Preservation of beta cell against apoptosis is one of the therapeutic benefits of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) antidiabetic mimetics for preserving the functional beta cell mass exposed to diabetogenic condition including proinflammatory cytokines. The mitogen activated protein kinase 10 also called c-jun amino-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) plays a protective role in insulin-secreting cells against death caused by cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether the JNK3 expression is associated with the protective effect elicited by the GLP1 mimetic exendin 4. We found an increase in the abundance of JNK3 in isolated human islets and INS-1E cells cultured with exendin 4. Induction of JNK3 by exendin 4 was associated with an increased survival of INS-1E cells. Silencing of JNK3 prevented the cytoprotective effect of exendin 4 against apoptosis elicited by culture condition and cytokines. These results emphasize the requirement of JNK3 in the antiapoptotic effects of exendin 4.
Pancreatic beta-cell function and mass are markedly adaptive to compensate for the changes in insulin requirement observed during several situations such as pregnancy, obesity, glucocorticoids excess, or administration. This requires a beta-cell compensation which is achieved through a gain of beta-cell mass and function. Elucidating the physiological mechanisms that promote functional beta-cell mass expansion and that protect cells against death, is a key therapeutic target for diabetes. In this respect, several recent studies have emphasized the instrumental role of microRNAs in the control of beta-cell function. MicroRNAs are negative regulators of gene expression, and are pivotal for the control of beta-cell proliferation, function, and survival. On the one hand, changes in specific microRNA levels have been associated with beta-cell compensation and are triggered by hormones or bioactive peptides that promote beta-cell survival and function. Conversely, modifications in the expression of other specific microRNAs contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and death elicited by diabetogenic factors including, cytokines, chronic hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidized LDL. This review underlines the importance of targeting the microRNA network for future innovative therapies aiming at preventing the beta-cell decline in diabetes.
Insulin production and secretion are temporally regulated. Keeping insulin secretion at rest after a rise of glucose prevents exhaustion and ultimately failure of ?-cells. Among the mechanisms that reduce ?-cell activity is the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER). ICER is an immediate early gene, which is rapidly induced by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling cascade. The seminal function of ICER is to negatively regulate the production and secretion of insulin by repressing the genes expression. This is part of adaptive response required for proper ?-cells function in response to environmental factors. Inappropriate induction of ICER accounts for pancreatic ?-cells dysfunction and ultimately death elicited by chronic hyperglycemia, fatty acids, and oxidized LDL. This review underlines the importance of balancing the negative regulation achieved by ICER for preserving ?-cell function and survival in diabetes.
Connexin36 (Cx36), a trans-membrane protein that forms gap junctions between insulin-secreting beta-cells in the Langerhans islets, contributes to the proper control of insulin secretion and beta-cell survival. Hypercholesterolemia and pro-atherogenic low density lipoproteins (LDL) contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in the context of Type 2 diabetes. We investigated the impact of LDL-cholesterol on Cx36 levels in beta-cells. As compared to WT mice, the Cx36 content was reduced in islets from hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- mice. Prolonged exposure to human native (nLDL) or oxidized LDL (oxLDL) particles decreased the expression of Cx36 in insulin secreting cell-lines and isolated rodent islets. Cx36 down-regulation was associated with overexpression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER-1) and the selective disruption of ICER-1 prevented the effects of oxLDL on Cx36 expression. Oil red O staining and Plin1 expression levels suggested that oxLDL were less stored as neutral lipid droplets than nLDL in INS-1E cells. The lipid beta-oxidation inhibitor etomoxir enhanced oxLDL-induced apoptosis whereas the ceramide synthesis inhibitor myriocin partially protected INS-1E cells, suggesting that oxLDL toxicity was due to impaired metabolism of the lipids. ICER-1 and Cx36 expressions were closely correlated with oxLDL toxicity. Cx36 knock-down in INS-1E cells or knock-out in primary islets sensitized beta-cells to oxLDL-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of Cx36 partially protected INS-1E cells against apoptosis. These data demonstrate that the reduction of Cx36 content in beta-cells by oxLDL particles is mediated by ICER-1 and contributes to oxLDL-induced beta-cell apoptosis.
Increase in adipose cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) activity promotes adipocyte dysfunction and systemic insulin resistance in obese mice. This is achieved by increasing the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). In this study, we investigated whether impaired expression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), a transcriptional antagonist of CREB, is responsible for the increased CREB activity in adipocytes of obese mice and humans.
PSIP1 (PC4 and SFRS1 interacting protein 1) encodes two splice variants: lens epithelium-derived growth factor or p75 (LEDGF/p75) and p52. PSIP1 gene products were shown to be involved in transcriptional regulation, affecting a plethora of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, cell survival, and stress response. Furthermore, LEDGF/p75 has implications for various diseases and infections, including autoimmunity, leukemia, embryo development, psoriasis, and human immunodeficiency virus integration. Here, we reported the first characterization of the PSIP1 promoter. Using 5 RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we identified novel transcription start sites in different cell types. Using a luciferase reporter system, we identified regulatory elements controlling the expression of LEDGF/p75 and p52. These include (i) minimal promoters (-112/+59 and +609/+781) that drive the basal expression of LEDGF/p75 and of the shorter splice variant p52, respectively; (ii) a sequence (+319/+397) that may control the ratio of LEDGF/p75 expression to p52 expression; and (iii) a strong enhancer (-320/-207) implicated in the modulation of LEDGF/p75 transcriptional activity. Computational, biochemical, and genetic approaches enabled us to identify the transcription factor Sp1 as a key modulator of the PSIP1 promoter, controlling LEDGF/p75 transcription through two binding sites at -72/-64 and -46/-36. Overall, our results provide initial data concerning LEDGF/p75 promoter regulation, giving new insights to further understand its biological function and opening the door for new therapeutic strategies in which LEDGF/p75 is involved.
Neurotensin (NT) is secreted from neurons and gastrointestinal endocrine cells. We previously reported that the three NT receptors (NTSRs) are expressed in pancreatic islets and beta cell lines on which we observed a protective effect of NT against cytotoxic agents. In this study, we explored the role of NT on insulin secretion in the endocrine pancreatic beta cells. We observed that NT stimulates insulin secretion at low glucose level and has a small inhibiting effect on stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets or INS-1E cells. We studied the mechanisms by which NT elicited calcium concentration changes using fura-2 loaded islets or INS-1E cells. NT increases calcium influx through the opening of cationic channels. Similar calcium influxes were observed after treatment with NTSR selective ligands. NT-evoked calcium regulation involves PKC and the translocation of PKCalpha and PKCepsilon to the plasma membrane. Part of NT effects appears to be also mediated by PKA but not via the Erk pathway. Taken together, these data provide evidence for an important endocrine role of NT in the regulation of the secretory function of beta cells.
Pancreatic beta-cells exposed to proinflammatory cytokines display alterations in gene expression resulting in defective insulin secretion and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs emerging as key regulators of gene expression. Here, we evaluated the contribution of microRNAs to cytokine-mediated beta-cell cytotoxicity.
Numerous epidemiological studies and some pharmacological clinical trials show the close connection between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and thereby, shed more light into the existence of possible similar pathogenic mechanisms between these two diseases. Diabetes increases the risk of developing AD and sensitizers of insulin currently used as diabetes drugs can efficiently slow cognitive decline of the neurological disorder. Deposits of amyloid aggregate and hyperphosphorylation of tau, which are hallmarks of AD, have been also found in degenerating pancreatic islets beta-cells of patients with T2D. These events may have a causal role in the pathogenesis of the two diseases. Increased c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is found in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of AD and promotes programmed cell death of beta-cells exposed to a diabetic environment. The JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP-1), also called islet brain 1 (IB1) because it is mostly expressed in the brain and islets, is a key regulator of the JNK pathway in neuronal and beta-cells. JNK, hyperphosphorylated tau and IB1/JIP-1 all co-localize with amyloids deposits in NFT and islets of AD and patients with T2D. This review discusses the role of the IB1/JIP-1 and the JNK pathway in the molecular pathogenesis of AD and T2D.
Fatty acids can favour the development of Type 2 diabetes by reducing insulin secretion and inducing apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we show that sustained exposure of the beta-cell line MIN6 or of isolated pancreatic islets to the most abundant circulating fatty acid palmitate increases the level of C/EBPbeta, an insulin transcriptional repressor. In contrast, two unsaturated fatty acids, oleate and linoleate were without effect. The induction of C/EBPbeta elicited by palmitate was prevented by inhibiting the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway or by reducing mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with an inhibitor of Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase-1. Overexpression of C/EBPbeta mimicked the detrimental effects of palmitate and resulted in a drastic reduction in insulin promoter activity, impairment in the capacity to respond to secretory stimuli and an increase in apoptosis. Our data suggest a potential involvement of C/EBPbeta as mediator of the deleterious effects of unsaturated free fatty acids on beta-cell function.
Abnormal adipokine production, along with defective uptake and metabolism of glucose within adipocytes, contributes to insulin resistance and altered glucose homeostasis. Recent research has highlighted one of the mechanisms that accounts for impaired production of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adipocyte glucose uptake in obesity. In adipocytes of human obese subjects and mice fed with a high fat diet, the level of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) is diminished. Reduction of ICER elevates the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) activity, which in turn increases the repressor activating transcription factor 3. In fine, the cascade triggers reduction in the ADIPOQ and GLUT4 levels, which ultimately hampers insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) interacting-protein 1, also called islet brain 1 (IB1), is a target of CREB/ICER that promotes JNK-mediated insulin resistance in adipocytes. A rise in IB1 and c-Jun levels accompanies the drop of ICER in white adipose tissues of obese mice when compared with mice fed with a chow diet. Other than the expression of ADIPOQ and glucose transport, decline in ICER expression might impact insulin signaling. Impairment of ICER is a critical issue that will need major consideration in future therapeutic purposes.
Pregnancy and obesity are frequently associated with diminished insulin sensitivity, which is normally compensated for by an expansion of the functional ? cell mass that prevents chronic hyperglycemia and development of diabetes mellitus. The molecular basis underlying compensatory ? cell mass expansion is largely unknown. We found in rodents that ? cell mass expansion during pregnancy and obesity is associated with changes in the expression of several islet microRNAs, including miR-338-3p. In isolated pancreatic islets, we recapitulated the decreased miR-338-3p level observed in gestation and obesity by activating the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30 and the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor. Blockade of miR-338-3p in ? cells using specific anti-miR molecules mimicked gene expression changes occurring during ? cell mass expansion and resulted in increased proliferation and improved survival both in vitro and in vivo. These findings point to a major role for miR-338-3p in compensatory ? cell mass expansion occurring under different insulin resistance states.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.