JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
'Functional' inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whilst under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training - 'functional' IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Prior to the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week programme of 'foundation' IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT [30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure (P0) per set, 2 sets.d, 6 d.wk]. The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase, consisted of 3-4 sessions.wk. In addition, the ICT group undertook four inspiratory-loaded core exercises [10 repetitions.set, 2 sets.d, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0] immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. Following the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (P<0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test performance (SEPT), respectively. Compared to CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the OBLA, and 1-hr running performance (3.04% vs 1.57%, P<0.05). The changes in these variables were inter-individually correlated (r?0.57, n=16, P<0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program upon endurance running performance, and that this may be underpinned by an improvement in running economy.
Related JoVE Video
Inspiratory Muscle Training Affects Proprioceptive Use and Low Back Pain.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have shown that individuals with recurrent non-specific low back pain (LBP) and healthy individuals breathing against an inspiratory load decrease their reliance on back proprioceptive signals in upright standing. Since individuals with LBP show a greater susceptibility to diaphragm fatigue, it is reasonable to hypothesize that LBP, diaphragm dysfunction and proprioceptive use may be interrelated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) affects proprioceptive use during postural control in individuals with LBP.
Related JoVE Video
Impaired postural control reduces sit-to-stand-to-sit performance in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Functional activities, such as the sit-to-stand-to-sit (STSTS) task, are often impaired in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The STSTS task places a high demand on the postural control system, which has been shown to be impaired in individuals with COPD. It remains unknown whether postural control deficits contribute to the decreased STSTS performance in individuals with COPD.
Related JoVE Video
Inspiratory muscle training protocol for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (IMTCO study): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been applied during pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it remains unclear if the addition of IMT to a general exercise training programme leads to additional clinically relevant improvements in patients with COPD. In this study, we will investigate whether the addition of IMT to a general exercise training programme improves 6 min walking distance, health-related quality of life, daily physical activity and inspiratory muscle function in patients with COPD with inspiratory muscle weakness.
Related JoVE Video
Greater diaphragm fatigability in individuals with recurrent low back pain.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The diaphragm plays an important role in spinal control. Increased respiratory demand compromises spinal control, especially in individuals with low back pain (LBP). The objective was to determine whether individuals with LBP exhibit greater diaphragm fatigability compared to healthy controls. Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressures (TwPdi) were recorded in 10 LBP patients and 10 controls, before and 20 and 45 min after inspiratory muscle loading (IML). Individuals with LBP showed a significantly decreased potentiated TwPdi, 20 min (-20%) (p=0.002) and 45 min (-17%) (p=0.006) after IML. No significant decline was observed in healthy individuals, 20 min (-9%) (p=0.662) and 45 min (-5%) (p=0.972) after IML. Diaphragm fatigue (TwPdi fall ? 10%) was present in 80% (20 min after IML) and 70% (45 min after IML) of the LBP patients compared to 40% (p=0.010) and 30% (p=0.005) of the controls, respectively. Individuals with LBP exhibit propensity for diaphragm fatigue, which was not observed in controls. An association with reduced spinal control warrants further study.
Related JoVE Video
Postural strategy and back muscle oxygenation during inspiratory muscle loading.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most healthy individuals show a multisegmental control strategy during challenging standing conditions, whereas others show a rigid ankle-steered strategy, which is assumed as suboptimal. Respiratory-demanding tasks exert a perturbing effect on balance, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) affects postural strategy, back muscle oxygenation, and blood volume during postural control.
Related JoVE Video
Proprioceptive changes impair balance control in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Balance deficits are identified as important risk factors for falling in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the specific use of proprioception, which is of primary importance during balance control, has not been studied in individuals with COPD. The objective was to determine the specific proprioceptive control strategy during postural balance in individuals with COPD and healthy controls, and to assess whether this was related to inspiratory muscle weakness.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of inspiratory muscle training on exercise tolerance in asthmatic individuals.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on exercise tolerance, inspiratory muscle fatigue, and the perception of dyspnea in asthmatic individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Biomechanical measurements of torsion-tension coupling in human cadaveric femurs.
J Biomech Eng
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanical behavior of human femurs has been described in the literature with regard to torsion and tension but only as independent measurements. However, in this study, human femurs were subjected to torsion to determine if a simultaneous axial tensile load was generated. Fresh frozen human femurs (n=25) were harvested and stripped of soft tissue. Each femur was mounted rigidly in a specially designed test jig and remained at a fixed axial length during all experiments. Femurs were subjected to external and internal rotation applied at a constant angulation rate of 0.1 deg/s to a maximum torque of 12?N?m. Applied torque and generated axial tension were monitored simultaneously. Outcome measurements were extracted from torsion-versus-tension graphs. There was a strong relationship between applied torsion and the resulting tension for external rotation tests (torsion/tension ratio=551.7±283.8?mm, R(2)=0.83±0.20, n=25), internal rotation tests (torsion/tension ratio=495.3±233.1?mm, R(2)=0.87±0.17, n=24), left femurs (torsion/tension ratio=542.2±262.4?mm, R(2)=0.88±0.13, n=24), and right femurs (torsion/tension ratio=506.7±260.0?mm, R(2)=0.82±0.22, n=25). No statistically significant differences were found for external versus internal rotation groups or for left versus right femurs when comparing torsion/tension ratios (p=0.85) or R(2) values (p=0.54). A strongly coupled linear relationship between torsion and tension for human femurs was exhibited. This suggests an interplay between these two factors during activities of daily living and injury processes.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea challenges identify previously undiagnosed elite athletes with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is increasing evidence to suggest many elite athletes fail to recognise and report symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), supporting the contention that athletes should be screened routinely for EIB.
Related JoVE Video
Acute cardiorespiratory responses to inspiratory pressure threshold loading.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We tested the acute responses to differing pressure threshold inspiratory loading intensities in well-trained rowers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 1) how the magnitude of inspiratory pressure threshold loading influences repetition maximum (RM), tidal volume (VT), and external work undertaken by the inspiratory muscle; and 2) whether the inspiratory muscle metaboreflex is activated during acute inspiratory pressure threshold loading.
Related JoVE Video
Inspiratory muscle training improves 100 and 200 m swimming performance.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated. Similarly, it is not known whether any ergogenic influence of IMT upon swimming performance is confined to specific race distances. To determine the influence of IMT upon swimming performance over 3 competitive distances, 16 competitive club-level swimmers were assigned at random to either an experimental (pressure threshold IMT) or sham IMT placebo control group. Participants performed a series of physiological and performance tests, before and following 6 weeks of IMT, including (1) an incremental swim test to the limit of tolerance to determine lactate, heart rate and perceived exertion responses; (2) standard measures of lung function (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak expiratory flow) and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP); and (3) 100, 200 and 400 m swim time trials. Training utilised a hand-held pressure threshold device and consisted of 30 repetitions, twice per day. Relative to control, the IMT group showed the following percentage changes in swim times: 100 m, -1.70% (90% confidence limits, +/-1.4%), 200 m, -1.5% (+/-1.0), and 400 m, 0.6% (+/-1.2). Large effects were observed for MIP and rates of perceived exertion. In conclusion, 6 weeks of IMT has a small positive effect on swimming performance in club-level trained swimmers in events shorter than 400 m.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of different breathing frequencies on the severity of inspiratory muscle fatigue induced by high-intensity front crawl swimming.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of 2 different breathing frequencies on the magnitude of inspiratory muscle fatigue after high-intensity front crawl swimming. The influence of different breathing frequencies on postexercise blood lactate ([La]) and heart rate (HR) was also examined. Ten collegiate swimmers performed 2 x 200-m front crawl swims at 90% of race pace with the following breathing frequencies: 1) 1 breath every second stroke (B2), and 2) 1 breath every fourth stroke (B4). Maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) was measured at the mouth from residual volume before (baseline) and after swimming, in a standing position. The HR and [La] were assessed at rest and immediately at the cessation of swimming. The PImax decreased by 21% after B4 and by 11% after B2 compared with baseline (p < 0.05). The [La] was lower by 15% after B4 than after B2 (p < 0.05). The HR was not significantly different between B2 and B4. These data suggest that there is significant global inspiratory muscle fatigue after high-intensity swimming. Inspiratory muscle fatigue is, however, greater when breathing frequency is reduced during high-intensity front crawl swimming. Respiratory muscle training should be used to improve respiratory muscle strength and endurance in swimmers.
Related JoVE Video
Acute effects of inspiratory pressure threshold loading upon airway resistance in people with asthma.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Large inspiratory pressures may impart stretch to airway smooth muscle and modify the response to deep inspiration (DI) in asthmatics. Respiratory system resistance (Rrs) was assessed in response to 5 inspiratory manoeuvres using the forced oscillation technique: (a) single unloaded DI; (b) single DI at 25 cmH(2)O; (c) single DI at 50% maximum inspiratory mouth pressure [MIP]; (d) 30 DIs at 50% MIP; and (e) 30 DIs at 50% MIP with maintenance of normocapnia. Rrs increased after the unloaded DI and the DI at 25 cmH(2)O but not after a DI at 50% MIP (3.6+/-1.6 hPa Ls(-1) vs. 3.6+/-1.5 hPa Ls(-1); p=0.95), 30 DIs at 50% MIP (3.9+/-1.5 hPa Ls(-1) vs. 4.2+/-2.0 hPa Ls(-1); p=0.16) or 30 DIs at 50% MIP under normocapnic conditions (3.9+/-1.5 hPa Ls(-1) vs. 3.9+/-1.5 hPa Ls(-1); p=0.55). Increases in Rrs in response to DI were attenuated after single and multiple loaded breaths at 50% MIP.
Related JoVE Video
The assessment of inspiratory muscle fatigue in healthy individuals: a systematic review.
Respir Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) may contribute to the development of exercise limitation and respiratory failure. Identifying fatigue of the inspiratory muscles requires a rigorous and integrative methodological approach. However, there is no consensus about an optimal protocol to induce and assess the fatigability of the inspiratory muscles. A systematic review was performed to identify, evaluate, and summarize the literature related to the assessment of induced IMF in healthy individuals. The aim was to identify factors that are related consistently to IMF, as well as to suggest possible assessment methods. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles until February 2012. Only studies with a quantitative description of assessment and outcome were included. The search yielded 460 citations and a total of 77 studies were included. Inspiratory muscle fatigue was produced acutely by inspiratory resistive loading (IRL), whole body exercise (WBE), hyperpnea, or WBE combined with IRL, and under normocapnic, hypoxic or hypercapnic conditions. To detect IMF, most studies (64%) used phrenic nerve stimulation, 44% used a maximal voluntary inspiratory maneuver and the remainder used electromyography. The heterogeneity of the published reports precluded a quantitative analysis. Inspiratory resistive loadings at intensities of 60-80% of maximum, and cycling at 85% of maximum were found to produce IMF most consistently. Hypoxic or hypercapnic conditions, and WBE combined with IRL, exacerbated IMF. The specific outcome measures employed to detect IMF, the magnitude of their change, as well as their functional significance, are ultimately dependent upon the research question being addressed.
Related JoVE Video
A preliminary biomechanical study of cyclic preconditioning effects on canine cadaveric whole femurs.
J Biomech Eng
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biomechanical preconditioning of biological specimens by cyclic loading is routinely done presumably to stabilize properties prior to the main phase of a study. However, no prior studies have actually measured these effects for whole bone of any kind. The aim of this study, therefore, was to quantify these effects for whole bones. Fourteen matched pairs of fresh-frozen intact cadaveric canine femurs were sinusoidally loaded in 4-point bending from 50 N to 300 N at 1 Hz for 25 cycles. All femurs were tested in both anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) bending planes. Bending stiffness (i.e., slope of the force-vs-displacement curve) and linearity R(2) (i.e., coefficient of determination) of each loading cycle were measured and compared statistically to determine the effect of limb side, cycle number, and bending plane. Stiffnesses rose from 809.7 to 867.7 N/mm (AP, left), 847.3 to 915.6 N/mm (AP, right), 829.2 to 892.5 N/mm (AP, combined), 538.7 to 580.4 N/mm (ML, left), 568.9 to 613.8 N/mm (ML, right), and 553.8 to 597.1 N/mm (ML, combined). Linearity R(2) rose from 0.96 to 0.99 (AP, left), 0.97 to 0.99 (AP, right), 0.96 to 0.99 (AP, combined), 0.95 to 0.98 (ML, left), 0.94 to 0.98 (ML, right), and 0.95 to 0.98 (ML, combined). Stiffness and linearity R(2) versus cycle number were well-described by exponential curves whose values leveled off, respectively, starting at 12 and 5 cycles. For stiffness, there were no statistical differences for left versus right femurs (p?=?0.166), but there were effects due to cycle number (p?
Related JoVE Video
The influence of rowing-related postures upon respiratory muscle pressure and flow generating capacity.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During the rowing stroke, the respiratory muscles are responsible for postural control, trunk stabilisation, generation/transmission of propulsive forces and ventilation (Bierstacker et al. in Int J Sports Med 7:73-79, 1986; Mahler et al. in Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:186-193, 1991). The challenge of these potentially competing requirements is exacerbated in certain parts of the rowing stroke due to flexed (stroke catch) and extended postures (stroke finish). The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the postural role of the trunk muscles upon pressure and flow generating capacity, by measuring maximal respiratory pressures, flows, and volumes in various seated postures relevant to rowing. Eleven male and five female participants took part in the study. Participants performed two separate testing sessions using two different testing protocols. Participants performed either maximal inspiratory or expiratory mouth pressure manoeuvres (Protocol 1), or maximal flow volume loops (MFVLs) (Protocol 2), whilst maintaining a variety of specified supported or unsupported static rowing-related postures. Starting lung volume was controlled by initiating the test breath in the upright position. Respiratory mouth pressures tended to be lower with recumbency, with a significant decrease in P (Emax) in unsupported recumbent postures (3-9 % compared to upright seated; P = 0.036). There was a significant decrease in function during dynamic manoeuvres, including PIF (5-9 %), FVC (4-7 %) and FEV(1) (4-6 %), in unsupported recumbent postures (p < 0.0125; Bonferroni corrected). Thus, respiratory pressure and flow generating capacity tended to decrease with recumbency; since lung volumes were standardised, this may have been, at least in part, influenced by the postural co-contraction of the trunk muscles.
Related JoVE Video
Respiratory-related limitations in physically demanding occupations.
Aviat Space Environ Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Respiratory muscle work limits high-intensity exercise tolerance in healthy human beings. Emerging evidence suggests similar limitations exist during submaximal work in some physically demanding occupations. In an occupational setting, heavy loads are routinely carried upon the trunk in the form of body armor, backpacks, and/or compressed air cylinders by military, emergency service, and mountain rescue personnel. This personal and respiratory protective equipment impairs respiratory muscle function and increases respiratory muscle work. More specifically, thoracic load carriage induces a restrictive ventilatory limitation which increases the elastic work of breathing, rendering the respiratory muscles vulnerable to fatigue and inducing a concomitant reduction in exercise tolerance. Similarly, breathing apparatus worn by occupational personnel, including fire fighters and military and commercial divers, increases the inspiratory elastic and expiratory resistive work of breathing, precipitating significant inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue and a reduction in exercise tolerance. An argument is presented that the unique respiratory challenges encountered in some occupational settings require further research, since these may affect the operational effectiveness and the health and safety of personnel working in physically demanding occupations.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.