25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) is used as a clinical biomarker for assessment of vitamin D status. Blood levels of 25OHD3 represent a balance between its formation rate and clearance by several oxidative and conjugative processes. In the present study, the identity of human uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) capable of catalyzing the 25OHD3 glucuronidation reaction was investigated. Two isozymes, UGT1A4 and UGT1A3, were identified as the principal catalysts of 25OHD3 glucuronidation in human liver. Three 25OHD3 monoglucuronides (25OHD3-25-glucuronide, 25OHD3-3-glucuronide, and 5,6-trans-25OHD3-25-glucuronide) were generated by recombinant UGT1A4/UGT1A3, human liver microsomes, and human hepatocytes. The kinetics of 25OHD3 glucuronide formation in all systems tested conformed to the Michaelis-Menten model. An association between the UGT1A4*3 (Leu48Val) gene polymorphism with the rates of glucuronide formation was also investigated using human liver microsomes isolated from 80 genotyped livers. A variant allele dose effect was observed: the homozygous UGT1A4*3 livers (GG) had the highest glucuronidation activity, whereas the wild type (TT) had the lowest activity. Induction of UGT1A4 and UGT1A3 gene expression was also determined in human hepatocytes treated with pregnane X receptor/constitutive androstane receptor agonists, such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital. Although UGT mRNA levels were increased significantly by all of the known pregnane X receptor/constitutive androstane receptor agonists tested, rifampin, the most potent of the inducers, significantly induced total 25OHD3 glucuronide formation activity in human hepatocytes measured after 2, but not 4 and 24 hours, of incubation. Finally, the presence of 25OHD3-3-glucuronide in both human plasma and bile was confirmed, suggesting that the glucuronidation pathway might be physiologically relevant and contribute to vitamin D homeostasis in humans.
When investigating the potential for xanthine oxidase (XO)-mediated metabolism of a new chemical entity in vitro, selective chemical inhibition experiments are typically used. Most commonly, these inhibition experiments are performed using the inhibitor allopurinol (AP) and commercially prepared human liver cytosol (HLC) as the enzyme source. For reasons detailed herein, it is also a common practice to perfuse livers with solutions containing AP prior to liver harvest. The exposure to AP in HLC preparations could obviously pose a problem for measuring in vitro XO activity. To investigate this potential problem, an HPLC-MS/MS assay was developed to determine whether AP and its primary metabolite, oxypurinol, are retained within the cytosol for livers that were treated with AP during liver harvest. Differences in enzymatic activity for XO and aldehyde oxidase (AO) in human cytosol that can be ascribed to AP exposure were also evaluated. The results confirmed the presence of residual AP (some) and oxypurinol (all) human liver cytosol preparations that had been perfused with an AP-containing solution. In every case where oxypurinol was detected, XO activity was not observed. In contrast, the presence of AP and oxypurinol did not appear to have an impact on AO activity. Pooled HLC that was purchased from a commercial source also contained residual oxypurinol and did not show any XO activity. In the future, it is recommended that each HLC batch is screened for oxypurinol and/or XO activity prior to testing for XO-mediated metabolism of a new chemical entity.
High levels of factor XI (FXI) increase the risk of thromboembolic disease. However, the genetic and environmental factors regulating FXI expression are still largely unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the regulation of FXI by microRNAs (miRNAs) in the human liver. In silico prediction yielded four miRNA candidates that might regulate FXI expression. HepG2 cells were transfected with miR-181a-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-16-5p and miR-195-5p. We used mir-494, which was not predicted to bind to F11, as a negative control. Only miR-181a-5p caused a significant decrease both in FXI protein and F11 mRNA levels. In addition, transfection with a miR-181a-5p inhibitor in PLC/PRF/5 hepatic cells increased both the levels of F11 mRNA and extracellular FXI. Luciferase assays in human colon cancer cells deficient for Dicer (HCT-DK) demonstrated a direct interaction between miR-181a-5p and 3'untranslated region of F11. Additionally, F11 mRNA levels were inversely and significantly correlated with miR-181a-5p levels in 114 healthy livers, but not with miR-494. This study demonstrates that FXI expression is directly regulated by a specific miRNA, miR-181a-5p, in the human liver. Future studies are necessary to further investigate the potential consequences of miRNA dysregulation in pathologies involving FXI.
Human liver gene regulatory (Bayesian) network analysis was previously used to identify a cytochrome P450 (P450) gene subnetwork with Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) as a key regulatory driver of this subnetwork. This study assessed the biologic importance of AKR1D1 [a key enzyme in the synthesis of bile acids, ligand activators of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), known transcriptional regulators of P450s] to hepatic P450 expression. Overexpression of AKR1D1 in primary human hepatocytes led to increased expression of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6. Conversely, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased expression of these P450s. We resequenced AKR1D1 from 98 donor livers and identified a 3-untranslated region (UTR) (rs1872930) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with higher AKR1D1 mRNA expression. AKR1D1 3-UTR-luciferase reporter studies showed that the variant allele resulted in higher luciferase activity, suggesting that the SNP increases AKR1D1 mRNA stability and/or translation efficiency. Consistent with AKR1D1s putative role as a driver of the P450 subnetwork, the AKR1D1 3-UTR SNP was significantly associated with increased hepatic mRNA expression of multiple P450s (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 activities. After adjusting for multiple testing, the association remained significant for AKR1D1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C8 mRNA expression and CYP2C8 activity. These results provide new insights into the variation in expression and activity of P450s that can account for interindividual differences in drug metabolism/efficacy and adverse drug events. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence supporting a role for AKR1D1 as a key genetic regulator of the P450 network.
The role of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), particularly the members of OATP1B subfamily, in hepatocellular handling of endogenous and exogenous compounds is an important and emerging area of research. Using a mouse model lacking Slco1b2, the murine ortholog of the OATP1B subfamily, we have demonstrated previously that genetic ablation causes reduced hepatic clearance capacity for substrates. In this study, we focused on the physiological function of the hepatic OATP1B transporters. First, we studied the influence of the Oatp1b2 deletion on bile acid (BA) metabolism, showing that lack of the transporter results in a significantly reduced expression of Cyp7a1, the key enzyme of BA synthesis, resulting in elevated cholesterol levels after high dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, Slco1b2-/- mice exhibited delayed clearance after oral glucose challenge resulting from reduced hepatic glucose uptake. In addition to increased hepatic glycogen content, Slco1b2-/- mice exhibited reduced glucose output after pyruvate challenge. This is in accordance with reduced hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in knockout mice. We show that this phenotype is due to the loss of liver-specific Oatp1b2-mediated hepatocellular thyroid hormone entry, which then leads to reduced transcriptional activation of target genes of hepatic thyroid hormone receptor (TR), including Cyp7a1 and Pepck but also Dio1 and Glut2. Importantly, we assessed human relevance using a cohort of archived human livers in which OATP1B1 expression was noted to be highly associated with TR target genes, especially for glucose facilitating transporter 2 (GLUT2). Furthermore, GLUT2 expression was significantly decreased in livers harboring a common genetic polymorphism in SLCO1B1.
Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is a liver-enriched transporter involved in the hepatocellular uptake of many endogenous molecules and several structurally divergent drugs in clinical use. Although OATP1B1 coding region polymorphisms are known to make an impact on substrate drug disposition in humans, little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of this transporter. In this study, we note that messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of OATP1B1 in a large human liver bank exhibited marked interindividual variability that was not associated with coding region polymorphisms. Accordingly, we hypothesized that such variability in expression is reflective of nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional regulation of this transporter. We tested prototypical ligands for the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), liver X receptor (LXR) ?, and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in a human hepatoma-derived cell line and noted induction of OATP1B1 mRNA when the cells were treated with LXR? or FXR ligands. To confirm a direct role for LXR? and FXR to OATP1B1 expression, we performed detailed promoter analysis and cell-based reporter gene assays resulting in the identification of two functional FXR response elements and one LXR? response element. The direct interaction between nuclear receptors with the identified response elements was assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Using isolated primary human hepatocytes, we show that LXR? or FXR agonists, but not PXR or CAR agonists, are capable of OATP1B1 induction.
The commonly prescribed antiepileptic drug phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic range and wide interindividual variability in clearance explained in part by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 coding variants. After finding a paradoxically low urinary phenytoin metabolite (S)/(R) ratio in subjects receiving phenytoin maintenance therapy with a CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C19*1/*2 genotype, we hypothesized that CYP2C9 regulatory polymorphisms (rPMs), G-3089A and -2663delTG, in linkage disequilibrium with CYP2C19*2 were responsible. These rPMs explained as much as 10% of the variation in phenytoin maintenance dose in epileptic patients, but were not correlated with other patients warfarin dose requirements or with phenytoin metabolite ratio in human liver microsomes. We hypothesized the rPMs affected CYP2C9 induction by phenytoin, a pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator. Transfection studies showed that CYP2C9 reporters with wild-type versus variant alleles had similar basal activity but significantly greater phenytoin induction by cotransfected PXR, CAR, and Nrf2 and less Yin Yang 1 transcription factor repression. Phenytoin induction of CYP2C9 was greater in human hepatocytes with the CYP2C9 wild type versus variant haplotype. Therefore, CYP2C9 rPMs affect phenytoin-dependent induction of CYP2C9 and phenytoin metabolism in humans, with an effect size comparable with that for CYP2C9*2 and 2C9*3. These findings may also be relevant to the clinical use of other PXR, CAR, and Nrf2 activators.
To investigate the role of ontogeny in sorafenib metabolism to the equipotent active metabolite sorafenib N-oxide.
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