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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A qualitative study to develop a patient-reported outcome for dysmenorrhea.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Dysmenorrhea refers to the experience of pelvic pain/cramps experienced by women around or during menstruation. A literature review indicated that no existing patient-reported outcome measure was adequate to support labeling claims in dysmenorrhea. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a new measure that could be used as a primary end point in dysmenorrhea clinical trials.
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis: 23 years' paediatric experience highlights severe long-term sequelae.
Scott Med J
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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To review the presentation and outcome of patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis attending The Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow over a 23-year period.
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Regulatory T cells modulate granulomatous inflammation in an HLA-DP2 transgenic murine model of beryllium-induced disease.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Susceptibility to chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is linked to certain HLA-DP molecules, including HLA-DP2. To elucidate the molecular basis of this association, we exposed mice transgenic (Tg) for HLA-DP2 to beryllium oxide (BeO) via oropharyngeal aspiration. As opposed to WT mice, BeO-exposed HLA-DP2 Tg mice developed mononuclear infiltrates in a peribronchovascular distribution that were composed of CD4(+) T cells and included regulatory T (Treg) cells. Beryllium-responsive, HLA-DP2-restricted CD4(+) T cells expressing IFN-? and IL-2 were present in BeO-exposed HLA-DP2 Tg mice and not in WT mice. Using Be-loaded HLA-DP2-peptide tetramers, we identified Be-specific CD4(+) T cells in the mouse lung that recognize identical ligands as CD4(+) T cells derived from the human lung. Importantly, a subset of HLA-DP2 tetramer-binding CD4(+) T cells expressed forkhead box P3, consistent with the expansion of antigen-specific Treg cells. Depletion of Treg cells in BeO-exposed HLA-DP2 Tg mice exacerbated lung inflammation and enhanced granuloma formation. These findings document, for the first time to our knowledge, the development of a Be-specific adaptive immune response in mice expressing HLA-DP2 and the ability of Treg cells to modulate the beryllium-induced granulomatous immune response.
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Play caging benefits the behavior of singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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This study addresses a recommendation in The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to provide singly housed nonhuman primates with intermittent access to large, enriched (play) caging. Research on the potential benefits of this type of caging is limited. The present study examines the effects of play caging on behavior, activity, and enrichment use. Singly housed, adult male, rhesus macaques (n = 10) underwent a baseline phase in their home cages, a 2-wk treatment phase with housing in play cages, and a posttreatment phase after returning to their home cages. Each subject underwent focal behavioral observations (n = 10; duration 30 min each) during each study phase, for a total of 150 h of data collection. Results showed increases in locomotion and enrichment use and a trend toward decreased abnormal behavior while subjects were in the play cage, with the durations of these behaviors returning to baseline levels after treatment. Anxiety-related behaviors decreased between the treatment and posttreatment phases but not between baseline and treatment, suggesting that outside factors may have influenced the decline. During the treatment phase, subjects spent more time in the upper quadrants of the play caging and preferred a mirror and forage boards as forms of enrichment. The greatest behavioral improvement occurred during the first week in the play cage. This study provides evidence to support the benefits of play caging for singly housed rhesus macaques.
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Analysis of aprepitant for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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This study aimed to determine how aprepitant affects the impact of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) on daily activities during highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC).
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Bone mineral density in HIV participants randomized to raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir compared with standard second line therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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To compare changes over 48 weeks in bone mineral density (BMD) between participants randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + raltegravir (RAL) or LPV/r + 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTIs) as second line therapy.
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Impaired function of CTLA-4 in the lungs of patients with chronic beryllium disease contributes to persistent inflammation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is an occupational lung disorder characterized by granulomatous inflammation and the accumulation of beryllium-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the lung. These differentiated effector memory T cells secrete IL-2, IFN-?, and TNF-? upon in vitro activation. Beryllium-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the lung are CD28 independent and have increased expression of the coinhibitory receptor, programmed death 1, resulting in Ag-specific T cells that proliferate poorly yet retain the ability to express Th1-type cytokines. To further investigate the role of coinhibitory receptors in the beryllium-induced immune response, we examined the expression of CTLA-4 in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage cells from subjects with CBD. CTLA-4 expression was elevated on CD4(+) T cells from the lungs of study subjects compared with blood. Furthermore, CTLA-4 expression was greatest in the beryllium-responsive subset of CD4(+) T cells that retained the ability to proliferate and express IL-2. Functional assays show that the induction of CTLA-4 signaling in blood cells inhibited beryllium-induced T cell proliferation while having no effect on the proliferative capacity of beryllium-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the lung. Collectively, our findings suggest a dysfunctional CTLA-4 pathway in the lung and its potential contribution to the persistent inflammatory response that characterizes CBD.
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HIV Lipodystrophy in Participants Randomised to Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) +2-3 Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (N(t)RTI) or LPV/r + Raltegravir as Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To compare changes over 48 weeks in body fat, lipids, Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk between patients randomised 1?1 to lopinavir/ritonavir (r/LPV) plus raltegravir (RAL) compared to r/LPV plus 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTIs) as second-line therapy.
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Predictors of limb fat gain in HIV positive patients following a change to tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2011
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Antiretroviral treatment (cART) in HIV causes lipoatrophy. We examined predictors of anthropometric outcomes over 96 weeks in HIV-infected, lipoatrophic adults receiving stable cART randomised to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC-3TC) fixed dose combinations.
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Beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in blood as a biomarker of disease progression.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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CD4(+) T cells are responsible for the progressive lung damage seen in patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomatous lung disorder in which antigen-specific, T(H)1-type, cytokine-secreting T cells have been characterized. Compared with those seen in beryllium (Be)-sensitized subjects, increased numbers of Be-responsive T cells are present in the blood of patients with CBD.
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Functional analysis and treatment of human-directed undesirable behavior exhibited by a captive chimpanzee.
J Appl Behav Anal
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further demonstrate the utility of function-based approaches to assess and treat behavior problems exhibited by captive animals.
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Effects of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles on bacterial growth and viability.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Interest in engineered nanostructures has risen in recent years due to their use in energy conservation strategies and biomedicine. To ensure prudent development and use of nanomaterials, the fate and effects of such engineered structures on the environment should be understood. Interactions of nanomaterials with environmental microorganisms are inevitable, but the general consequences of such interactions remain unclear, due to a lack of standard methods for assessing such interactions. Therefore, we have initiated a multianalytical approach to understand the interactions of synthesized nanoparticles with bacterial systems. These efforts are focused initially on cerium oxide nanoparticles and model bacteria in order to evaluate characterization procedures and the possible fate of such materials in the environment. The growth and viability of the Gram-negative species Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacterium, and the Gram-positive species Bacillus subtilis were examined relative to cerium oxide particle size, growth media, pH, and dosage. A hydrothermal synthesis approach was used to prepare cerium oxide nanoparticles of defined sizes in order to eliminate complications originating from the use of organic solvents and surfactants. Bactericidal effects were determined from MIC and CFU measurements, disk diffusion tests, and live/dead assays. For E. coli and B. subtilis, clear strain- and size-dependent inhibition was observed, whereas S. oneidensis appeared to be unaffected by the particles. Transmission electron microscopy along with microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to understand the response mechanism of the bacteria. Use of multiple analytical approaches adds confidence to toxicity assessments, while the use of different bacterial systems highlights the potential wide-ranging effects of nanomaterial interactions in the environment.
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Abacavir does not affect circulating levels of inflammatory or coagulopathic biomarkers in suppressed HIV: a randomized clinical trial.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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The Simplification of antiretroviral therapy with Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Abacavir-Lamivudine trial (STEAL) study randomized HIV participants to switch existing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) to either abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC; n = 179) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC; n = 178). An increased risk in cardiovascular disease (CVD) was reported (hazard ratio 7.7, P = 0.048) in ABC/3TC recipients compared with TDF/FTC in the STEAL study. The impact of ABC/3TC treatment on a range of CVD and inflammatory biomarkers was explored.
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Simplification of antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-Lamivudine: a randomized, 96-week trial.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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There are 2 once-daily, fixed-dose-combination, dual-nucleoside analogue tablets: tenofovir 300 mg-emtricitabine 200 mg (TDF-FTC) and abacavir 600 mg-lamivudine 300 mg (ABC-3TC). Which fixed-dose-combination tablet is more effective and safe is uncertain.
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Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular consequences of  HIV infection and antiretroviral  therapy.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Metabolic disturbances associated with HIV disease have become an important factor in patient management and have important implications for long-term outcomes, both in regards to mortality and healthcare burden. Recent research has implicated both HIV infection itself and specific antiretroviral therapies in the development of these disorders. This review examines recent findings from research into insulin and glucose dysregulation, serum lipid abnormalities, adipose tissue and derangements in bone metabolism. This review then describes the cardiovascular consequences and management of these metabolic disorders, and summarizes current thinking on the pathogenesis and effects of antiretroviral therapy. Finally, the review raises some questions regarding ongoing challenges and unmet needs in this field of research.
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Positive reinforcement training to enhance the voluntary movement of group-housed sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys).
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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Positive reinforcement training (PRT) has successfully been used to train diverse species to execute behaviors helpful in the everyday care and wellbeing of the animals. Because little information is available about training sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys), we analyzed PRT with a group of 30 adult males as they were trained to shift from 1 side of their enclosure to the other. Over a 4-mo period we conducted 57 training sessions totaling 26.5 h of training and recorded compliance information. During training, compliance increased from 76% of the animals during the first 5 training sessions to 86% of the animals shifting during the last 5 sessions. This result indicated progress but fell short of our goal of 90% compliance. After 25 training sessions, problem-solving techniques were applied to help the consistently noncompliant animals become more proficient. The techniques included reducing social stress by shifting animals so that noncompliant monkeys could shift into an unoccupied space, using more highly preferred foods, and jackpot-sized reinforcement. To determine whether social rank affected training success, animals were categorized into high, medium, and low dominance groups, based on 7 h of behavioral observations. A Kruskal-Wallis test result indicated a significant difference in compliance according to the category of dominance. Although training a group this large proved challenging, the mangabeys cooperated more than 90% of the time during follow-up sessions. The training program improved efficiency in caring for the mangabeys.
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Correlates of functional impairment in treatment-seeking survivors of mass terrorism.
Behav Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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This study sought to identify variables associated with functional impairment in persons exposed to terrorism. A sample of adults who sought treatment for psychological distress related to the 2001 World Trade Center attack completed standardized self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, expectancies of ability to regulate negative moods, interpersonal problems, and social-occupational impairment. A multiple regression analysis found that PTSD numbing symptoms, beliefs about the ability to regulate negative moods, feelings of social discomfort and expectations of being disliked, income level, and relationship status significantly predicted 58% of the variance in social-occupational impairment. The results suggest that treatments targeting PTSD numbing symptoms as well as maladaptive expectations about social interactions and ones ability to manage negative affect may have utility for persons adversely affected by mass violence.
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Predictors of attrition and weight loss success: Results from a randomized controlled trial.
Behav Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Attrition is a common problem in weight loss trials. The present analysis examined several baseline and early-treatment process variables, as predictors of attrition and outcome in a clinical trial that combined pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy for weight loss. Participants were 224 obese adults who were treated with sibutramine alone, lifestyle modification alone, combined therapy, or sibutramine plus brief lifestyle modification. Predictors included baseline characteristics (e.g., demographic, weight-related, psychological, and consumption-related variables), plus attendance, adherence, and weight loss in the early weeks of treatment. Outcomes were attrition and weight loss success (i.e., >or=5% reduction in body weight) at 1 year. Multivariable models, adjusting for other relevant variables, found that younger age and greater baseline depressive symptoms were related to increased odds of attrition (ps
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Adiponectin isoform distribution in women--relationship to female sex steroids and insulin sensitivity.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Little is known about the associations between adiponectin and its oligomeric isoforms with female sex steroids, and the relevance of these relationships to insulin sensitivity in women. In a cross-sectional study of 32 healthy women (12 premenopausal, 10 postmenopausal, and 10 early pregnant), we investigated the correlations of total adiponectin and the high-, medium-, and low-molecular weight oligomers (HMW, MMW, and LMW, respectively) with estrogen, progesterone, adiposity, and insulin resistance. Fat mass and serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, insulin, glucose, and total and isoform adiponectin were measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Serum concentrations of total and HMW adiponectin were highest in postmenopausal women and lowest in pregnant women. Concentrations of the MMW and LMW isoforms were not significantly different between the 3 groups. Total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin, and MMW adiponectin were negatively associated with estradiol and progesterone; but no associations between the LMW isoform and female sex steroids were observed. Fat mass and HOMA-IR were highest in pregnant women and lowest in premenopausal women. The HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass, estradiol, and progesterone, and negatively associated with total, HMW, and MMW adiponectin. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that fat mass explained 34% of the variance in HOMA-IR and that total and isoform adiponectin contributed an additional 10% to 15%. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, there were significant interactions of estradiol and progesterone with adiponectin or fat mass in the associations with HOMA-IR. In conclusion, there are strong negative associations of serum adiponectin and some of its isoforms with estradiol and progesterone. Female sex steroids are likely to affect insulin sensitivity through modulation of adiponectin and body fat.
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The influence of HLA supertype on thymidine analogue associated with low peripheral fat in HIV.
AIDS
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To examine the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype and body composition changes induced by thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI) use in HIV-positive individuals.
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Tyrosine kinase pathways modulate tumor susceptibility to natural killer cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
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Natural killer (NK) cells are primary effectors of innate immunity directed against transformed tumor cells. In response, tumor cells have developed mechanisms to evade NK cell-mediated lysis through molecular mechanisms that are not well understood. In the present study, we used a lentiviral shRNA library targeting more than 1,000 human genes to identify 83 genes that promote target cell resistance to human NK cell-mediated killing. Many of the genes identified in this genetic screen belong to common signaling pathways; however, none of them have previously been known to modulate susceptibility of human tumor cells to immunologic destruction. Gene silencing of two members of the JAK family (JAK1 and JAK2) increased the susceptibility of a variety of tumor cell types to NK-mediated lysis and induced increased secretion of IFN-? by NK cells. Treatment of tumor cells with JAK inhibitors also increased susceptibility to NK cell activity. These findings may have important clinical implications and suggest that small molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases being developed as therapeutic antitumor agents may also have significant immunologic effects in vivo.
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Energy content of weight loss: kinetic features during voluntary caloric restriction.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
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The classic rule stating that restricting intake by 3500 kcal/wk will lead to a 1-lb/wk rate of weight loss has come under intense scrutiny. Generally not a component of most weight loss prediction models, the "early" rapid weight loss phase may represent a period during which the energy content of weight change (?EC/?W) is low and thus does not follow the classic "rule." The current study tested this hypothesis. Dynamic ?EC/?W changes were examined in 23 Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy Study overweight men and women evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry during weight loss at treatment weeks 4 to 24. Changes from baseline in body energy content were estimated from fat and fat-free mass. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine if ?EC/?W changed significantly over time. The evaluation was expanded with addition of the Kiel 13-week weight loss study of 75 obese men and women to test with adequate power if there are sex differences in ?EC/?W. The analysis of variance CALERIE time effect was significant (P < .001), with post hoc tests indicating that ?EC/?W (kilocalories per kilogram) increased significantly from week 4 (X ± SEM; 4, 858 ± 388) to 6 (6, 041 ± 376, P < .01) and changed insignificantly thereafter; ?EC/?W was significantly larger for Kiel women (6, 804 ± 226) vs men (6, 119 ± 240, P < .05). Sex-specific dynamic relative changes in body composition and related ?EC/?W occur with weight loss initiation that extend for 1 month or more. These observations provide new information for developing energy balance models and further define limitations of the 3500-kcal energy deficit ? 1-lb weight loss rule.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.