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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Limited duration of complete remission on ruxolitinib in myeloid neoplasms with PCM1-JAK2 and BCR-JAK2 fusion genes.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Rearrangements of chromosome band 9p24 are known to be associated with JAK2 fusion genes, e.g., t(8;9)(p22;p24) with a PCM1-JAK2 and t(9;22)(p24;q11) with a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene, respectively. In association with myeloid neoplasms, the clinical course is aggressive, and in absence of effective conventional treatment options, long-term remission is usually only observed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). With the discovery of inhibitors of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase and based on encouraging in vitro and in vivo data, we treated two male patients with myeloid neoplasms and a PCM1-JAK2 or a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene, respectively, with the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. After 12 months of treatment, both patients achieved a complete clinical, hematologic, and cytogenetic response. Non-hematologic toxicity was only grade 1 while no hematologic toxicity was observed. However, remission in both patients was only short-term, with relapse occurring after 18 and 24 months, respectively, making ASCT indispensable in both cases. This data highlight (1) the ongoing importance of cytogenetic analysis for the diagnostic work-up of myeloid neoplasms as it may guide targeted therapy and (2) remission under ruxolitinib may only be short-termed in JAK2 fusion genes but it may be an important bridging therapy prior to ASCT.
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Distinct characteristics of e13a2 versus e14a2 BCR-ABL1 driven chronic myeloid leukemia under first-line therapy with imatinib.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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The vast majority of chronic myeloid leukemia patients express a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene mRNA encoding a 210 kDa tyrosine kinase which promotes leukemic transformation. A possible differential impact of the corresponding BCR-ABL1 transcript variants e13a2 ("b2a2") and e14a2 ("b3a2") on disease phenotype and outcome is still a subject of debate. A total of 1105 newly diagnosed imatinib-treated patients were analyzed according to transcript type at diagnosis (e13a2, n=451; e14a2, n=496; e13a2+e14a2, n=158). No differences regarding age, sex, or Euro risk score were observed. A significant difference was found between e13a2 and e14a2 when comparing white blood cells (88 vs. 65 × 10(9)/L, respectively; P<0.001) and platelets (296 vs. 430 × 10(9)/L, respectively; P<0.001) at diagnosis, indicating a distinct disease phenotype. No significant difference was observed regarding other hematologic features, including spleen size and hematologic adverse events, during imatinib-based therapies. Cumulative molecular response was inferior in e13a2 patients (P=0.002 for major molecular response; P<0.001 for MR4). No difference was observed with regard to cytogenetic response and overall survival. In conclusion, e13a2 and e14a2 chronic myeloid leukemia seem to represent distinct biological entities. However, clinical outcome under imatinib treatment was comparable and no risk prediction can be made according to e13a2 versus e14a2 BCR-ABL1 transcript type at diagnosis. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:00055874).
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Equivalence of BCR-ABL transcript levels with complete cytogenetic remission in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients are monitored by both cytogenetic and molecular assessments, although present guidelines appear to switch from cytogenetic to molecular criteria. Due to the increasing use of molecular measurements, it was the aim of this work to identify a BCR-ABL level according to the international scale (BCR-ABL(IS)) as an equivalent substitute for complete cytogenetic remission (CCyR).
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Identification and functional characterization of imatinib-sensitive DTD1-PDGFRB and CCDC88C-PDGFRB fusion genes in eosinophilia-associated myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Eosinophilia-associated myeloid neoplasms with rearrangement of chromosome bands 5q31-33 are frequently associated with PDGFRB fusion genes, which are exquisitely sensitive to treatment with imatinib. In search for novel fusion partners of PDGFRB, we analyzed three cases with translocation t(5;20)(q33;p11), t(5;14)(q33;q32), and t(5;17;14)(q33;q11;q32) by 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (5?-RACE-PCR) and DNA-based long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR) with primers derived from PDGFRB. LDI-PCR revealed a fusion between CCDC88C exon 25 and PDGFRB exon 11 in the case with t(5;17;14)(q33;q11;q32) while 5?-RACE-PCR identified fusions between CCDC88C exon 10 and PDGFRB exon 12 and between DTD1 exon 4 and PDGFRB exon 12 in the cases with t(5;14)(q33;q32) and t(5;20)(q33;p11), respectively. The PDGFRB tyrosine-kinase domain is predicted to be retained in all three fusion proteins. The partner proteins contained coiled-coil domains or other domains, which putatively lead to constitutive activation of the PDGFRB fusion protein. In vitro functional analyses confirmed transforming activity and imatinib-sensitivity of the fusion proteins. All three patients achieved rapid and durable complete hematologic remissions on imatinib.
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Myelodysplastic cells in patients reprogram mesenchymal stromal cells to establish a transplantable stem cell niche disease unit.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms with defects in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and possibly the HSPC niche. Here, we show that patient-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MDS MSCs) display a disturbed differentiation program and are essential for the propagation of MDS-initiating Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(-) stem cells in orthotopic xenografts. Overproduction of niche factors such as CDH2 (N-Cadherin), IGFBP2, VEGFA, and LIF is associated with the ability of MDS MSCs to enhance MDS expansion. These factors represent putative therapeutic targets in order to disrupt critical hematopoietic-stromal interactions in MDS. Finally, healthy MSCs adopt MDS MSC-like molecular features when exposed to hematopoietic MDS cells, indicative of an instructive remodeling of the microenvironment. Therefore, this patient-derived xenograft model provides functional and molecular evidence that MDS is a complex disease that involves both the hematopoietic and stromal compartments. The resulting deregulated expression of niche factors may well also be a feature of other hematopoietic malignancies.
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The KIT D816V expressed allele burden for diagnosis and disease monitoring of systemic mastocytosis.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The activating KIT D816V mutation plays a central role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and targeted treatment of systemic mastocytosis (SM). For improved and reliable identification of KIT D816V, we have developed an allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) with an enhanced sensitivity of 0.01-0.1 %, which was superior to denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (0.5-1 %) or conventional sequencing (10-20 %). Overall, KIT D816 mutations were identified in 146/147 (99 %) of patients (D816V, n?=?142; D816H, n?=?2; D816Y, n?=?2) with SM, including indolent SM (ISM, n?=?63, 43 %), smoldering SM (n?=?8, 5 %), SM with associated hematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD, n?=?16, 11 %), and aggressive SM/mast cell leukemia?±?AHNMD (ASM/MCL, n?=?60, 41 %). If positive in BM, the KIT D816V mutation was found in PB of all patients with advanced SM (SM-AHNMD, ASM, and MCL) and in 46 % (23/50) of patients with ISM. There was a strong correlation between the KIT D816V expressed allele burden (KIT D816V EAB) with results obtained from DNA by genomic allele-specific PCR and also with disease activity (e.g., serum tryptase level), disease subtype (e.g., indolent vs. advanced SM) and survival. In terms of monitoring of residual disease, qualitative and quantitative assessment of KIT D816V and KIT D816V EAB was successfully used for sequential analysis after chemotherapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We therefore conclude that RQ-PCR assays for KIT D816V are useful complimentary tools for diagnosis, disease monitoring, and evaluation of prognosis in patients with SM.
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Comprehensive mutational profiling in advanced systemic mastocytosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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To explore mechanisms contributing to the clinical heterogeneity of systemic mastocytosis (SM) and to suboptimal responses to diverse therapies, we analyzed 39 KIT D816V mutated patients with indolent SM (n = 10), smoldering SM (n = 2), SM with associated clonal hematologic nonmast cell lineage disorder (SM-AHNMD, n = 5), and aggressive SM (n = 15) or mast cell leukemia (n = 7) with (n = 18) or without (n = 4) AHNMD for additional molecular aberrations. We applied next-generation sequencing to investigate ASXL1, CBL, IDH1/2, JAK2, KRAS, MLL-PTD, NPM1, NRAS, TP53, SRSF2, SF3B1, SETBP1, U2AF1 at mutational hotspot regions, and analyzed complete coding regions of EZH2, ETV6, RUNX1, and TET2. We identified additional molecular aberrations in 24/27 (89%) patients with advanced SM (SM-AHNMD, 5/5; aggressive SM/mast cell leukemia, 19/22) whereas only 3/12 (25%) indolent SM/smoldering SM patients carried one additional mutation each (U2AF1, SETBP1, CBL) (P < .001). Most frequently affected genes were TET2, SRSF2, ASXL1, CBL, and RUNX1. In advanced SM, 21/27 patients (78%) carried ?3 mutations, and 11/27 patients (41%) exhibited ?5 mutations. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with additional aberrations as compared to those with KIT D816V only (P = .019). We conclude that biology and prognosis in SM are related to the pattern of mutated genes that are acquired during disease evolution.
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Younger patients with chronic myeloid leukemia do well in spite of poor prognostic indicators: results from the randomized CML study IV.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Since the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the impact of age on outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients has changed. We therefore analyzed patients from the randomized CML study IV to investigate disease manifestations and outcome in different age groups. One thousand five hundred twenty-four patients with BCR-ABL-positive chronic phase CML were divided into four age groups: (1) 16-29 years, n?=?120; (2) 30-44 years, n?=?383; (3) 45-59 years, n?=?495; and (4)??60 years, n?=?526. Group 1 (adolescents and young adults (AYAs)) presented with more aggressive disease features (larger spleen size, more frequent symptoms of organomegaly, higher white blood count, higher percentage of peripheral blasts and lower hemoglobin levels) than the other age groups. In addition, a higher rate of patients with BCR-ABL transcript levels >10 % on the international scale (IS) at 3 months was observed. After a median observation time of 67.5 months, no inferior survival and no differences in cytogenetic and molecular remissions or progression rates were observed. We conclude that AYAs show more aggressive features and poor prognostic indicators possibly indicating differences in disease biology. This, however, does not affect outcome.
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Centrosome aberrations in bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes correlate with chromosomal instability.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Centrosomes play important roles in the maintenance of genetic stability and centrosomal aberrations are a hallmark of cancer. Deregulation of centriole duplication leads to supernumerary centrosomes, sister chromatid missegregation and could result in chromosomal instability (CIN) and aneuploidy. CIN is a common feature in at least 45% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Therefore, we sought to investigate the centrosomal status and its role for development of CIN in bone marrow (BM) cells of MDS patients. BM cells of 34 MDS patients were examined cytogenetically. Furthermore, cells were immunostained with a centrosome-specific antibody to pericentrin to analyze the centrosomal status. Umbilical cord blood specimens and BM cells of healthy persons (n = 11 and n = 4) served as controls. In addition, the protein expression of the protease separase responsible for genetic stability was examined by western blot analysis. Centrosome abnormalities were detected in 10% (range, 4-17%) of cells of MDS samples, but in only 2% (range, 0-4%) of cells of healthy controls. Normal karyotypes were found in control cells and in BM cells of 16/34 MDS patients. The incidence of centrosomal alterations was higher in BM cells of patients with cytogenetic alterations (mean, 12%) compared to BM cells of patients without cytogenetic changes (mean, 7%). Our results indicate that centrosome alterations are a common and early detectable feature in MDS patients and may contribute to the acquisition of chromosomal aberrations. We assume that centrosome defects could be involved in disease progression and may serve as a future prognostic marker.
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Effects of imatinib mesylate in patients with polycythemia vera: results of a phase II study.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The antiproliferative effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate were reported in single cases with polycythemia vera (PV). We, therefore, conducted a clinical phase II study to assess the rate and quality of response in patients with PV. Thirty-one patients, with a median age of 64 years (range, 45-84 years), were included. All but one patient were on phlebotomy; 14 (45%) had previously received cytoreductive therapy. Imatinib was started with 400 mg/day. In 26% of patients, dose escalation up to 800 mg was performed. After a median treatment duration of 8.3 months (range, 0.1-62.1 months), the overall response rate was 55%. No complete remission (normalization of all parameters: hematocrit, white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count, and spleen size determined by ultrasound examination) was reached because the spleen remained enlarged in all patients. Thirteen patients (42%) achieved partial remission (?25% reduction of at least one of the previously mentioned parameters); in 10 of these, the respective reduction was ?50%. In four patients (13%) with minor response, the reduction was <25%. No change or progressive disease was seen in 14 patients (45%). The nonresponders had a longer previous disease duration and had received more antecedent cytoreductive therapy (p?=?0.009). Compared to baseline characteristics, imatinib induced the reduction of phlebotomies (p?=?0.003), of WBC count (p?=?0.002), and of platelet count (p?=?0.04). Three patients became free from phlebotomies. In six investigated patients, no significant reduction of the JAK2V617F burden was observed despite clinical improvement. The results show that imatinib has moderate cytoreductive effects in PV.
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Impact of additional cytogenetic aberrations at diagnosis on prognosis of CML: long-term observation of 1151 patients from the randomized CML Study IV.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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The prognostic relevance of additional cytogenetic findings at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is unclear. The impact of additional cytogenetic findings at diagnosis on time to complete cytogenetic (CCR) and major molecular remission (MMR) and progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using data from 1151 Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML patients randomized to the German CML Study IV. At diagnosis, 1003 of 1151 patients (87%) had standard t(9;22)(q34;q11) only, 69 patients (6.0%) had variant t(v;22), and 79 (6.9%) additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACAs). Of these, 38 patients (3.3%) lacked the Y chromosome (-Y) and 41 patients (3.6%) had ACAs except -Y; 16 of these (1.4%) were major route (second Philadelphia [Ph] chromosome, trisomy 8, isochromosome 17q, or trisomy 19) and 25 minor route (all other) ACAs. After a median observation time of 5.3 years for patients with t(9;22), t(v;22), -Y, minor- and major-route ACAs, the 5-year PFS was 90%, 81%, 88%, 96%, and 50%, and the 5-year OS was 92%, 87%, 91%, 96%, and 53%, respectively. In patients with major-route ACAs, the times to CCR and MMR were longer and PFS and OS were shorter (P < .001) than in patients with standard t(9;22). We conclude that major-route ACAs at diagnosis are associated with a negative impact on survival and signify progression to the accelerated phase and blast crisis.
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Smoking increases transcription of human endogenous retroviruses in a newly established in vitro cell model and in normal urothelium.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) accounting for 9% of the human genome are considered as surrogate markers for genetic instability and as a driving force of genetic variation. Moreover, they modulate regular gene activities and give rise to expression of disease-associated peptides that may serve as diagnostic markers or even targets for T cell-based immune responses. To date, no data are available on the potential link between urothelial carcinogenesis, HERV activity, and tobacco smoking, the main risk for bladder cancer. Here, we report on potential alterations in HERV transcription induced by smoking in a newly established in vitro model and in human urothelium. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were cultivated with urine from never (n = 6) and current smokers (n = 6) and transcription levels for the HERV subfamilies HERV-E 4-1, HERV-T S71-TK1, and HERV-K HML-6 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Tendencies toward increased mean transcript levels were detected for cells treated with urine from current smokers. Equally, activity measured in human urothelium supported an increase of HERV transcription in current smokers (n = 9) compared to never smokers (n = 4).
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Detection of centrosome aberrations in disease-unrelated cells from patients with tumor treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) target various pathways associated with proliferation of aberrant clones in malignant diseases. Despite good response and acceptable tolerability, little is known concerning long-term toxicity. Furthermore, the influence of these inhibitors on disease-unrelated cells is not investigated yet.
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Urine from current smokers induces centrosome aberrations and spindle defects in vitro in nonmalignant human cell lines.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Tobacco smoke containing numerous derived chemical carcinogens is the main risk factor for urothelial carcinoma. These carcinogens can induce DNA damage leading to chromosomal instability, which plays a fundamental role in urothelial carcinogenesis. Possible mechanisms could be centrosomal aberrations, which cause defective spindles and may be responsible for genetic instability. We evaluated the effect of urine from never smokers (NS) and current smokers (CS) in concentrations of 0 to 50% on cell proliferation, chromosomes, centrosomes, and the spindle status of normal human dermal fibroblasts and normal human urothelial cells (UROtsa). After 2 weeks of urine treatment, cell cultures were analyzed by centrosome and spindle immunostaining and conventional cytogenetics. Effects were compared to results of untreated controls. Analysis of normal human dermal fibroblasts and UROtsa cells revealed that urine from CS induced higher values of centrosome aberrations in a dose-dependent and cell line-independent manner when compared to cultures treated with urine from NS and untreated controls. Centrosomal alterations correlated with spindle defects and an increase of sporadic chromosomal aberrations. The observations suggest a causative role of chemical carcinogens in urine from CS in the origin of centrosome and spindle defects in vitro leading to chromosomal instability and may be involved in urothelial carcinogenesis.
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Cancer-causing karyotypes: chromosomal equilibria between destabilizing aneuploidy and stabilizing selection for oncogenic function.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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The chromosomes of cancer cells are unstable, because of aneuploidy. Despite chromosomal instability, however, cancer karyotypes are individual and quasi-stable, as is evident especially from clonal chromosome copy numbers and marker chromosomes. This paradox would be resolved if the karyotypes in cancers represent chromosomal equilibria between destabilizing aneuploidy and stabilizing selection for oncogenic function. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the initial and long-term karyotypes of seven clones of newly transformed human epithelial, mammary, and muscle cells. Approximately 1 in 100,000 such cells generates transformed clones at 2-3 months after introduction of retrovirus-activated cellular genes or the tumor virus SV40. These frequencies are too low for direct transformation, so we postulated that virus-activated genes initiate transformation indirectly, via specific karyotypes. Using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes, we found individual clonal karyotypes that were stable for at least 34 cell generations-within limits, as follows. Depending on the karyotype, average clonal chromosome numbers were stable within +/- 3%, and chromosome-specific copy numbers were stable in 70-100% cells. At any one time, however, relative to clonal means, per-cell chromosome numbers varied +/-18% and chromosome-specific copy numbers varied +/-1 in 0-30% of cells; unstable nonclonal markers were found within karyotype-specific quotas of <1% to 20% of the total chromosome number. For two clones, karyotypic ploidies also varied. With these rates of variation, the karyotypes of transformed clones would randomize in a few generations unless selection occurs. We conclude that individual aneuploid karyotypes initiate and maintain cancers, much like new species. These cancer-causing karyotypes are in flexible equilibrium between destabilizing aneuploidy and stabilizing selection for transforming function. Karyotypes as a whole, rather than specific mutations, explain the individuality, fluidity, and phenotypic complexity of cancers.
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HERV-E-mediated modulation of PLA2G4A transcription in urothelial carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
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Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) and related elements account for more than 8% of the human genome and significantly contribute to the human transcriptome by long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter activity. In this context, HERVs are thought to intervene in the expression of adjacent genes by providing regulatory sequences (cis-effect) or via noncoding RNA including natural antisense transcripts. To address the potential impact of HERV activity in urothelial carcinoma, we comparatively analyzed the HERV transcription profiles in paired samples of non-malignant urothelium and urothelial carcinoma derived from 13 patients with bladder cancer by means of a retrovirus-specific microarray (RetroArray). We established a characteristic HERV signature consisting of six ubiquitously active HERV subgroups (E4-1, HERV-Rb, ERV9, HERV-K-T47D, NMWV3, HERV-KC4). The transcription pattern is largely identical in human urothelial carcinoma, non-malignant urothelial tissue, four tumor-derived cell lines and in a non-malignant urothelial cell line (UROtsa). Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) of HERV-E4-1, HERV-K(HML-6) and HERV-T(S71-TK1) revealed a bias to lower HERV activity in carcinoma samples compared to non-malignant tissue. Determination of active HERV-E4-1 loci by cloning and sequencing revealed six HERV-E4-1 proviral loci that are differentially regulated in urothelial carcinoma cells and normal tissue. Two full-length HERV-E4-1 proviruses, HERV-Ec1 and HERV-Ec6, are located in antisense orientation in introns of the genes PLA2G4A and RNGTT, respectively. PLA2G4A encodes a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) that is dysregulated in many human tumors. PLA2G4A and HERV-Ec1 displayed reciprocal transcript levels in 7 of 11 urothelial carcinoma patients. Moreover, reciprocal shifts were observed after treatment of UROtsa cells with HERV-Ec1 and PLA2G4A-directed siRNAs or 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (aza-dC) pointing to an antagonistic regulation of PLA2G4A and HERV-Ec1 transcription in human urothelial cells. We suggest that transcription of HERV-Ec1 contributes to fine tuning of cPLA2 expression, thereby facilitating tumorigenesis.
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The proteolytic activity of separase in BCR-ABL-positive cells is increased by imatinib.
PLoS ONE
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Separase, an endopeptidase required for the separation of sister-chromatides in mitotic anaphase, triggers centriole disengagement during centrosome duplication. In cancer, separase is frequently overexpressed, pointing to a functional role as an aneuploidy promoter associated with centrosomal amplification and genomic instability. Recently, we have shown that centrosomal amplification and subsequent chromosomal aberrations are a hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), increasing from chronic phase (CP) toward blast crisis (BC). Moreover, a functional linkage of p210BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity with centrosomal amplification and clonal evolution has been established in long-term cell culture experiments. Unexpectedly, therapeutic doses of imatinib (IM) did not counteract; instead induced similar centrosomal alterations in vitro. We investigated the influence of IM and p210BCR-ABL on Separase as a potential driver of centrosomal amplification in CML. Short-term cell cultures of p210BCR-ABL-negative (NHDF, UROtsa, HL-60, U937), positive (K562, LAMA-84) and inducible (U937p210BCR-ABL/c6 (Tet-ON)) human cell lines were treated with therapeutic doses of IM and analyzed by qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and quantitative Separase activity assays. Decreased Separase protein levels were observed in all cells treated with IM in a dose dependent manner. Accordingly, in all p210BCR-ABL-negative cell lines, decreased proteolytic activity of Separase was found. In contrast, p210BCR-ABL-positive cells showed increased Separase proteolytic activity. This activation of Separase was consistent with changes in the expression levels of Separase regulators (Separase phosphorylation at serine residue 1126, Securin, CyclinB1 and PP2A). Our data suggest that regulation of Separase in IM-treated BCR-ABL-positive cells occurs on both the protein expression and the proteolytic activity levels. Activation of Separase proteolytic activity exclusively in p210BCR-ABL-positive cells during IM treatment may act as a driving force for centrosomal amplification, contributing to genomic instability, clonal evolution and resistance in CML.
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SNP array analysis of acute promyelocytic leukemia may be of prognostic relevance and identifies a potential high risk group with recurrent deletions on chromosomal subband 1q31.3.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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To search for new copy number alterations (CNAs) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), we analyzed DNA from leukemic blasts of 93 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients with Genome-Wide SNP 6.0 arrays (SNP-A). We identified 259 CNAs consisting of 170 heterozygous deletions, 82 amplifications, and 7 regions of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity. One of the most common CNAs was a deletion on chromosomal subband 1q31.3 in 13 of 93 (14%) patients encompassing the coding regions for the microRNAs mir181a1/b1. In multivariable analysis with the covariates age, white blood cell count, platelet count, and FLT3-ITD/FLT3 D835 mutations we found that after adjustment for patients age (P<0.0001), patients with 2 or more CNAs detected by SNP-A had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio=5.942, P=0.0015) than patients with 0 or 1 CNA. Deletions of 1q31.3 were associated with a higher number of CNAs (median 2 vs. 8, P<0.0001) and were a strong independent prognostic factor for an increased risk of relapse (hazard ratio=28.9, P=0.0031). This study presents a comprehensive assessment of new CNAs as pathomechanistically relevant targets and possible prognostic factors which could refine risk stratification of APL.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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