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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An update on the risk prediction and prevention of anticancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Cardiotoxicity is a well established complication of anticancer therapy. As cancer survivorship and life expectancy for cancer patients improves, the morbidity and mortality of anticancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity has become more problematic. It is of utmost importance to identify patients at the highest risk for the development of cardiotoxicity and to determine strategies for prevention, early detection and treatment.
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Validating self-reported mammography use in vulnerable communities: findings and recommendations.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Most health surveys ask women whether they have had a recent mammogram, all of which report mammography use (past 2 years) at about 70% to 80% regardless of race or residence. We examined the potential extent of overreporting of mammography use in low income African-American and Latina women, and whether self-report inaccuracies might bias estimated associations between patient characteristics and mammography use.
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Management of incidental esophageal uptake on FDG PET/CT.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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A 51-year-old Caucasian man with a history of colon carcinoma, status post right hemicolectomy, now with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for evaluation of tumour recurrence. An incidental focal esophageal uptake was noted on PET/CT, without associated mass. Subsequent endoscopy revealed Barrett's esophagus. The second patient, a 63-year-old Caucasian man, underwent a PET/CT to characterise a 12 mm lung nodule. The PET/CT had linear diffuse uptake within the esophagus. Endoscopy and biopsy findings were consistent with reflux esophagitis. This case report discusses management of incidental esophageal uptake on fludeoxyglucose PET/CT.
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Human lymphoid development in the absence of common ?-chain receptor signaling.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Despite the power of model systems to reveal basic immunologic mechanisms, critical differences exist between species that necessitate the direct study of human cells. Illustrating this point is the difference in phenotype between patients with SCID caused by mutations affecting the common ?-chain (?c) cytokine signaling pathway and mice with similar mutations. Although in both species, null mutations in either IL-2RG (which encodes ?c), or its direct downstream signaling partner JAK3, result in T and NK cell deficiency, an associated B cell deficiency is seen in mice but not in humans with these genetic defects. In this study, we applied recent data that have revised our understanding of the earliest stages of lymphoid commitment in human bone marrow (BM) to determine the requirement for signaling through IL-2RG and JAK3 in normal development of human lymphoid progenitors. BM samples from SCID patients with IL-2RG (n = 3) or JAK3 deficiency (n = 2), which produce similar "T-NK-B+" clinical phenotypes, were compared with normal BM and umbilical cord blood as well as BM from children on enzyme treatment for adenosine deaminase-deficient SCID (n = 2). In both IL-2RG- and JAK3-SCID patients, the early stages of lymphoid commitment from hematopoietic stem cells were present with development of lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors, common lymphoid progenitors and B cell progenitors, normal expression patterns of IL-7RA and TLSPR, and the DNA recombination genes DNTT and RAG1. Thus, in humans, signaling through the ?c pathway is not required for prethymic lymphoid commitment or for DNA rearrangement.
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Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children's Oncology Group report.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children's Oncology Group.
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Immunologic resolution of human chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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To determine the role of regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) in the pathogenesis of human chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and its clinical resolution, we evaluated long-term recipients of pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Seventy-one recipients were evaluated, 30 of whom had a history of chronic GVHD, including 16 with active chronic GVHD and 14 with resolved chronic GVHD. There were no significant clinical differences and no differences in the frequency of Tregs (CD4(+), CD127(-), CD25(+)) between the recipients with active chronic GVHD and those with resolved chronic GVHD. Using the Miyara/Sakaguchi classification scheme to identify functional Tregs, a decreased frequency of functional resting Tregs (rTregs) was identified in recipients with active chronic GVHD (P = .009 compared with normal donors; P = .001 compared with HSCT recipients without history of chronic GVHD; P = .005 compared with recipients with resolved chronic GVHD). The frequency and number of recent thymic emigrants in rTregs were normal in recipients with resolved chronic GVHD, but persistently decreased in recipients with active chronic GVHD. These results support the hypothesis that the reestablishment of normal numbers of functional rTregs is required for the clinical resolution of chronic GVHD.
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Designing effective drug and device development programs for hospitalized heart failure: a proposal for pretrial registries.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Recent international phase III clinical trials of novel therapies for hospitalized heart failure (HHF) have failed to improve the unacceptably high postdischarge event rate. These large studies have demonstrated notable geographic and site-specific variation in patient profiles and enrollment. Possible contributors to the lack of success in HHF outcome trials include challenges in selecting clinical sites capable of (1) providing adequate numbers of appropriately selected patients and (2) properly executing the study protocol. We propose a "pretrial registry" as a novel tool for improving the efficiency and quality of international HHF trials by focusing on the selection and cultivation of high-quality sites. A pretrial registry may help assess a site's ability to achieve adequate enrollment of the target patient population, integrate protocol requirements into clinical workflow, and accomplish appropriate follow-up. Although such a process would be associated with additional upfront resource investment, this appropriation may be modest in comparison with the downstream costs associated with maintenance of poorly performing sites, failed clinical trials, and the global health and economic burden of HHF. This review is based on discussions between scientists, clinical trialists, and regulatory representatives regarding methods for improving international HHF trials that took place at the United States Food and Drug Administration on January 12th, 2012.
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The global health and economic burden of hospitalizations for heart failure: lessons learned from hospitalized heart failure registries.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Heart failure is a global pandemic affecting an estimated 26 million people worldwide and resulting in more than 1 million hospitalizations annually in both the United States and Europe. Although the outcomes for ambulatory HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction (EF) have improved with the discovery of multiple evidence-based drug and device therapies, hospitalized heart failure (HHF) patients continue to experience unacceptably high post-discharge mortality and readmission rates that have not changed in the last 2 decades. In addition, the proportion of HHF patients classified as having a preserved EF continues to grow and may overtake HF with a reduced EF in the near future. However, the prognosis for HF with a preserved EF is similar and there are currently no available disease-modifying therapies. HHF registries have significantly improved our understanding of this clinical entity and remain an important source of data shaping both public policy and research efforts. The authors review global HHF registries to describe the patient characteristics, management, outcomes and their predictors, quality improvement initiatives, regional differences, and limitations of the available data. Moreover, based on the lessons learned, they also propose a roadmap for the design and conduct of future HHF registries.
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Association of anti-RNA polymerase III autoantibodies and cancer in scleroderma.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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We assessed the profile and frequency of malignancy subtypes in a large single-centre UK cohort for patients with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc). We evaluated the cancer risk among SSc patients with different antibody reactivities and explored the temporal association of cancer with the duration between SSc onset and cancer diagnosis.
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Avascular necrosis of bone after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in children and adolescents.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of 6244 patients to assess risk factors for avascular necrosis (AVN) of bone in children and adolescents after allogeneic transplantation. Eligible patients were ?21 years of age, received their first allogeneic transplant between 1990 and 2008 in the United States, and had survived ? 6 months from transplantation. Overall, 160 patients with AVN and 478 control subjects matched by year of transplant, length of follow-up and transplant center were identified. Patients and control subjects were confirmed via central review of radiology, pathology, and/or surgical procedure reports. Median time from transplant to diagnosis of AVN was 14 months. On conditional logistic regression, increasing age at transplant (?5 years), female gender, and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were significantly associated with increased risks of AVN. Compared with patients receiving myeloablative regimens for malignant diseases, lower risks of AVN were seen in patients with nonmalignant diseases and those who had received reduced-intensity conditioning regimens for malignant diseases. Children at high risk for AVN include those within the age group where rapid bone growth occurs as well as those who experience exposure to myeloablative conditioning regimens and immunosuppression after hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of GVHD. More research is needed to determine whether screening strategies specifically for patients at high risk for developing AVN with early interventions may mitigate the morbidity associated with this complication.
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Association of the Autoimmune Disease Scleroderma with an Immunologic Response to Cancer.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Autoimmune diseases are thought to be initiated by exposures to foreign antigens that cross-react with endogenous molecules. Scleroderma is an autoimmune connective tissue disease in which patients make antibodies to a limited group of autoantigens, including RPC1, encoded by the POLR3A gene. As patients with scleroderma and antibodies against RPC1 are at elevated risk for cancer, we hypothesized that the "foreign" antigens in this autoimmune disease are encoded by somatically mutated genes in the patients incipient cancers. Studying cancers from scleroderma patients, we found genetic alterations of the POLR3A locus in six of eight patients with antibodies to RPC1 but not in eight patients without antibodies to RPC1. Analyses of peripheral blood lymphocytes and serum suggested that POLR3A mutations sparked cellular immunity and cross-reactive humoral immune responses. These results offer insight into the pathogenesis of scleroderma and provide support for the idea that acquired immunity helps control naturally occurring cancers.
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Cytokine and Chemokine Patterns Across 100 Days after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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We mapped the cytokine response to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by assaying 51 cytokines and chemokines each week for 100 days in 51 children receiving allogeneic (n = 44) or autologous HSCT (n = 7). Assay values were reported as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Log transformation converted MFI to clinically relevant measures (ie, pg/mL). We searched for potential markers of transplant complications by using mixed treatment by subject analysis of variance. Global cytokine secretion in HSCT recipients was significantly lower than in concurrent control patients (n = 11). Coincident with the nadir in WBC count, the concentration of many cytokines declined further by the second and third week. All analytes (except MIG) subsequently rebounded by week 4 (coincident with engraftment and recovery of WBC count) but often still remained well below control levels. Concurrent with the collective nadir of multiple cytokines, MCP-1, GRO-?, and leptin surged during weeks 2 to 4. High levels of leptin persisted throughout the 100 post-transplant days. Also during weeks 2 to 4, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and IL-6 surged in children with complications but not in those without complications. The peak in HGF was more pronounced in veno-occlusive disease (VOD). HGF and IL-6 secretion rose at least 2 weeks before the clinical diagnosis of VOD or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). From week 4 onward in all groups, the MFI of the cytokine resistin increased to 5 to 15 times above concurrent control. HGF has now emerged in 3 or more biomarker discovery efforts for GVHD (and in our population for VOD as well). HGF (with or without IL-6) should be investigated as a potential predictive biomarker of VOD or GVHD. Alternatively, the hyperinflammatory "signature" provided by a multicytokine assay may be predictive.
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Patient and hospital factors associated with induction mortality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Deaths during induction chemotherapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) account for one-tenth of ALL-associated mortality and half of ALL treatment-related mortality. We sought to ascertain patient- and hospital-level factors associated with induction mortality.
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Consensus opinion of a North American Working Group regarding the classification of digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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The objectives of this study were to develop a standard classification of digital ulcers (DUs) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) for use in observational or therapeutic studies and to assess the reliability of these definitions as well as of the measurement of ulcer area. Ten North American rheumatologists with expertise in SSc reviewed multiple photos of DUs, examined four SSc subjects with DUs, and came to a consensus on the definitions for digital, active, healed, and indeterminate ulcers. These ten raters then examined the right hand of ten SSc subjects twice and the left hand once to classify ulcers and to measure ulcer area. Weighted and Fleiss kappa were used to calculate intra- and interrater agreement on classification of ulcers, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess agreement on ulcer area. Because the traditional ICC calculations relied on a small number of ulcers, ICCs were recalculated using the results of linear mixed models to evaluate the variance components of observations on all the data. Intrarater kappa for classifying DU as not an ulcer/healed ulcer versus active/indeterminate ulcer was substantial (0.76), and interrater kappa was moderate (0.53). The ICC for ulcer area using the linear mixed models was moderate both for intrarater (0.57) and interrater (0.48) measurements. A consensus for the classification of DUs in SSc was developed, and after a training session, rheumatologists with expertise in SSc are able to reliably classify DUs and to measure ulcer area.
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Recognizing hospitalized heart failure as an entity and developing new therapies to improve outcomes: academics, clinicians, industrys, regulators, and payers perspectives.
Heart Fail Clin
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Hospitalized heart failure (HHF) is associated with unacceptably high postdischarge mortality and rehospitalization rates. This heterogeneous group of patients, however, is still treated with standard, homogenous therapies that are not preventing their rapid deterioration. The costs associated with HHF have added demands from society, government, and payers to improve outcomes. With coordinated and committed efforts in the development of new therapies, improvements may be seen in outcomes for patients with HHF. This article summarizes concepts in developing therapies for HHF discussed during a multidisciplinary panel at the Heart Failure Society of Americas Annual Scientific Meeting, September 2012.
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Right ventricular dysfunction in systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Systemic sclerosis–associated pulmonary artery hypertension (SScPAH) has a worse prognosis compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), with a median survival of 3 years after diagnosis often caused by right ventricular (RV) failure. We tested whether SScPAH or systemic sclerosis–related pulmonary hypertension with interstitial lung disease imposes a greater pulmonary vascular load than IPAH and leads to worse RV contractile function.
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Race and association with disease manifestations and mortality in scleroderma: a 20-year experience at the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Experience suggests that African Americans may express autoimmune disease differently than other racial groups. In the context of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), we sought to determine whether race was related to a more adverse expression of disease. Between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2009, a total of 409 African American and 1808 white patients with scleroderma were evaluated at a single university medical center. While the distribution by sex was virtually identical in both groups, at 82% female, African American patients presented to the center at a younger mean age than white patients (47 vs. 53 yr; p < 0.001). Two-thirds of white patients manifested the limited cutaneous subset of disease, whereas the majority of African American patients manifested the diffuse cutaneous subset (p < 0.001). The proportion seropositive for anticentromere antibody was nearly 3-fold greater among white patients, at 34%, compared to African American patients (12%; p < 0.001). Nearly a third of African American (31%) patients had autoantibodies to topoisomerase, compared to 19% of white patients (p = 0.001). Notably, African American patients experienced an increase in prevalence of cardiac (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.2), renal (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1), digital ischemia (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.4-2.2), muscle (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3), and restrictive lung (OR, 6.9; 95% CI, 5.1-9.4) disease. Overall, 700 (32%) patients died (159 African American; 541 white). The cumulative incidence of mortality at 10 years was 43% among African American patients compared to 35% among white patients (log-rank p = 0.0011). Compared to white patients, African American patients experienced an 80% increase in risk of mortality (relative risk [RR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.2), after adjustment for age at disease onset and disease duration. Further adjustment by sex, disease subtype, and scleroderma-specific autoantibody status, and for the socioeconomic measures of educational attainment and health insurance status, diminished these risk estimates (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6). The heightened risk of mortality persisted in strata defined by age at disease onset, diffuse cutaneous disease, anticentromere seropositivity, decade of care at the center, and among women. These findings support the notion that race is related to a distinct phenotypic profile in scleroderma, and a more unfavorable prognosis among African Americans, warranting heightened diagnostic evaluation and vigilant care of these patients. Further, we provide a chronologic review of the literature regarding race, organ system involvement, and mortality in scleroderma; we furnish synopses of relevant reports, and summarize findings.
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Anticoagulation in heart failure: current status and future direction.
Heart Fail Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Despite therapeutic advances, patients with worsening heart failure (HF) requiring hospitalization have unacceptably high post-discharge mortality and re-admission rates soon after discharge. Evidence suggests a hypercoagulable state is present in patients with HF. Although thromboembolism as a direct consequence of HF is not frequently clinically recognized, it may contribute to mortality and morbidity. Additionally, many patients with HF have concomitant disorders conferring additional thrombotic risk, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a known consequence of coronary thrombosis, is a common precipitating factor for worsening HF. Coronary thrombosis may also cause sudden death in patients with HF and CAD. Because data are largely derived from observational studies or trials of modest size, guideline recommendations on anticoagulation for HF vary between organizations. The recently presented Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial of HF patients in sinus rhythm suggested anticoagulation reduces the risk of stroke, although rates of the combined primary endpoint (death, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage) were similar for acetylsalicylic acid and warfarin. Newer oral anticoagulants dabigatran, apixaban, and rivaroxaban have successfully completed trials for the prevention of stroke in patients with AF and have shown benefits in the subpopulation of patients with concomitant HF. Positive results of the Anti-Xa Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events in Addition to Standard Therapy in Subjects with Acute Coronary Syndrome-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 51 (ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51) trial of rivaroxaban in ACS are also encouraging. These data suggest there is a need to assess the potential role for these newer agents in the management of patients hospitalized for HF who continue to have a high post-discharge event rate despite available therapies.
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Diagnostic accuracy of a single point-of-care prehospital serum lactate for predicting outcomes in pediatric trauma patients.
Pediatr Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Preliminary evidence suggests that a single prehospital lactate level (pLA) improves prediction of morbidity and mortality in adult trauma patients independent of vital signs. However, the value of pLA for pediatric trauma patients is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether pLA is associated with the need for critical care in pediatric trauma patients.
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Open label study of escalating doses of oral treprostinil diethanolamine in patients with systemic sclerosis and digital ischemia: pharmacokinetics and correlation with digital perfusion.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Treprostinil diethanolamine is an innovative salt form of the prostacyclin analogue, treprostinil sodium, developed as an oral sustained release (SR) osmotic tablet. The availability of a formulation permitting convenient systemic delivery might have applicability to scleroderma vascular complications. We evaluated pharmacokinetics and perfusion in scleroderma patients with digital ischemia following escalating twice-daily doses of treprostinil diethanolamine SR. METHODS: In this dual-center, open-label, phase I pharmacokinetic study, scleroderma patients with digital ulcers were enrolled. Drug concentrations and perfusion, quantified by laser Doppler imaging, were measured over 12 hours at the 2mg and 4mg (or maximally tolerated) doses. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from individual plasma concentration versus time profiles using non-compartmental analysis methods. Digital perfusion and skin temperature were modeled as a function of log-transformed drug concentration and other covariates by performing repeated measures analyses using random effects models. RESULTS: Nineteen scleroderma patients (84% female, 53% limited scleroderma) received treprostinil diethanolamine SR with dose titration up to 4mg twice daily as tolerated. Peak concentrations (mean maximum plasma concentration [Cmax] = 1176 and 2107 pg/mL) occurred approximately 3.6 hours after dose administration, and overall exposure (under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to 12 hours post dose [AUC0-12] = 7187 and 12992 hr*pg/mL) was linear between the 2mg and 4mg doses. Perfusion and digital skin temperature were positively associated with log-transformed plasma concentration at the 4mg dose (p=0.015 and p=0.013, respectively). The most frequent adverse events were similar to those seen with prostacyclin analogues. CONCLUSIONS: Oral treprostinil diethanolamine was effectively absorbed in patients with scleroderma. Drug administration was temporally associated with improved cutaneous perfusion and temperature. Treprostinil diethanolamine may provide a new therapeutic option for Raynauds phenomenon and the peripheral vascular disease of scleroderma. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00848939.
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Tuboovarian abscess. Factors associated with operative intervention after failed antibiotic therapy.
J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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To evaluate whether size of tuboovarian abscess (TOA) and other clinical characteristics were associated with the need for surgical intervention.
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Treatment of early diffuse systemic sclerosis skin disease.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Diffuse systemic sclerosis carries a high morbidity and mortality. The Prospective Registry of Early Systemic Sclerosis (PRESS), a multicentre incident cohort study of patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, has the goal of advancing the understanding of disease pathogenesis and identifying novel biomarkers. In this review, PRESS investigators discuss the evidence pertaining to the more commonly used treatments for early diffuse SSc skin disease including methotrexate, mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and intravenous immunoglobulin. This review highlights the unmet need for effective treatment in early diffuse SSc as well as its more rigorous study. Nonetheless, the PRESS investigators aim to decrease intra- and inter-institutional variability in prescribing in order to improve the understanding of the clinical course of early diffuse SSc skin disease.
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My approach to the treatment of scleroderma.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is unique among the rheumatic diseases because it presents the challenge of managing a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease with a widespread obliterative vasculopathy of small arteries that is associated with varying degrees of tissue fibrosis. The hallmark of scleroderma is clinical heterogeneity with subsets that vary in the degree of disease expression, organ involvement, and ultimate prognosis. Thus, the term scleroderma is used to describe patients who have common manifestations that link them together, whereas a highly variable clinical course exists that spans from mild and subtle findings to aggressive, life-threatening multisystem disease. The physician needs to carefully characterize each patient to understand the specific manifestations and level of disease activity to decide appropriate treatment. This is particularly important in treating a patient with scleroderma because there is no treatment that has been proven to modify the overall disease course, although therapy that targets specific organ involvement early before irreversible damage occurs improves both quality of life and survival. This review describes our approach as defined by evidence, expert opinion, and our experience treating patients. Scleroderma is a multisystem disease with variable expression; thus, any treatment plan must be holistic, yet at the same time focus on the dominant organ disease. The goal of therapy is to improve quality of life by minimizing specific organ involvement and subsequent life-threatening disease. At the same time the many factors that alter daily function need to be addressed, including nutrition, pain, deconditioning, musculoskeletal disuse, comorbid conditions, and the emotional aspects of the disease, such as fear, depression, and the social withdrawal caused by disfigurement.
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Sustainability of market-based community distribution of Sprinkles in western Kenya.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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To evaluate the sustainability of market-based community distribution of micronutrient powders (Sprinkles(®), Hexagon Nutrition, Mumbai, India.) among pre-school children in Kenya, we conducted in August 2010 a follow-up survey, 18 months after study-related marketing and household monitoring ended. We surveyed 849 children aged 6-35 months randomly selected from 60 study villages. Nutritional biomarkers were measured by fingerstick; demographic characteristics, Sprinkles purchases and use were assessed through household questionnaires. We compared Sprinkles use, marketing efforts and biomarker levels with the data from surveys conducted in March 2007, March 2008 and March 2009. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between marketing activities and Sprinkles use in the 2010 survey. At the 2010 follow-up, 21.9% of children used Sprinkles in the previous 7 days, compared with 64.9% in 2008 (P < 0.001). Average intake was 3.2 sachets week(-1) in 2008, 1.6 sachets week(-1) in 2009 and 1.1 sachets week(-1) in 2010 (P < 0.001). Factors associated with recent Sprinkles use in 2010 included young age [6-23 months vs. 24-35 months, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.5, P = 0.02], lowest 2 quintiles of socio-economic status (aOR = 1.7, P = 0.004), household attendance at trainings or launches (aOR = 2.8, P < 0.001) and ever receiving promotional items including free Sprinkles, calendars, cups and t-shirts (aOR = 1.7, P = 0.04). In 2010, there was increased prevalence of anaemia and malaria (P < 0.001), but not iron deficiency (P = 0.44), compared with that in 2008. Sprinkles use in 2010 was associated with decreased iron deficiency (P = 0.03). Sprinkles coverage reduced after stopping household monitoring and reducing marketing activities. Continued promotion and monitoring of Sprinkles usage may be important components to sustain the programme.
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Cancer and systemic sclerosis: novel insights into pathogenesis and clinical implications.
Curr Opin Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Most epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an increased risk of cancer in scleroderma patients. Reasons for this risk increase have been poorly understood and often attributed to cytotoxic therapies or damage from scleroderma. Recognition that some patients have a close temporal relationship between cancer diagnosis and scleroderma clinical onset has focused attention on the possibility that scleroderma may be a paraneoplastic syndrome in a subset of patients. This review will discuss the latest epidemiologic data linking cancer and scleroderma and explore a model for the development of paraneoplastic scleroderma.
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Successful pregnancy after busulfan/cytoxan conditioning regimen for AML.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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The number of patients who have had successful pregnancies following hematopoietic stem cell transplant during childhood remains under investigation. As the number of survivors increase and enter adulthood, we continue to learn more about fertility in these patients. In this case report we report the case of a 27 year-old female who had a normal full term delivery 19 years following a myeloablative autologous transplant for relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia.
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Epidemiology and profile of pediatric burns in a large referral center.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Burns are a preventable cause of pediatric injury with over 100 000 annual hospitalizations. The authors hypothesize that analysis of injury patterns can generate age-specific and injury-specific prevention strategies to reduce these injuries.
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Long-term experience of mycophenolate mofetil for treatment of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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Immunosuppressive therapy may potentially alter the natural disease course of scleroderma. There have been reports of using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the treatment of scleroderma skin disease.
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Comparing selected measures of health outcomes and health-seeking behaviors in Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese communities of Chicago: results from local health surveys.
J Urban Health
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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We describe how local community organizations partnered to conduct a survey in the Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese populations of Chicago to compare health outcomes and assess progress toward Healthy People 2010 goals. Interviews were conducted with 380 randomly selected Chinese adults through door-to-door sampling, and with 250 Cambodian adults and 150 Vietnamese adults through respondent-driven sampling. Data on 14 key health outcomes are described for this analysis. The three surveyed communities were generally poorer, less educated, more often foreign-born, and had less English proficiency than Asians nationally. There were few significant variations among the three populations, but there were notable differences in the burden of tuberculosis, obesity, diabetes, and arthritis. Insurance coverage and cancer-screening utilization were also significantly lower than for US Asians. Health information about Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese populations in Chicago are available for the first time and serve as baseline data for community interventions. Findings highlight important health concerns for these populations and have implications for funders and policy makers in allocating resources, setting health priorities, and addressing health disparities.
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Health education through analogies: preparation of a community for clinical trials of a vaccine against hookworm in an endemic area of Brazil.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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Obtaining informed consent for clinical trials is especially challenging when working in rural, resource-limited areas, where there are often high levels of illiteracy and lack of experience with clinical research. Such an area, a remote field site in the northeastern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is currently being prepared for clinical trials of experimental hookworm vaccines. This study was conducted to assess whether special educational tools can be developed to increase the knowledge and comprehension of potential clinical trial participants and thereby enable them to make truly informed decisions to participate in such research.
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Close temporal relationship between onset of cancer and scleroderma in patients with RNA polymerase I/III antibodies.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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This study was undertaken to examine the temporal relationship between scleroderma development and malignancy, and to evaluate whether this differs by autoantibody status among affected patients.
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The utility of routine surveillance blood cultures in asymptomatic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Surveillance blood cultures (BCs) are often obtained in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients for earlier detection of blood stream infections (BSI). The major aim of this study was to determine the utility of the current practice of obtaining surveillance blood cultures from asymptomatic transplant patients upon admission for the preparative regimen.
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Neurocognitive function of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has offered a curative approach for treating patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, HSCT may have long-term effects on some of these patients. This article reviews the literature regarding long-term neurocognitive function of patients who have received HSCT for SCID, including the effect of disease-specific characteristics, psychosocial factors, being a chronically ill child, and transplant-related factors.
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Phenothiazinium-fluoroquinolone drug conjugates.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Synthesis and antibacterial screening of a homologous series of 3-dialkylaminophenothiazinium-7-norfloxacin conjugates was carried out alongside a corresponding series of symmetrical methylene blue derivatives. The norfloxacin conjugates maintained typical methylene blue derivative photoproperties, such as long wavelength absorption, but produced no measurable singlet oxygen in the standard assay and provided no significant increase in the magnitude of photoantibacterial action, this being similar to the methylene blue homologues, although both the conjugates and homologues were considerably more active than methylene blue itself both against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. DNA binding via intercalation was considerably greater for the series of norfloxacin conjugates than for the methylene blue homologues.
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Telangiectases in scleroderma: a potential clinical marker of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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Clinical markers are needed to identify scleroderma patients at risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) since early therapy may improve survival. We investigated whether increased numbers of telangiectases in scleroderma associate with measures of pulmonary vascular disease.
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Clinical and genetic heterogeneity in Omenn syndrome and severe combined immune deficiency.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
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OS has been described as a clinical phenotype in infants characterized by SCID, diffuse erythroderma, and other distinct features. The pathogenesis is secondary to autologous, auto-reactive T cells produced as rare escapees from the SCID blockade. Mutations in either the RAG1 or RAG2 gene that lead to partial recombinase activity are responsible for many of the patients with these clinical features. We report on two patients, one with an atypical phenotype of OS (absence of rash but presence of other typical features) who harbored a previously undescribed mutation in RAG1, and a second who had many of the classic features of OS but was found to have a mutation in the common gamma chain (gamma(c)) cytokine receptor gene. These cases highlight the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of OS.
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HIV testing practices and attitudes on prevention efforts in six diverse Chicago communities.
J Community Health
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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Data describing local level HIV testing practices and attitudes regarding HIV prevention are rarely available, yet would be useful for HIV policy and evaluation. A comprehensive health survey was conducted in six community areas of Chicago (n = 1,699) in 2002-2003. The HIV prevention module of this survey was used for this analysis. The proportion that ever tested for HIV ranged from 40 to 75% and 11 to 38% were tested in the past 12 months. Residents favored: needle exchange programs (59-77%), HIV information in high schools (95-100%) and elementary schools (85-94%), and condom distribution in high schools (74-93%). Attitudes were less favorable regarding pharmacies selling clean needles (37-58%) and condom distribution in elementary schools (22-66%). Adults in these areas are over three times more likely to have been tested recently than adults nationally. Residents strongly favor community based HIV prevention initiatives such as needle exchange programs, condom distribution in high schools, and HIV prevention taught in schools. These evidence-based observations may be valuable in planning HIV prevention programs and in shaping policy.
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Advanced triple procedure: upside-down phacoemulsification, posterior chamber intraocular lens, and Descemets stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK).
Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie)
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2009
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We report a the new surgical technique of upside-down (UPSD) phacoemulsification (phaco) with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL), combined with Descemets stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) to be used in an attempt to reduce post-surgical complications and increased visual recovery of patients. We therefore recommend this triple procedure technique for corneal surgeons who regularly perform DSAEK surgery.
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Long-term neurocognitive function of pediatric patients with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID): pre- and post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only cure for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term neurodevelopment of patients with SCID following myeloablative chemotherapy and HSCT.
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New surgical technique: upside-down phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens and Descemets stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK).
Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie)
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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We describe a new surgical technique, namely, upside-down phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation combined with Descemets stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). This technique is aimed at decreasing potential complications associated with conventional phacoemulsification, including posterior lens capsular tear and vitreous loss during DSAEK and cataract surgery performed through a cloudy cornea.
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Use of trypan blue stain in endothelial keratoplasty.
Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie)
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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We used the selective staining properties of trypan blue to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the stain during endothelial keratoplasty (EK) surgery in 55 eyes of 51 patients. No long-term effects were seen due to the trypan blue staining up to two years postoperatively. Trypan blue facilitates the viewing and placement of the donor corneal disc into the recipient anterior chamber through a patients cloudy cornea.
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Igf-I stimulates in vivo thymopoiesis after stem cell transplantation in a child with Omenn syndrome.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2009
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Children with severe combined immunodeficiency who receive a T cell-depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have delayed immune reconstitution.
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Macular hole closure following intraoperative choroidal hemorrhage.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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This interventional case report retrospectively reviews the outcome of a 56-year-old woman who suffered an intraoperative choroidal hemorrhage at commencement of macular hole surgery. Due to the early intraoperative choroidal hemorrhage, vitrectomy was not performed. One month postoperatively, the macular hole was noted to be closed and remained closed 2 years later, leaving the patient with a good visual outcome. The authors postulate that the temporal location of the choroidal hemorrhage may have exerted mechanical displacement of the retina toward the macular hole margins, resulting in closure. Macular hole closure directly following intraoperative choroidal hemorrhage is possible.
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Neglected tropical disease vaccines.
Biologicals
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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The neglected tropical diseases or NTDs represent the most common infections of the worlds one billion poorest people. Unlike the better known acute or emerging infections, the NTDs are generally chronic and disabling (and often disfiguring) conditions. The long-term disability they cause has been revealed as a major reason why poor people in developing countries cannot escape the poverty trap. Because NTDs are associated with poverty, vaccines against these conditions are sometimes referred to as antipoverty vaccines. However, despite their global public health and economic importance, such vaccines have largely been ignored by industry and today are predominantly being produced through the activities of non-profit product development partnerships (PDPs). The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative based at the Sabin Vaccine Institute is one such PDP developing two antipoverty vaccines for hookworm and schistosomiasis, respectively. It has been proposed to combine these vaccines in order to target polyparasitic co-infections leading to severe anemia. Ultimately, to ensure global access of a multivalent anthelminthic vaccine, it may be linked to deworming programs through vaccine-linked chemotherapy. This would be an important step towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals for sustainable poverty reduction by 2015.
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Pre- and post-natal treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of infancy and childhood that is invariably fatal if not treated. We report on the first patient to receive post-natal HSCT for HLH after receiving in utero chemotherapy for disease stabilization.
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Variation in hospital antibiotic prescribing practices for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
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Antibiotic variation among pediatric oncology patients has not been well-described. Identification of significant variability in antibiotic use within this population would warrant evaluation of its clinical impact. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of newly diagnosed patients with pediatric acute lymophoblastic leukemia (ALL) hospitalized from 1999 to 2009 in 39 freestanding US childrens hospitals within the Pediatric Health Information System. Medication use data were obtained for the first 30 days from each patients index ALL admission date. Antibiotic exposure rates were reported as antibiotic days/1000 hospital days. Unadjusted composite broad-spectrum antibiotic exposure rates varied from 577 to 1628 antibiotic days/1000 hospital days. This wide range of antibiotic exposure was unaffected by adjustment for age, gender, race and days of severe illness (adjusted range: 532-1635 days of antibiotic therapy/1000 hospital days). Antibiotic use for children with newly diagnosed ALL varies widely across childrens hospitals and is not explained by demographics or illness severity.
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Gender does not affect postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (from the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan [EVEREST] Trial).
Am. J. Cardiol.
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Women have traditionally been underrepresented in heart failure (HF) trials, and their baseline characteristics and outcomes after hospitalization for HF are unclear. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients according to gender in the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial. EVEREST randomized 4,133 patients hospitalized for HF and ejection fraction of ?40% to tolvaptan or placebo, in addition to standard therapy. The median follow-up was 9.9 months. Log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression models were used to compare the hazards of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization. Women constituted 1,058 (26%) of the study population. The baseline characteristics were similar except that the women were older with more hypertension and diabetes and less chronic renal insufficiency, previous myocardial infarction, previous coronary revascularization, and baseline defibrillator implantation (all p <0.001). The baseline use of evidence-based HF medical therapies was similar between genders (all p >0.30). Despite a high event rate, no difference was seen in all-cause mortality (men 27% vs women 24%, multivariate hazard ratio 1.04, p = 0.61) or cardiovascular mortality plus HF hospitalization (men 42% vs women 39%, multivariate hazard ratio 1.11, p = 0.10) on univariate analysis or after adjusting for baseline covariates. In conclusion, women hospitalized for worsening HF with an ejection fraction of ?40% were older, had more hypertension, and had received fewer procedure-based interventions than men but had relatively similar HF medication usage and clinical findings. After hospitalization for HF, women have a similarly high risk of long-term HF morbidity and mortality compared with men.
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Gene therapy for adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency: clinical comparison of retroviral vectors and treatment plans.
Blood
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We conducted a gene therapy trial in 10 patients with adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency using 2 slightly different retroviral vectors for the transduction of patients bone marrow CD34(+) cells. Four subjects were treated without pretransplantation cytoreduction and remained on ADA enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) throughout the procedure. Only transient (months), low-level (< 0.01%) gene marking was observed in PBMCs of 2 older subjects (15 and 20 years of age), whereas some gene marking of PBMC has persisted for the past 9 years in 2 younger subjects (4 and 6 years). Six additional subjects were treated using the same gene transfer protocol, but after withdrawal of ERT and administration of low-dose busulfan (65-90 mg/m(2)). Three of these remain well, off ERT (5, 4, and 3 years postprocedure), with gene marking in PBMC of 1%-10%, and ADA enzyme expression in PBMC near or in the normal range. Two subjects were restarted on ERT because of poor gene marking and immune recovery, and one had a subsequent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These studies directly demonstrate the importance of providing nonmyeloablative pretransplantation conditioning to achieve therapeutic benefits with gene therapy for ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency.
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Changes in estimated right ventricular systolic pressure predict mortality and pulmonary hypertension in a cohort of scleroderma patients.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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Annual echocardiography screening is widely used in scleroderma, but the utility of longitudinal assessment is unknown. We evaluated whether change in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was a risk factor for mortality and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a cohort of scleroderma patients.
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IRF5 polymorphism predicts prognosis in patients with systemic sclerosis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of systemic sclerosis (SSc) demonstrated three non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) susceptibility loci. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of these gene variants on survival and severity of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in SSc.
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Enhanced vs. Automated Urinalysis for Screening of Urinary Tract Infections in Children in the Emergency Department.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common serious bacterial infection in febrile infants. Urinalysis (UA) is a screening test for preliminary diagnosis of UTI. Urinalysis can be performed manually or using automated techniques. We sought to compare manual versus automated urinalysis for urine specimens obtained via catheterization in the pediatric emergency department (ED).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.