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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The human embryonic stem cell proteome revealed by multidimensional fractionation followed by tandem mass spectrometry.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have received considerable attention due to their therapeutic potential and their usefulness in understanding early development and cell fate commitment. In order to appreciate the unique properties of these pluripotent, self-renewing cells, we have performed an in-depth multidimensional fractionation followed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the hESCs harvested from defined media to elucidate expressed, phosphorylated, O-GlcNAc modified, and secreted proteins. From the triplicate analysis, we were able to assign more than 3000 proteins with less than 1% false-discovery rate. This analysis also allowed us to identify nearly 500 phosphorylation sites and 68 sites of O-GlcNAc modification with the same high confidence. Investigation of the phosphorylation sites allowed us to deduce the set of kinases that are likely active in these cells. We also identified more than 100 secreted proteins of hESCs that likely play a role in extracellular matrix formation and remodeling, as well as autocrine signaling for self-renewal and maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Finally, by performing in-depth analysis in triplicate, spectral counts were obtained for these proteins and post-translationally modified peptides, which will allow us to perform relative quantitative analysis between these cells and any derived cell type in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Dynamic chromatin remodeling mediated by polycomb proteins orchestrates pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Embryonic development is characterized by dynamic changes in gene expression, yet the role of chromatin remodeling in these cellular transitions remains elusive. To address this question, we profiled the transcriptome and select chromatin modifications at defined stages during pancreatic endocrine differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. We identify removal of Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated repression on stage-specific genes as a key mechanism for the induction of developmental regulators. Furthermore, we discover that silencing of transitory genes during lineage progression associates with reinstatement of PcG-dependent repression. Significantly, in vivo- but not in vitro-differentiated endocrine cells exhibit close similarity to primary human islets in regard to transcriptome and chromatin structure. We further demonstrate that endocrine cells produced in vitro do not fully eliminate PcG-mediated repression on endocrine-specific genes, probably contributing to their malfunction. These studies reveal dynamic chromatin remodeling during developmental lineage progression and identify possible strategies for improving cell differentiation in culture.
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Bioactive diterpenoid containing a reversible "spring-loaded" (E,Z)-dieneone Michael acceptor.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Three new briarane diterpenoids, briareolate esters L-N (1-3), have been isolated from a gorgonian Briareum asbestinum. Briareolate esters L (1) and M (2) are the first natural products possessing a 10-membered macrocyclic ring with a (E,Z)-dieneone and exhibit growth inhibition activity against both human embryonic stem cells (BG02) and a pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). Briareolate ester L (1) was found to contain a "spring-loaded" (E,Z)-dieneone Michael acceptor group that can form a reversible covalent bond to model sulfur-based nucleophiles.
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Evolutionarily conserved replication timing profiles predict long-range chromatin interactions and distinguish closely related cell types.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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To identify evolutionarily conserved features of replication timing and their relationship to epigenetic properties, we profiled replication timing genome-wide in four human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, hESC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), lymphoblastoid cells, and two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (hiPSCs), and compared them with related mouse cell types. Results confirm the conservation of coordinately replicated megabase-sized "replication domains" punctuated by origin-suppressed regions. Differentiation-induced replication timing changes in both species occur in 400- to 800-kb units and are similarly coordinated with transcription changes. A surprising degree of cell-type-specific conservation in replication timing was observed across regions of conserved synteny, despite considerable species variation in the alignment of replication timing to isochore GC/LINE-1 content. Notably, hESC replication timing profiles were significantly more aligned to mouse epiblast-derived stem cells (mEpiSCs) than to mouse ESCs. Comparison with epigenetic marks revealed a signature of chromatin modifications at the boundaries of early replicating domains and a remarkably strong link between replication timing and spatial proximity of chromatin as measured by Hi-C analysis. Thus, early and late initiation of replication occurs in spatially separate nuclear compartments, but rarely within the intervening chromatin. Moreover, cell-type-specific conservation of the replication program implies conserved developmental changes in spatial organization of chromatin. Together, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved aspects of developmentally regulated replication programs in mammals, demonstrate the power of replication profiling to distinguish closely related cell types, and strongly support the hypothesis that replication timing domains are spatially compartmentalized structural and functional units of three-dimensional chromosomal architecture.
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Briareolate esters from the gorgonian Briareum asbestinum.
Mar Drugs
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Two new briarane diterpenoids briareolate esters J (1) and K (2) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the octocoral Briareum asbestinum collected off the coast of Boca Raton, Florida. The structures of briaranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Briareolate ester K (2) showed weak growth inhibition activity against human embryonic stem cells (BG02).
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A scalable system for production of functional pancreatic progenitors from human embryonic stem cells.
PLoS ONE
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Development of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapy for type 1 diabetes will require the translation of proof-of-principle concepts into a scalable, controlled, and regulated cell manufacturing process. We have previously demonstrated that hESC can be directed to differentiate into pancreatic progenitors that mature into functional glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting cells in vivo. In this study we describe hESC expansion and banking methods and a suspension-based differentiation system, which together underpin an integrated scalable manufacturing process for producing pancreatic progenitors. This system has been optimized for the CyT49 cell line. Accordingly, qualified large-scale single-cell master and working cGMP cell banks of CyT49 have been generated to provide a virtually unlimited starting resource for manufacturing. Upon thaw from these banks, we expanded CyT49 for two weeks in an adherent culture format that achieves 50-100 fold expansion per week. Undifferentiated CyT49 were then aggregated into clusters in dynamic rotational suspension culture, followed by differentiation en masse for two weeks with a four-stage protocol. Numerous scaled differentiation runs generated reproducible and defined population compositions highly enriched for pancreatic cell lineages, as shown by examining mRNA expression at each stage of differentiation and flow cytometry of the final population. Islet-like tissue containing glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting cells was generated upon implantation into mice. By four- to five-months post-engraftment, mature neo-pancreatic tissue was sufficient to protect against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia. In summary, we have developed a tractable manufacturing process for the generation of functional pancreatic progenitors from hESC on a scale amenable to clinical entry.
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Bicyclic C21 terpenoids from the marine sponge Clathria compressa.
J. Nat. Prod.
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Three new bicyclic C(21) terpenoids, clathric acid (1) and two N-acyl taurine derivatives, clathrimides A (2) and B (3), were isolated from the marine sponge Clathria compressa. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Clathric acid showed mild antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.