oncogene allele that is critical in determining final nephron number. As maternal vitamin A deficiency is widespread in developing countries and may compromise availability of retinol for fetal RA synthesis, our study suggests that the ALDH1A2 rs7169289(G) variant might be protective for such individuals.
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Newborn serum retinoic acid level is associated with variants of genes in the retinol metabolism pathway.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Retinoic acid (RA) is a critical regulator of gene expression during embryonic development. In rodents, moderate maternal vitamin A deficiency leads to subtle morphogenetic defects and inactivation of RA pathway genes causes major disturbances of embryogenesis. In this study, we quantified RA in umbilical cord blood of 145 healthy full-term Caucasian infants from Montreal. Sixty seven percent of values were <10 nmol/L (84 were <0.07 nmol/L) and 33% had moderate or high levels. Variation in RA could not be explained by parallel variation in its precursor, retinol (ROL). However, we found that the (A) allele of the rs12591551 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ALDH1A2 gene (ALDH1A2rs12591551(A)), occurring in 19% of newborns, was associated with 2.5-fold higher serum RA levels. ALDH1A2 encodes retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) 2, which synthesizes RA in fetal tissues. We also found that homozygosity for the (A) allele of the rs12724719 SNP in the CRABP2 gene (CRABP2rs12724719(A/A)) was associated with 4.4-fold increase in umbilical cord serum RA. CRABP2 facilitates RA binding to its cognate receptor complex and transfer to the nucleus. We hypothesize that individual variation in RA pathway genes may account for subtle variations in RA-dependent human embryogenesis.
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Identification of T. gondii epitopes, adjuvants, and host genetic factors that influence protection of mice and humans.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that causes severe neurologic and ocular disease in immune-compromised and congenitally infected individuals. There is no vaccine protective against human toxoplasmosis. Herein, immunization of L(d) mice with HF10 (HPGSVNEFDF) with palmitic acid moieties or a monophosphoryl lipid A derivative elicited potent IFN-gamma production from L(d)-restricted CD8(+) T cells in vitro and protected mice. CD8(+) T cell peptide epitopes from T. gondii dense granule proteins GRA 3, 6, 7, and Sag 1, immunogenic in humans for HLA-A02(+), HLA-A03(+), and HLA-B07(+) cells were identified. Since peptide repertoire presented by MHC class I molecules to CD8(+) T cells is shaped by endoplasmic reticulum-associated aminopeptidase (ERAAP), polymorphisms in the human ERAAP gene ERAP1 were studied and associate with susceptibility to human congenital toxoplasmosis (p<0.05). These results have important implications for vaccine development.
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Genome-wide profiling using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays identifies novel chromosomal imbalances in pediatric glioblastomas.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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Available data on genetic events in pediatric grade IV astrocytomas (glioblastoma [pGBM]) are scarce. This has traditionally been a major impediment in understanding the pathogenesis of this tumor and in developing ways for more effective management. Our aim is to chart DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) and get insight into genetic pathways involved in pGBM. Using the Illumina Infinium Human-1 bead-chip-array (100K single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]), we genotyped 18 pediatric and 6 adult GBMs. Results were compared to BAC-array profiles harvested on 16 of the same pGBM, to an independent data set of 9 pediatric high-grade astrocytomas (HGAs) analyzed on Affymetrix 250K-SNP arrays, and to existing data sets on HGAs. CNAs were additionally validated by real-time qPCR in a set of genes in pGBM. Our results identify with nonrandom clustering of CNAs in several novel, previously not reported, genomic regions, suggesting that alterations in tumor suppressors and genes involved in the regulation of RNA processing and the cell cycle are major events in the pathogenesis of pGBM. Most regions were distinct from CNAs in aGBMs and show an unexpectedly low frequency of genetic amplification and homozygous deletions and a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity for a high-grade I rapidly dividing tumor. This first, complete, high-resolution profiling of the tumor cell genome fills an important gap in studies on pGBM. It ultimately guides the mapping of oncogenic networks unique to pGBM, identification of the related therapeutic predictors and targets, and development of more effective therapies. It further shows that, despite commonalities in a few CNAs, pGBM and aGBMs are two different diseases.
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Genetic variant near IRS1 is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants that only partially explain the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using genome-wide association data from 1,376 French individuals, we identified 16,360 SNPs nominally associated with T2D and studied these SNPs in an independent sample of 4,977 French individuals. We then selected the 28 best hits for replication in 7,698 Danish subjects and identified 4 SNPs showing strong association with T2D, one of which (rs2943641, P = 9.3 x 10(-12), OR = 1.19) was located adjacent to the insulin receptor substrate 1 gene (IRS1). Unlike previously reported T2D risk loci, which predominantly associate with impaired beta cell function, the C allele of rs2943641 was associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in 14,358 French, Danish and Finnish participants from population-based cohorts; this allele was also associated with reduced basal levels of IRS1 protein and decreased insulin induction of IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase activity in human skeletal muscle biopsies.
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Global patterns of cis variation in human cells revealed by high-density allelic expression analysis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Cis-acting variants altering gene expression are a source of phenotypic differences. The cis-acting components of expression variation can be identified through the mapping of differences in allelic expression (AE), which is the measure of relative expression between two allelic transcripts. We generated a map of AE associated SNPs using quantitative measurements of AE on Illumina Human1M BeadChips. In 53 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from donors of European descent, we identified common cis variants affecting 30% (2935/9751) of the measured RefSeq transcripts at 0.001 permutation significance. The pervasive influence of cis-regulatory variants, which explain 50% of population variation in AE, extend to full-length transcripts and their isoforms as well as to unannotated transcripts. These strong effects facilitate fine mapping of cis-regulatory SNPs, as demonstrated by dissection of heritable control of transcripts in the systemic lupus erythematosus-associated C8orf13-BLK region in chromosome 8. The dense collection of associations will facilitate large-scale isolation of cis-regulatory SNPs.
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Analyses of associations with asthma in four asthma population samples from Canada and Australia.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Asthma, atopy, and related phenotypes are heterogeneous complex traits, with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Extensive research has been conducted and over hundred genes have been associated with asthma and atopy phenotypes, but many of these findings have failed to replicate in subsequent studies. To separate true associations from false positives, candidate genes need to be examined in large well-characterized samples, using standardized designs (genotyping, phenotyping and analysis). In an attempt to replicate previous associations we amalgamated the power and resources of four studies and genotyped 5,565 individuals to conduct a genetic association study of 93 previously associated candidate genes for asthma and related phenotypes using the same set of 861 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a common genotyping platform, and relatively harmonized phenotypes. We tested for association between SNPs and the dichotomous outcomes of asthma, atopy, atopic asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness using a general allelic likelihood ratio test. No SNP in any gene reached significance levels that survived correction for all tested SNPs, phenotypes, and genes. Even after relaxing the usual stringent multiple testing corrections by performing a gene-based analysis (one gene at a time as if no other genes were typed) and by stratifying SNPs based on their prior evidence of association, no genes gave strong evidence of replication. There was weak evidence to implicate the following: IL13, IFNGR2, EDN1, and VDR in asthma; IL18, TBXA2R, IFNGR2, and VDR in atopy; TLR9, TBXA2R, VDR, NOD2, and STAT6 in airway hyperresponsiveness; TLR10, IFNGR2, STAT6, VDR, and NPSR1 in atopic asthma. Additionally we found an excess of SNPs with small effect sizes (OR < 1.4). The low rate of replication may be due to small effect size, differences in phenotypic definition, differential environmental effects, and/or genetic heterogeneity. To aid in future replication studies of asthma genes a comprehensive database was compiled and is available to the scientific community at http://genapha.icapture.ubc.ca/.
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Genetic variants associated with myocardial infarction risk factors in over 8000 individuals from five ethnic groups: The INTERHEART Genetics Study.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death globally, but specific genetic variants that influence MI and MI risk factors have not been assessed on a global basis.
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Genome-wide association study for early-onset and morbid adult obesity identifies three new risk loci in European populations.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2009
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We analyzed genome-wide association data from 1,380 Europeans with early-onset and morbid adult obesity and 1,416 age-matched normal-weight controls. Thirty-eight markers showing strong association were further evaluated in 14,186 European subjects. In addition to FTO and MC4R, we detected significant association of obesity with three new risk loci in NPC1 (endosomal/lysosomal Niemann-Pick C1 gene, P = 2.9 x 10(-7)), near MAF (encoding the transcription factor c-MAF, P = 3.8 x 10(-13)) and near PTER (phosphotriesterase-related gene, P = 2.1 x 10(-7)).
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CAG expansion in the Huntington disease gene is associated with a specific and targetable predisposing haplogroup.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder that results from >or=36 CAG repeats in the HD gene (HTT). Approximately 10% of patients inherit a chromosome that underwent CAG expansion from an unaffected parent with <36 CAG repeats. This study is a comprehensive analysis of genetic diversity in HTT and reveals that HD patients of European origin (n = 65) have a significant enrichment (95%) of a specific set of 22 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that constitute a single haplogroup. The disease association of many SNPs is much stronger than any previously reported polymorphism and was confirmed in a replication cohort (n = 203). Importantly, the same haplogroup is also significantly enriched (83%) in individuals with 27-35 CAG repeats (intermediate alleles, n = 66), who are unaffected by the disease, but have increased CAG tract sizes relative to the general population (n = 116). These data support a stepwise model for CAG expansion into the affected range (>or=36 CAG) and identifies specific haplogroup variants in the general population associated with this instability. The specific variants at risk for CAG expansion are not present in the general population in China, Japan, and Nigeria where the prevalence of HD is much lower. The current data argue that cis-elements have a major predisposing influence on CAG instability in HTT. The strong association between specific SNP alleles and CAG expansion also provides an opportunity of personalized therapeutics in HD where the clinical development of only a small number of allele-specific targets may be sufficient to treat up to 88% of the HD patient population.
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SNP genotyping of a sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: reveals highly aneuploid profile and a specific MDM2/HMGA2 amplification.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Since the first description of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma in 2000, 19 pediatric cases have been reported in the literature. However, it is debated whether sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma represents a specific rhabdomyosarcoma entity or a variant of embryonal or alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. To date, 6 sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma karyotypes and 1 sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma comparative genomic hybridization profile have been reported. We present the first whole-genome tumoral genotyping of a sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma by high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array. The single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping revealed a complex pattern including gains and losses of whole chromosomes and an amplification of the 12q13-15 region. Amplification of the 12q13-q15 region containing SAS, GLI, CDK4, and MDM2 has been observed in rhabdomyosarcoma. In the present case, the 2 amplified target genes were MDM2 and HMGA2, excluding CDK4. The identification of a specific MDM2-HGMA2 amplicon excluding CDK4 has only been described so far in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Further studies are needed to assess if this anomaly is a specific marker of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma.
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Identification of susceptibility genes for complex diseases using pooling-based genome-wide association scans.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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The success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify risk loci of complex diseases is now well-established. One persistent major hurdle is the cost of those studies, which make them beyond the reach of most research groups. Performing GWAS on pools of DNA samples may be an effective strategy to reduce the costs of these studies. In this study, we performed pooling-based GWAS with more than 550,000 SNPs in two case-control cohorts consisting of patients with Type II diabetes (T2DM) and with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In the T2DM study, the results of the pooling experiment were compared to individual genotypes obtained from a previously published GWAS. TCF7L2 and HHEX SNPs associated with T2DM by the traditional GWAS were among the top ranked SNPs in the pooling experiment. This dataset was also used to refine the best strategy to correctly identify SNPs that will remain significant based on individual genotyping. In the CRS study, the top hits from the pooling-based GWAS located within ten kilobases of known genes were validated by individual genotyping of 1,536 SNPs. Forty-one percent (598 out of the 1,457 SNPs that passed quality control) were associated with CRS at a nominal P value of 0.05, confirming the potential of pooling-based GWAS to identify SNPs that differ in allele frequencies between two groups of subjects. Overall, our results demonstrate that a pooling experiment on high-density genotyping arrays can accurately determine the minor allelic frequency as compared to individual genotyping and produce a list of top ranked SNPs that captures genuine allelic differences between a group of cases and controls. The low cost associated with a pooling-based GWAS clearly justifies its use in screening for genetic determinants of complex diseases.
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Impaired innate immunity in mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 leads to defective type 1 T cell responses, B cell expansion, and enhanced susceptibility to infection with Toxoplasma gondii.
Infect. Immun.
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Interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R)-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is a member of the IRAK family and has an important role in inducing the production of inflammatory mediators. This kinase is downstream of MyD88, an adaptor protein essential for Toll-like receptor (TLR) function. We investigated the role of this kinase in IRAK4-deficient mice orally infected with the cystogenic ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii. IRAK4(-/-) mice displayed higher morbidity, tissue parasitism, and accelerated mortality than the control mice. The lymphoid follicles and germinal centers from infected IRAK4(-/-) mice were significantly smaller. We consistently found that IRAK4(-/-) mice showed a defect in splenic B cell activation and expansion as well as diminished production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) by T lymphocytes. The myeloid compartment was also affected. Both the frequency and ability of dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages to produce IL-12 were significantly decreased, and resistance to infection with Toxoplasma was rescued by treating IRAK4(-/-) mice with recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12). Additionally, we report the association of IRAK4 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) with congenital toxoplasmosis in infected individuals (rs1461567 and rs4251513, P < 0.023 and P < 0.045, respectively). Thus, signaling via IRAK4 is essential for the activation of innate immune cells, development of parasite-specific acquired immunity, and host resistance to infection with T. gondii.
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Rare copy number variants contribute to congenital left-sided heart disease.
PLoS Genet.
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Left-sided congenital heart disease (CHD) encompasses a spectrum of malformations that range from bicuspid aortic valve to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. It contributes significantly to infant mortality and has serious implications in adult cardiology. Although left-sided CHD is known to be highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are largely unidentified. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of structural genomic variation on left-sided CHD and compared multiplex families (464 individuals with 174 affecteds (37.5%) in 59 multiplex families and 8 trios) to 1,582 well-phenotyped controls. 73 unique inherited or de novo CNVs in 54 individuals were identified in the left-sided CHD cohort. After stringent filtering, our gene inventory reveals 25 new candidates for LS-CHD pathogenesis, such as SMC1A, MFAP4, and CTHRC1, and overlaps with several known syndromic loci. Conservative estimation examining the overlap of the prioritized gene content with CNVs present only in affected individuals in our cohort implies a strong effect for unique CNVs in at least 10% of left-sided CHD cases. Enrichment testing of gene content in all identified CNVs showed a significant association with angiogenesis. In this first family-based CNV study of left-sided CHD, we found that both co-segregating and de novo events associate with disease in a complex fashion at structural genomic level. Often viewed as an anatomically circumscript disease, a subset of left-sided CHD may in fact reflect more general genetic perturbations of angiogenesis and/or vascular biology.
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Harnessing genomics to identify environmental determinants of heritable disease.
Mutat. Res.
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Next-generation sequencing technologies can now be used to directly measure heritable de novo DNA sequence mutations in humans. However, these techniques have not been used to examine environmental factors that induce such mutations and their associated diseases. To address this issue, a working group on environmentally induced germline mutation analysis (ENIGMA) met in October 2011 to propose the necessary foundational studies, which include sequencing of parent-offspring trios from highly exposed human populations, and controlled dose-response experiments in animals. These studies will establish background levels of variability in germline mutation rates and identify environmental agents that influence these rates and heritable disease. Guidance for the types of exposures to examine come from rodent studies that have identified agents such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, cigarette smoke, and air pollution as germ-cell mutagens. Research is urgently needed to establish the health consequences of parental exposures on subsequent generations.
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Exome sequencing identifies a novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility variant in the TYK2 gene.
Neurology
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To identify rare variants contributing to multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in a family we have previously reported with up to 15 individuals affected across 4 generations.
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K27M mutation in histone H3.3 defines clinically and biologically distinct subgroups of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.
Acta Neuropathol.
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Pediatric glioblastomas (GBM) including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are devastating brain tumors with no effective therapy. Here, we investigated clinical and biological impacts of histone H3.3 mutations. Forty-two DIPGs were tested for H3.3 mutations. Wild-type versus mutated (K27M-H3.3) subgroups were compared for HIST1H3B, IDH, ATRX and TP53 mutations, copy number alterations and clinical outcome. K27M-H3.3 occurred in 71 %, TP53 mutations in 77 % and ATRX mutations in 9 % of DIPGs. ATRX mutations were more frequent in older children (p < 0.0001). No G34V/R-H3.3, IDH1/2 or H3.1 mutations were identified. K27M-H3.3 DIPGs showed specific copy number changes, including all gains/amplifications of PDGFRA and MYC/PVT1 loci. Notably, all long-term survivors were H3.3 wild type and this group of patients had better overall survival. K27M-H3.3 mutation defines clinically and biologically distinct subgroups and is prevalent in DIPG, which will impact future therapeutic trial design. K27M- and G34V-H3.3 have location-based incidence (brainstem/cortex) and potentially play distinct roles in pediatric GBM pathogenesis. K27M-H3.3 is universally associated with short survival in DIPG, while patients wild-type for H3.3 show improved survival. Based on prognostic and therapeutic implications, our findings argue for H3.3-mutation testing at diagnosis, which should be rapidly integrated into the clinical decision-making algorithm, particularly in atypical DIPG.
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Driver mutations in histone H3.3 and chromatin remodelling genes in paediatric glioblastoma.
Nature
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin remodelling pathway were identified in 44% of tumours (21/48). Recurrent mutations in H3F3A, which encodes the replication-independent histone 3 variant H3.3, were observed in 31% of tumours, and led to amino acid substitutions at two critical positions within the histone tail (K27M, G34R/G34V) involved in key regulatory post-translational modifications. Mutations in ATRX (?-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) and DAXX (death-domain associated protein), encoding two subunits of a chromatin remodelling complex required for H3.3 incorporation at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres, were identified in 31% of samples overall, and in 100% of tumours harbouring a G34R or G34V H3.3 mutation. Somatic TP53 mutations were identified in 54% of all cases, and in 86% of samples with H3F3A and/or ATRX mutations. Screening of a large cohort of gliomas of various grades and histologies (n = 784) showed H3F3A mutations to be specific to GBM and highly prevalent in children and young adults. Furthermore, the presence of H3F3A/ATRX-DAXX/TP53 mutations was strongly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and specific gene expression profiles. This is, to our knowledge, the first report to highlight recurrent mutations in a regulatory histone in humans, and our data suggest that defects of the chromatin architecture underlie paediatric and young adult GBM pathogenesis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.