JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In Vitro Proliferation and Production of Cytokine and IgG by Human PBMCs Stimulated with Polysaccharide Extract from Plants Endemic to Gabon.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polysaccharides were extracted from seven plants endemic to Gabon to study their potential immunological activities. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) (5 × 105 cells/mL) proliferation, cytokine and immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays were performed after stimulation with different concentrations of polysaccharide fractions compared with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA) from healthy volunteers. The culture supernatants were used for cytokine and IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that pectin and hemicellulose extracts from Uvaria klainei, Petersianthus macrocarpus, Trichoscypha addonii, Aphanocalyx microphyllus, Librevillea klaineana, Neochevalierodendron stephanii and Scorodophloeus zenkeri induced production levels that were variable from one individual to another for IL-12 (3-40 pg/mL), IL-10 (6-443 pg/mL), IL-6 (7-370 pg/mL), GM-CSF (3-170 pg/mL) and IFN-? (5-80 pg/mL). Only hemicelluloses from Aphanocalyx microphyllus produce a small amount of IgG (OD = 0.034), while the proliferation of cells stimulated with these polysaccharides increased up to 318% above the proliferation of unstimulated cells. However, this proliferation of PBMCs was abolished when the pectin of some of these plants was treated with endopolygalacturonase (p < 0.05), but the trend of cytokine synthesis remained the same, both before and after enzymatic treatment or saponification. This study suggests that these polysaccharides stimulate cells in a structure-dependent manner. The rhamnogalacturonan-I (RGI) fragment alone was not able to induce the proliferation of PBMC.
Related JoVE Video
The cell wall pectic polymer rhamnogalacturonan-II is required for proper pollen tube elongation: implications of a putative sialyltransferase-like protein.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is one of the pectin motifs found in the cell wall of all land plants. It contains sugars such as 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-lyxo-heptulosaric acid (Dha) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), and within the wall RG-II is mostly found as a dimer via a borate diester cross-link. To date, little is known regarding the biosynthesis of this motif. Here, after a brief review of our current knowledge on RG-II structure, biosynthesis and function in plants, this study explores the implications of the presence of a Golgi-localized sialyltransferase-like 2 (SIA2) protein that is possibly involved in the transfer of Dha or Kdo in the RG-II of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen tubes, a fast-growing cell type used as a model for the study of cell elongation.
Related JoVE Video
Update on the genomics and basic biology of Brachypodium: International Brachypodium Initiative (IBI).
Trends Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The scientific presentations at the First International Brachypodium Conference (abstracts available at http://www.brachy2013.unimore.it) are evidence of the widespread adoption of Brachypodium distachyon as a model system. Furthermore, the wide range of topics presented (genome evolution, roots, abiotic and biotic stress, comparative genomics, natural diversity, and cell walls) demonstrates that the Brachypodium research community has achieved a critical mass of tools and has transitioned from resource development to addressing biological questions, particularly those unique to grasses.
Related JoVE Video
Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides from Rosa cell cultures are boron-bridged in the plasma membrane and form complexes with rhamnogalacturonan II.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Boron (B) is essential for plant cell-wall structure and membrane functions. Compared with its role in cross-linking the pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), little information is known about the biological role of B in membranes. Here, we investigated the involvement of glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs), major components of lipid rafts, in the membrane requirement for B. Using thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, we first characterized GIPCs from Rosa cell culture. The major GIPC has one hexose residue, one hexuronic acid residue, inositol phosphate, and a ceramide moiety with a C18 trihydroxylated mono-unsaturated long-chain base and a C24 monohydroxylated saturated fatty acid. Disrupting B bridging (by B starvation in vivo or by treatment with cold dilute HCl or with excess borate in vitro) enhanced the GIPCs' extractability. As RG-II is the main B-binding site in plants, we investigated whether it could form a B-centred complex with GIPCs. Using high-voltage paper electrophoresis, we showed that addition of GIPCs decreased the electrophoretic mobility of radiolabelled RG-II, suggesting formation of a GIPC-B-RG-II complex. Last, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we showed that added GIPCs facilitate RG-II dimerization in vitro. We conclude that B plays a structural role in the plasma membrane. The disruption of membrane components by high borate may account for the phytotoxicity of excess B. Moreover, the in-vitro formation of a GIPC-B-RG-II complex gives the first molecular explanation of the wall-membrane attachment sites observed in vivo. Finally, our results suggest a role for GIPCs in the RG-II dimerization process.
Related JoVE Video
Silencing of the GDP-D-mannose 3,5-epimerase affects the structure and cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II and plant growth in tomato.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
L-galactose (L-Gal), a monosaccharide involved in L-ascorbate and rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) biosynthesis in plants, is produced in the cytosol by a GDP-D-mannose 3,5-epimerase (GME). It has been recently reported that the partial inactivation of GME induced growth defects affecting both cell division and cell expansion (Gilbert, L., Alhagdow, M., Nunes-Nesi, A., Quemener, B., Guillon, F., Bouchet, B., Faurobert, M., Gouble, B., Page, D., Garcia, V., Petit, J., Stevens, R., Causse, M., Fernie, A. R., Lahaye, M., Rothan, C., and Baldet, P. (2009) Plant J. 60, 499-508). In the present study, we show that the silencing of the two GME genes in tomato leaves resulted in approximately a 60% decrease in terminal L-Gal content in the side chain A of RG-II as well as in a lower capacity of RG-II to perform in muro cross-linking. In addition, we show that unlike supplementation with L-Gal or ascorbate, supplementation of GME-silenced lines with boric acid was able to restore both the wild-type growth phenotype of tomato seedlings and an efficient in muro boron-mediated cross-linking of RG-II. Our findings suggest that developmental phenotypes in GME-deficient lines are due to the structural alteration of RG-II and further underline the crucial role of the cross-linking of RG-II in the formation of the pectic network required for normal plant growth and development.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of the Arabidopsis IRX9/IRX9-L and IRX14/IRX14-L pairs of glycosyltransferase genes reveals critical contributions to biosynthesis of the hemicellulose glucuronoxylan.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The hemicellulose glucuronoxylan (GX) is a major component of plant secondary cell walls. However, our understanding of GX synthesis remains limited. Here, we identify and analyze two new genes from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), IRREGULAR XYLEM9-LIKE (IRX9-L) and IRX14-LIKE (IRX14-L) that encode glycosyltransferase family 43 members proposed to function during xylan backbone elongation. We place IRX9-L and IRX14-L in a genetic framework with six previously described glycosyltransferase genes (IRX9, IRX10, IRX10-L, IRX14, FRAGILE FIBER8 [FRA8], and FRA8 HOMOLOG [F8H]) and investigate their function in GX synthesis. Double-mutant analysis identifies IRX9-L and IRX14-L as functional homologs of IRX9 and IRX14, respectively. Characterization of irx9 irx10 irx14 fra8 and irx9-L irx10-L irx14-L f8h quadruple mutants allows definition of a set of genes comprising IRX9, IRX10, IRX14, and FRA8 that perform the main role in GX synthesis during vegetative development. The IRX9-L, IRX10-L, IRX14-L, and F8H genes are able to partially substitute for their respective homologs and normally perform a minor function. The irx14 irx14-L double mutant virtually lacks xylan, whereas irx9 irx9-L and fra8 f8h double mutants form lowered amounts of GX displaying a greatly reduced degree of backbone polymerization. Our findings reveal two distinct sets of four genes each differentially contributing to GX biosynthesis.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a putative 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The structures of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) pectin constituent are remarkably evolutionary conserved in all plant species. At least 12 different glycosyl residues are present in RG-II. Among them is the seldom eight-carbon sugar 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) whose biosynthetic pathway has been shown to be conserved between plants and Gram-negative bacteria. Kdo is formed in the cytosol by the condensation of phosphoenol pyruvate with d-arabinose-5-P and then activated by coupling to cytidine monophosphate (CMP) prior to its incorporation in the Golgi apparatus by a Kdo transferase (KDTA) into the nascent polysaccharide RG-II. To gain new insight into RG-II biosynthesis and function, we isolated and characterized null mutants for the unique putative KDTA (AtKDTA) encoded in the Arabidopsis genome. We provide evidence that, in contrast to mutants affecting the RG-II biosynthesis, the extinction of the AtKDTA gene expression does not result in any developmental phenotype in the AtkdtA plants. Furthermore, the structure of RG-II from the null mutants was not altered and contained wild-type amount of Rha-alpha(1-5)Kdo side chain. The cellular localization of AtKDTA was investigated by using laser scanning confocal imaging of the protein fused to green fluorescent protein. In agreement with its cellular prediction, the fusion protein was demonstrated to be targeted to the mitochondria. These data, together with data deduced from sequence analyses of higher plant genomes, suggest that AtKDTA encodes a putative KDTA involved in the synthesis of a mitochondrial not yet identified lipid A-like molecule rather than in the synthesis of the cell wall RG-II.
Related JoVE Video
Structural characterisation of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II using an acidic fingerprinting methodology.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is a structurally complex cell wall pectic polysaccharide. Despite its complexity, both the structure of RG-II and its ability to dimerise via a borate diester are conserved in vascular plants suggesting that RG-II has a fundamental role in primary cell wall organisation and function. The selection and analysis of new mutants affected in RG-II formation represents a promising strategy to unravel these functions and to identify genes encoding enzymes involved in RG-II biosynthesis. In this paper, a novel fingerprinting strategy is described for the screening of RG-II mutants based on the mild acid hydrolysis of RG-II coupled to the analysis of the resulting fragments by mass spectrometry. This methodology was developed using RG-II fractions isolated from citrus pectins and then validated for RG-II isolated from the Arabidopsis mur1 mutant and irx10 irx10-like double mutant.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of putative rhamnogalacturonan-II specific glycosyltransferases in Arabidopsis using a combination of bioinformatics approaches.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that is composed of an ?(1,4)-linked homogalacturonan backbone substituted with four side chains. It exists in the cell wall in the form of a dimer that is cross-linked by a borate di-ester. Despite its highly complex structure, RG-II is evolutionarily conserved in the plant kingdom suggesting that this polymer has fundamental functions in the primary wall organisation. In this study, we have set up a bioinformatics strategy aimed at identifying putative glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in RG-II biosynthesis. This strategy is based on the selection of candidate genes encoding type II membrane proteins that are tightly coexpressed in both rice and Arabidopsis with previously characterised genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of RG-II and exhibiting an up-regulation upon isoxaben treatment. This study results in the final selection of 26 putative Arabidopsis GTs, including 10 sequences already classified in the CAZy database. Among these CAZy sequences, the screening protocol allowed the selection of ?-galacturonosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of ?4-GalA oligogalacturonides present in both homogalacturonans and RG-II, and two sialyltransferase-like sequences previously proposed to be involved in the transfer of Kdo and/or Dha on the pectic backbone of RG-II. In addition, 16 non-CAZy GT sequences were retrieved in the present study. Four of them exhibited a GT-A fold. The remaining sequences harbored a GT-B like fold and a fucosyltransferase signature. Based on homologies with glycosyltransferases of known functions, putative roles in the RG-II biosynthesis are proposed for some GT candidates.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.