JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The identification of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid: influence of adiposity, metabolic markers, and gestational diabetes.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peripheral action of irisin improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure, with no data on a central role of irisin in metabolism. These studies sought to examine 1) presence of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and banked human hypothalamic tissue, 2) serum irisin in maternal subjects across varying adiposities with or without gestational diabetes (GDM), and 3) their respective neonate offspring. CSF, serum, and neonatal cord serum were collected from 91 pregnant women with and without GDM attending for an elective cesarean section [body mass index (BMI): 37.7 ± 7.6 kg/m(2); age: 32 ± 8.3 yr]. Irisin was assessed by ELISA and correlated with biochemical and anthropometric data. Irisin expression was examined in human hypothalamus by immunohistochemical staining. Serum irisin in pregnant women was significantly lower in nonobese compared with obese and GDM subjects, after adjusting for BMI, lipids, and glucose. Irisin was present in neonatal cord serum (237 ± 8 ng/ml) and maternal CSF (32 ± 1.5 ng/ml). CSF irisin correlated positively with serum irisin levels from nonobese and obese pregnant women (P < 0.01), with CSF irisin significantly raised in GDM subjects (P < 0.05). Irisin was present in human hypothalamic sections in the paraventricular neurons, colocalized with neuropeptide Y. Irisin was detectable in CSF and in paraventricular neurons. Maternal serum irisin was lower in nonobese pregnant women after adjusting for BMI and a number of metabolic parameters. These studies indicate that irisin may have a central role in metabolism in addition to the known peripheral role. Further studies investigating the central action of irisin in human metabolic disease are required.
Related JoVE Video
Irisin as a predictor of glucose metabolism in children: sexually dimorphic effects.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Irisin, a novel myokine, increases energy expenditure and glucose tolerance and, thus, improves carbohydrate homeostasis in humans. This hormone has potential therapeutic applications for weight loss and improvement in insulin resistance in subjects with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to associate circulating levels of irisin and several anthropometric and metabolic parameters among Arab children.
Related JoVE Video
NF?B as a potent regulator of inflammation in human adipose tissue, influenced by depot, adiposity, T2DM status, and TNF?
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Central obesity and sub-clinical inflammation increase metabolic risk, this study examined the intracellular inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue (AT) that contribute to this risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study therefore addressed the influence of NF?B and JNK activation in human abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) and omental (Om) AT, the effect of adiposity, T2DM status and the role of TNF? in vitro, using molecular biology techniques. RESULTS: Our data showed NF?B activity is increased in Om AT versus AbdSc AT (P<0.01), which was reversed with respect to depot specific activation of JNK (P<0.01). However, T2DM status appeared to preferentially activate NF?B (P<0.001) over JNK. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed recombinant human (rh) TNF? treated AbdSc adipocytes increased NF?B activity over time (2-48 h, P<0.05) whilst JNK activity reduced (2 h, 4 h, P<0.05); inhibitor studies supported a preferential role for NF?B as a modulator of TNF? secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest distinct changes in NF?B and JNK activation, dependent upon AT depot, adiposity and T2DM status, with in vitro use of rh TNF? leading to activation of NF?B. Consequently NF?B appears to play a central role in inflammatory mediated metabolic disease over JNK, highlighting NF?B as a potential key target for therapeutic intervention.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic endotoxaemia: is it more than just a gut feeling?
Curr. Opin. Lipidol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article reviews the evidence linking gut bacteria, endotoxin, and its circulating levels with inflammatory induced obesity and metabolic disease (metabolic endotoxaemia).
Related JoVE Video
High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state.
Related JoVE Video
GLP-1 analogue, Liraglutide protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against high glucose induced endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperglycemia induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic vascular cells is considered an increasingly important factor for the genesis and development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. This study investigated firstly, the effect of hyperglycemia in ER stress induction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and secondly, the impact of Glucagon like petide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, Liraglutide, in reducing ER stress in HUVECs exposed to high glucose (HG).
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for a shift to anaerobic metabolism in adipose tissue in efavirenz-containing regimens for HIV with different nucleoside backbones.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment has been associated with abnormalities in lipid and mitochondrial metabolism. We compared patterns of gene expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of HIV-positive subjects before and after 18-24 months of ARV therapy with HIV-negative controls.
Related JoVE Video
Visfatin is regulated by rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetes mellitus and influenced by NF?B and JNK in human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Visfatin has been proposed as an insulin-mimicking adipocytokine, predominantly secreted from adipose tissue and correlated with obesity. However, recent studies suggest visfatin may act as a proinflammatory cytokine. Our studies sought to determine the significance of this adipocytokine and its potential role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Firstly, we examined the effects of diabetic status on circulating visfatin levels, and several other adipocytokines, demonstrating that diabetic status increased visfatin*, TNF-?*** and IL-6*** compared with non-diabetic subjects (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, respectively). We then assessed the effects of an insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone (RSG), in treatment naïve T2DM subjects, on circulating visfatin levels. Our findings showed that visfatin was reduced post-RSG treatment [vs. pre-treatment (*p<0.05)] accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR**, thus implicating a role for insulin in visfatin regulation. Further studies addressed the intracellular mechanisms by which visfatin may be regulated, and may exert pro-inflammatory effects, in human abdominal subcutaneous (Abd Sc) adipocytes. Following insulin (Ins) and RSG treatment, our in vitro findings highlighted that insulin (100 nM), alone, upregulated visfatin protein expression whereas, in combination with RSG (10 nM), it reduced visfatin*, IKK?** and p-JNK1/2*. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK protein exacted a significant reduction in visfatin expression (**p<0.01), whilst NF-?B blockade increased visfatin (*p<0.05), thus identifying JNK as the more influential factor in visfatin regulation. Additional in vitro analysis on adipokines regulating visfatin showed that only Abd Sc adipocytes treated with recombinant human (rh)IL-6 increased visfatin protein (*p<0.05), whilst rh visfatin treatment, itself, had no influence on TNF-?, IL-6 or resistin secretion from Sc adipocytes. These data highlight visfatins regulation by insulin and RSG, potentially acting through NF-?B and JNK mechanisms, with only rh IL-6 modestly affecting visfatin regulation. Taken together, these findings suggest that visfatin may represent a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is influenced by insulin/insulin sensitivity via the NF-?B and JNK pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Acute and chronic saturated fatty acid treatment as a key instigator of the TLR-mediated inflammatory response in human adipose tissue, in vitro.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A post-prandial increase in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and glucose (Glc) activates an inflammatory response, which may be prolonged following restoration of physiological SFAs and Glc levels--a finding referred to as metabolic memory. This study examined chronic and oscillating SFAs and Glc on the inflammatory signalling pathway in human adipose tissue (AT) and adipocytes (Ads) and determined whether Ads are subject to "metabolic memory." Abdominal (Abd) subcutaneous (Sc) explants and Ads were treated with chronic low glucose (L-Glc): 5.6 mM and high glucose (H-Glc): 17.5 mM, with low (0.2 mM) and high (2 mM) SFA for 48 h. Abd Sc explants and Ads were also exposed to the aforementioned treatment regimen for 12-h periods, with alternating rest periods of 12 h in L-Glc. Chronic treatment with L-Glc and high SFAs, H-Glc and high SFAs up-regulated key factors of the nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) pathway in Abd Sc AT and Ads (TLR4, NF?B; P<.05), whilst down-regulating MyD88. Oscillating Glc and SFA concentrations increased TLR4, NF?B, IKK? (P<.05) in explants and Ads and up-regulated MyD88 expression (P<.05). Both tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 6 (P<.05) secretion were markedly increased in chronically treated Abd Sc explants and Ads whilst, with oscillating treatments, a sustained inflammatory effect was noted in absence of treatment. Therefore, SFAs may act as key instigators of the inflammatory response in human AT via NF?B activation, which suggests that short-term exposure of cells to uncontrolled levels of SFAs and Glc leads to a longer-term inflammatory insult within the Ad, which may have important implications for patients with obesity and Type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Adiposity and insulin resistance correlate with telomere length in middle-aged Arabs: the influence of circulating adiponectin.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging. In this study, we determined associations of chromosomal telomere length (TL) to markers of obesity and insulin resistance in middle-aged adult male and female Arabs with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2).
Related JoVE Video
Lipopolysaccharide, high glucose and saturated fatty acids induce endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured primary human adipocytes: Salicylate alleviates this stress.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent findings indicate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is significantly increased in adipose tissue of obese human subjects and is critical to the initiation and integration of pathways of inflammation and insulin action. But the factors inducing ER stress in human adipose tissue are unknown. The common factors increased in obesity and linked to insulin resistance are hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia and also endotoxemia. Therefore, our aims were to investigate: (1) the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), high glucose (HG) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) as inducers of ER stress in primary human adipocytes and (2) whether salicylate, a known anti-inflammatory compound, can alleviate this effect. Components of the ER stress pathways were studied in human abdominal subcutaneous (AbSc) adipose tissue (AT) from obese and lean. Following the culture and differentiation of primary human preadipocytes, these adipocytes were treated with LPS, HG, tunicamycin (Tun) and SFA either alone or in combination with sodium salicylate (Sal). Markers of ER stress were significantly increased in AbSc AT of obese. Differentiated human adipocytes treated with LPS, Tun, HG and SFA showed significant activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and their down-stream targets. Sal alleviated this effect and activated AktSer473 phosphorylation. This study presents important evidence that: (1) there is increased ER stress in adipose tissue of obese individuals, (2) LPS, hyperglycaemia and saturated fatty acids induce significant ER stress in primary human adipocytes and (3) this induction is alleviated by salicylate.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated endotoxin levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
J Inflamm (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emerging data indicate that gut-derived endotoxin may contribute to low-grade systemic inflammation in insulin resistant states. This study aimed to examine the importance of serum endotoxin and inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore the effect of treatment with a lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, on their inflammatory status.
Related JoVE Video
Ethnic and sex differences in circulating endotoxin levels: A novel marker of atherosclerotic and cardiovascular risk in a British multi-ethnic population.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating endotoxin levels are associated with atherosclerosis. Moreover, ethnic differences in pro-inflammatory markers may be associated with ethnic differences in atherosclerotic and cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in endotoxin levels in T2DM subjects on anti-diabetic therapies.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant factor in the development of obesity associated diabetes. This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of an adverse cytokine profile from adipose tissue.
Related JoVE Video
Increased circulating ANG II and TNF-? represents important risk factors in obese saudi adults with hypertension irrespective of diabetic status and BMI.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Central adiposity is a significant determinant of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the pathogenic inflammatory nature of the abdominal fat depot. However, the influence of pro-inflammatory adipokines on blood pressure in the obese hypertensive phenotype has not been well established in Saudi subjects. As such, our study investigated whether inflammatory factors may represent useful biomarkers to delineate hypertension risk in a Saudi cohort with and without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). Subjects were subdivided into four groups: healthy lean controls (age: 47.9±5.1 yr; BMI: 22.9±2.1 Kg/m(2)), non-hypertensive obese (age: 46.1±5.0 yr; BMI: 33.7±4.2 Kg/m(2)), hypertensive obese (age: 48.6±6.1 yr; BMI: 36.5±7.7 Kg/m(2)) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (age: 50.8±6.0 yr; BMI: 35.3±6.7 Kg/m(2)). Anthropometric data were collected from all subjects and fasting blood samples were utilized for biochemical analysis. Serum angiotensin II (ANG II) levels were elevated in hypertensive obese (p<0.05) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (p<0.001) compared with normotensive controls. Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with BMI (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.05), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), leptin (p<0.01), TNF-? (p<0.001) and ANG II (p<0.05). Associations between ANG II and TNF-? with systolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for BMI. Additionally CRP (p<0.05), leptin (p<0.001) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) were also significantly associated with the hypertension phenotype. In conclusion our data suggests that circulating pro-inflammatory adipokines, particularly ANG II and, TNF-?, represent important factors associated with a hypertension phenotype and may directly contribute to predicting and exacerbating hypertension risk.
Related JoVE Video
Does endotoxaemia contribute to osteoarthritis in obese patients?
Clin. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OA (osteoarthritis) is a degenerative condition associated with obesity. A number of metabolic explanations have been proposed to explain the association between obesity and OA in non-weight-bearing joints; however, none of these hypotheses have been demonstrated empirically. In the present Hypothesis article, we recognize that obesity is associated with compromised gut mucosa, translocation of microbiota and raised serum LPS (lipopolysaccharide). The consequent activation of the innate immune response leads to increased serum titres of inflammatory mediators in obese patients, with both local and systemic markers of inflammation associated with onset and progression of OA. Furthermore, a number of workers have shown that articular cartilage repair is impaired by a range of inflammatory mediators, both in vitro and in vivo. We propose that metabolic endotoxaemia, caused by impaired gastric mucosa and low-grade chronic inflammation, may contribute to the onset and progression of OA in obese patients. This may account for the association between obesity and OA at non-weight-bearing joints which cannot be explained by biomechanical factors.
Related JoVE Video
Telomere length attrition, a marker of biological senescence, is inversely correlated with triglycerides and cholesterol in South Asian males with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Exp Diabetes Res
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
South Asians have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) than white Caucasians, for a given BMI. Premature biological ageing, assessed by reduction in telomere length (TL), may be mediated by factors resulting from altered metabolic profiles associated with obesity. We hypothesise that ethnicity and metabolic status represent detrimental factors contributing to premature biological ageing. Therefore we assessed TL in two South Asian, age and BMI-matched cohorts [T2DM (n = 142) versus non-T2DM (n = 76)] to determine the effects of BMI, gender, lipid and CVD profile on biological ageing. Genomic DNA was obtained from the UKADS cohort; biochemical and anthropometric data was collected and TL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Our findings indicated a gender-specific effect with reduced TL in T2DM men compared with non-T2DM men (P = 0.006). Additionally, in T2DM men, TL was inversely correlated with triglycerides and total cholesterol (r = -0.419, P < 0.01; r = -0.443, P < 0.01). In summary, TL was reduced amongst South Asian T2DM men and correlated with triglycerides and total cholesterol. This study highlights enhanced biological ageing among South Asian, T2DM men, which appears to be tracked by changes in lipids and BMI, suggesting that raised lipids and BMI may directly contribute to premature ageing.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.