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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Correction: Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Correction for 'Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy' by Amit A. Joshi et al., Analyst, 2014, 139, 5728-5733.
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Granulosa cell tumor of testis: Clinicopathological correlation of a rare tumor.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Granulosa cell tumor of testis is a rare tumor accounting for less than 4% of adult testicular tumors though they account for nearly 30% of childhood testicular tumors. Due to the rarity of these tumors, exact etiology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors and best treatment approach are not well known. The molecular events in pathogenesis of these stromal tumors have begun to unravel and these developments put forth a reasonable and scientific explanation for the association of these tumors with developmental anomalies like undescended testis. However, many questions remain unanswered.
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Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Severity of peanut allergies is linked to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in blood, but diagnostics from assays using glycoprotein allergen mixtures may be inaccurate. Measuring IgEs specific to individual peptide and carbohydrate epitopes of allergenic proteins is promising. We report here the first immunoarray for IgEs utilizing both peptide and carbohydrate epitopes. A surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) microarray was equipped with peptide and ?-xylosyl glycoside (BXG) epitopes from major peanut allergen glycoprotein Arachis hypogaea h2 (Ara-h2). A monoclonal anti-IgE antibody was included as positive control. IgEs were precaptured onto magnetic beads loaded with polyclonal anti-IgE antibodies to enhance sensitivity and minimize non-specific binding. As little as 0.1 attomole (0.5 pg mL(-1)) IgE was detected from dilute serum in 45 min. IgEs binding to Ara-h2 peptide and BXG were quantified in 10 ?L of patient serum and correlated with standard ImmunoCAP values.
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Additive interactions between susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies and breast cancer risk factors in the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Additive interactions can have public health and etiological implications but are infrequently reported. We assessed departures from additivity on the absolute risk scale between 9 established breast cancer risk factors and 23 susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from genome-wide association studies among 10,146 non-Hispanic white breast cancer cases and 12,760 controls within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We estimated the relative excess risk due to interaction and its 95% confidence interval for each pairwise combination of SNPs and nongenetic risk factors using age- and cohort-adjusted logistic regression models. After correction for multiple comparisons, we identified a statistically significant relative excess risk due to interaction (uncorrected P = 4.51 × 10(-5)) between a SNP in the DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 2 gene (RAD51L1; rs10483813) and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). We also compared additive and multiplicative polygenic risk prediction models using per-allele odds ratio estimates from previous studies for breast-cancer susceptibility SNPs and observed that the multiplicative model had a substantially better goodness of fit than the additive model.
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High pathologic complete remission rate from induction docetaxel, platinum and fluorouracil (DCF) combination chemotherapy for locally advanced esophageal and junctional cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Adding docetaxel to the cisplatin/5-fluorouracil induction regimen for locally advanced esophageal and GEJ cancer may increase the pathologic complete remission (pCR) rate, leading to an improved outcome. Institutional ethics committee approved the protocol of retrospective analysis of patients with locally advanced esophageal and GEJ carcinoma, who received 2-3 cycles of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) induction chemotherapy with primary growth factors and prophylactic antibiotics. Following chemotherapy, a restaging scan was performed. If disease was deemed resectable, surgery was performed. Between February 2010 and October 2013, 31 patients received induction DCF. Ninety-four percent patients had squamous histology. Response rate was 81 %: complete remission (CR)-23 % and partial remission-58 %. Eighty-seven percent patients underwent surgery; R0 resection rate was 67 %. pCR occurred in 26 %. Common grade 3/4 toxicities included anemia-23 %, neutropenia-42 %, febrile neutropenia-39 %, diarrhea-39 %, hyponatremia-55 % and hypokalemia-39 %. There were no toxic deaths. At a median follow-up of 34 months (95 % CI 31.3-36.6), estimated median progression-free survival (PFS) was 27 months (95 % CI 11-39) and the overall survival (OS) at 1 year, 2 years and 3 years was 80, 68 and 55 %, respectively. Patients who attained pCR had a significant longer PFS and OS; median PFS and OS were not reached in patients with pCR and were 15 months (95 %CI 8.4-21.5 months), P = 0.012 and 25 months (95 %CI 10.3-39.7), P = 0.023, respectively, in patients who did not attain a pCR. DCF induction chemotherapy leads to pCR of 26 %, which rivals that obtained from chemoradiotherapy. Toxicity is substantial but manageable with adequate supportive care.
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A 5-Year Review of Feedback on the Philadelphia-Area Mock ABS Certifying Examination.
J Surg Educ
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination (ABSCE) is an oral examination designed to evaluate a resident?s ability to apply their cognitive knowledge to manage a broad range of clinical problems. In this study, we analyze our 5-year experience with a Philadelphia-wide mock oral examination (PMOE).
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Testing calibration of risk models at extremes of disease risk.
Biostatistics
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Risk-prediction models need careful calibration to ensure they produce unbiased estimates of risk for subjects in the underlying population given their risk-factor profiles. As subjects with extreme high or low risk may be the most affected by knowledge of their risk estimates, checking the adequacy of risk models at the extremes of risk is very important for clinical applications. We propose a new approach to test model calibration targeted toward extremes of disease risk distribution where standard goodness-of-fit tests may lack power due to sparseness of data. We construct a test statistic based on model residuals summed over only those individuals who pass high and/or low risk thresholds and then maximize the test statistic over different risk thresholds. We derive an asymptotic distribution for the max-test statistic based on analytic derivation of the variance-covariance function of the underlying Gaussian process. The method is applied to a large case-control study of breast cancer to examine joint effects of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered through recent genome-wide association studies. The analysis clearly indicates a non-additive effect of the SNPs on the scale of absolute risk, but an excellent fit for the linear-logistic model even at the extremes of risks.
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Carcinomatous meningitis in non-small cell lung cancer: Palliation with intrathecal treatment.
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Carcinomatous meningitis or meningeal carcinomatosis is seen in up to 5% of patients of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, isolated carcinomatous meningitis without brain parenchymal metastasis is less common. Patients with carcinomatous meningitis have limited treatment options. However, intrathecal therapy if used optimally along with targeted therapy when indicated result in good palliation with improvement in survival.
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The predictive value of initial serum lactate in trauma patients.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Trauma patients require early assessment of injury severity. Trauma scores, although well validated, can be unwieldy in the emergency clinical setting. We sought to evaluate the prognostic value of initial serum lactate (ISL) for mortality, operative intervention (OI), and intensive care unit admission (ICUA) in trauma patients. We conducted an institutional review board-approved retrospective study. We reviewed all trauma patients between January 2007 and June 2012 in our prospectively maintained database. We included only adults whose ISL had been drawn within the first 35 min after arrival. We included only those patients whose interval between injury and arrival was within 24 h. Survivors and nonsurvivors were compared using logistic regression, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests. Discriminating ability of ISL for mortality was assessed with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Our secondary outcomes (ICUA and OI) were evaluated with logistic regression test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. A total of 1,941 patients were included. Overall mortality was 6.2%. Median ISL was 32 mg/dL (interquartile range, 17 - 62) for nonsurvivors versus 21 mg/dL (interquartile range, 14 - 32) for survivors (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, ISL was a significant covariate for mortality (P = 0.015). The odds ratio was 1.010 (95% confidence interval, 1.002 - 1.019). The area under the curve was 0.63. The ISL was a significant covariate for OI (P = 0.033). The ISL did not reach significance for ICUA. The ISL is an easily measured, rapid, and inexpensive test that can help to quickly stratify injury severity in trauma patients. We have found that ISL, when used in strictly selected patients, can predict OI and mortality.
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Weekly chemotherapy as Induction chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer for patients ineligible for 3 weekly maximum tolerable dose chemotherapy.
Indian J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To study the safety and efficacy of weekly chemotherapy as part of induction chemotherapy, in locally advanced head and neck cancer for patients, who are unfit for upfront radical treatment.
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Development and in-vivo evaluation of ondansetron gels for transdermal delivery.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Abstract Nausea and vomiting are some of the major side effects caused by certain drug therapies, e.g. chemotherapy, radiotherapy and general anesthesia. Because of the nature of the symptoms, oral delivery is inappropriate, while intravenous administration may be unpractical. The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal gel (2% Klucel®) for ondansetron, a first line 5-HT3-receptor-antagonist antiemetic. The effects of the penetration enhancer camphor and isopropyl-myristate (IPM) were first investigated in-vitro using modified Franz diffusion-cells and then tested in-vivo in a rabbit model by measuring skin and plasma concentrations. Since a disadvantage of transdermal delivery is a prolonged lag-time, the effect of skin treatment with a micro-needle roller was tested. The in-vitro permeation studies through excised porcine ear skin showed that the presence of 2.5% camphor or IPM increased steady state flux by 1.2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, compared to the control gel. Ondansetron was not detectable in either skin or plasma following in-vivo application of the base-gel, whereas the camphor gel and IPM gel delivered 20 and 81?µg/cm(2) of ondansetron, respectively. Microporation led to an increase in plasma Cmax and AUC by 10.47?±?1.68-fold and 9.31?±?4.91-fold, respectively, for the camphor gel, and by 2.31?±?0.53-fold and 1.59?±?0.38-fold, respectively for the IPM gel. In conclusion, the 2.5% IPM gel demonstrated optimal in-vivo transdermal flux. Skin pretreatment with a micro-needle roller slightly improved the delivery of the IPM gel, whereas dramatically increased the transdermal delivery of the camphor gel.
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Lupus-like membranous nephropathy: Is it lupus or not?
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Membranous glomerulonephritis is typically classified as idiopathic or secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), hepatitis B, drugs, toxins, other infections, or malignancy. Not infrequently in some patients without a definite diagnosis of SLE, pathologic features of secondary membranous nephropathy are seen e.g., mesangial and/or subendothelial deposits, tubuloreticular inclusions, and full house immunofluorescence. In these patients, there is uncertainty about the etiology, response to therapy, and prognosis of membranous GN.
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Au nanomatryoshkas as efficient near-infrared photothermal transducers for cancer treatment: benchmarking against nanoshells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Au nanoparticles with plasmon resonances in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum efficiently convert light into heat, a property useful for the photothermal ablation of cancerous tumors subsequent to nanoparticle uptake at the tumor site. A critical aspect of this process is nanoparticle size, which influences both tumor uptake and photothermal efficiency. Here, we report a direct comparative study of ?90 nm diameter Au nanomatryoshkas (Au/SiO2/Au) and ?150 nm diameter Au nanoshells for photothermal therapeutic efficacy in highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumors in mice. Au nanomatryoshkas are strong light absorbers with 77% absorption efficiency, while the nanoshells are weaker absorbers with only 15% absorption efficiency. After an intravenous injection of Au nanomatryoshkas followed by a single NIR laser dose of 2 W/cm(2) for 5 min, 83% of the TNBC tumor-bearing mice appeared healthy and tumor free >60 days later, while only 33% of mice treated with nanoshells survived the same period. The smaller size and larger absorption cross section of Au nanomatryoshkas combine to make this nanoparticle more effective than Au nanoshells for photothermal cancer therapy.
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(99m)Tc HYNIC-TOC imaging and 177Lu DOTA-octreotate treatment in non-iodine-concentrating dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases: an unusual alternative diagnosis.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The value of Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy clarifying skeletal and hepatic-predominant metastatic disease in a 55-year-old woman (diagnosed earlier to have papillary carcinoma thyroid and had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation) is illustrated. The whole-body radioiodine scan and battery of serum tumor markers were normal. Multiple metastatic foci in the liver and skeleton were Tc HYNIC-TOC avid. Serum chromogranin A level was substantially elevated (1771.60 ng/mL). This represents an unusual alternative diagnosis signified by a highly positive scan in the setting of apparent non-iodine-concentrating metastatic disease in a patient of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
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Post-GWAS gene-environment interplay in breast cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium and a meta-analysis on 79,000 women.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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We studied the interplay between 39 breast cancer (BC) risk SNPs and established BC risk (body mass index, height, age at menarche, parity, age at menopause, smoking, alcohol and family history of BC) and prognostic factors (TNM stage, tumor grade, tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status) as joint determinants of BC risk. We used a nested case-control design within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), with 16 285 BC cases and 19 376 controls. We performed stratified analyses for both the risk and prognostic factors, testing for heterogeneity for the risk factors, and case-case comparisons for differential associations of polymorphisms by subgroups of the prognostic factors. We analyzed multiplicative interactions between the SNPs and the risk factors. Finally, we also performed a meta-analysis of the interaction ORs from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. After correction for multiple testing, no significant interaction between the SNPs and the established risk factors in the BPC3 study was found. The meta-analysis showed a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 (Pinteraction = 8.84 × 10(-4)) which, although not significant after considering multiple comparison, has a plausible biological explanation. In conclusion, in this study of up to almost 79 000 women we can conclusively exclude any novel major interactions between genome-wide association studies hits and the epidemiologic risk factors taken into consideration, but we propose a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 that if further replicated could help our understanding in the etiology of BC.
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Antiproliferative potential of a novel parthenin analog P16 as evident by apoptosis accompanied by down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Leukemia is one of the deadliest types of cancer. Lack of effective treatment strategies has resulted in an extensive quest for new therapeutic molecules against it. This study explores the molecular mechanism of anticancer activity of P16, a semisynthetic analog of parthenin, against the human acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells. P16 displayed antiproliferative activity in different cancer cell lines; however, MOLT-4 cells showed highest sensitivity for P16 with IC50 value of 0.6?M. Further studies revealed that P16 induced cell death by apoptosis. It caused mitochondrial stress, which was mediated by the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria and release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and consequent activation of caspase-9. However, P16 was also able to activate caspase-8, thus involving both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Further, activation of caspase-3 led to cleavage of its target proteins PARP-1 and ICAD, which resulted in apoptotic DNA damage. P16 induced apoptosis was accompanied by the down-regulation of important leukemic cell survival proteins like pAKT (S473), pAKT (T308), pP70S6K, pCRAF, and pERK1/2. However, inhibition of caspases by Z-VAD-FMK reversed the down-regulatory effect of P16 on pAKT (S473) and pP70S6K, as evident by the cell viability assay and flow cytometric analysis but this inhibition did not completely reverse the antiproliferative effect of P16, thereby indicating the role of additional factors apart from caspases in P16 induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. Owing to its antiproliferative potential against leukemia cells, P16 can further be explored as an effective therapeutics against leukemia.
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Case report of a robotic-assisted laparoscopic repair of a giant incarcerated recurrent inguinal hernia containing bladder and ureters.
Int J Med Robot
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Robotic surgery is particularly useful in pelvic procedures, such as prostatectomy and low anterior resection. The paper describes a robotic-assisted repair of a giant bladder- and ureter-containing incarcerated inguinal hernia.
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Tobacco smoking, polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes, and risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer: results from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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The relationship between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconclusive. This study examined the association between tobacco smoking and PCa risk taking into account polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes as possible effect modifiers (9 polymorphisms and 1 predicted phenotype from metabolism enzyme genes). The study included cases (n = 761 localized; n = 1199 advanced) and controls (n = 1139) from the multiethnic California Collaborative Case-Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking variables and risk of localized and advanced PCa risk. Being a former smoker, regardless of time of quit smoking, was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6). Among non-Hispanic Whites, ever smoking was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1), whereas current smoking was associated with risk of advanced PCa (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9). However, no associations were observed between smoking intensity, duration or pack-year variables, and advanced PCa. No statistically significant trends were seen among Hispanics or African-Americans. The relationship between smoking status and PCa risk was modified by the CYP1A2 rs7662551 polymorphism (P-interaction = 0.008). In conclusion, tobacco smoking was associated with risk of PCa, primarily localized disease among non-Hispanic Whites. This association was modified by a genetic variant in CYP1A2, thus supporting a role for tobacco carcinogens in PCa risk.
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Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic spectrum of a series of 14 cases emphasizing diagnostic dilemmas.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Paraganglioma (PG) of the urinary bladder is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm, accounting for < 0.1% of all bladder tumours. Distinction from urothelial carcinoma is imperative as management and prognosis vary markedly. In this report, we describe our experience with the histopathology of paragangliomas of the urinary bladder with emphasis on the histologic features that have led to their being misdiagnosed as conventional urothelial cancer and, most importantly, those that will help pathologists recognize this rare tumor of the bladder.
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Sub-100nm gold nanomatryoshkas improve photo-thermal therapy efficacy in large and highly aggressive triple negative breast tumors.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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There is an unmet need for efficient near-infrared photothermal transducers for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers and large tumors where the penetration of light can be substantially reduced, and the intra-tumoral nanoparticle transport is restricted due to the presence of hypoxic or necrotic regions. We report the performance advantages obtained by sub 100nm gold nanomatryushkas, comprising concentric gold-silica-gold layers compared to conventional ~150nm silica core gold nanoshells for photothermal therapy of triple negative breast cancer. We demonstrate that a 33% reduction in silica-core-gold-shell nanoparticle size, while retaining near-infrared plasmon resonance, and keeping the nanoparticle surface charge constant, results in a four to five fold tumor accumulation of nanoparticles following equal dose of injected gold for both sizes. The survival time of mice bearing large (>1000mm(3)) and highly aggressive triple negative breast tumors is doubled for the nanomatryushka treatment group under identical photo-thermal therapy conditions. The higher absorption cross-section of a nanomatryoshka results in a higher efficiency of photonic to thermal energy conversion and coupled with 4-5× accumulation within large tumors results in superior therapy efficacy.
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Palliative chemotherapy in carcinoma penis: Does platinum and taxane combination holds a promise?
Urol Ann
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To report safety and efficacy of chemotherapy incorporating the combination of paclitaxel and platinum in patients with advanced penile carcinoma.
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Induction chemotherapy in technically unresectable locally advanced carcinoma of maxillary sinus.
Chemother Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Background. Locally advanced carcinoma of maxillary sinus has been historically reported to have poor prognosis. We evaluated the role of NACT in improving the outcome in these patients. Methods. 41 patients with locally advanced technically unresectable (stage IVa) or unresectable maxillary carcinoma (stage IVb) were treated with induction chemotherapy between 2008 and 2011. The demographic profile, response and toxicity of chemotherapy, definitive treatment received, progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine factors associated with PFS and OS. Results. The chemotherapy included two drugs (platinum and taxane) in 34 patients (82.9%) and three drugs (platinum, taxane, and 5 FU) in 7 (17.1%). There was no complete response seen in any of the patients, stable disease in 18 (43.9%), partial response in 16 (39%), and progression in 7 (17.1%) patients. After induction, the treatment planned included surgery in 12 (29.3%), CT-RT in 24 (58.5%), radical RT in 1 (2.4%), palliative RT in 1 (2.4%), and palliative chemotherapy in 3 (7.3%) patients. Overall, the median PFS was 10.0 months. The OS at 24 months and 36 months was 41% and 35%, respectively. Conclusion. In unresectable maxillary carcinoma, induction chemotherapy has clinically significant benefit with acceptable toxicity.
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Overcoming endocrine resistance due to reduced PTEN levels in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer by co-targeting mammalian target of rapamycin, protein kinase B, or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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IntroductionActivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in estrogen receptor ¿ (ER)-positive breast cancer is associated with reduced ER expression and activity, luminal B subtype, and poor outcome. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of this pathway, is typically lost in ER-negative breast cancer. We set out to clarify the role of reduced PTEN levels in endocrine resistance, and to explore the combination of newly developed PI3K downstream kinase inhibitors to overcome this resistance.MethodsAltered cellular signaling, gene expression, and endocrine sensitivity were determined in inducible PTEN-knockdown ER-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer cell and/or xenograft models. Single or two-agent combinations of kinase inhibitors were examined to improve endocrine therapy.ResultsModerate PTEN reduction was sufficient to enhance PI3K signaling, generate a gene signature associated with the luminal B subtype of breast cancer, and cause endocrine resistance in vitro and in vivo. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), protein kinase B (AKT), or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors, alone or in combination, improved endocrine therapy, but the efficacy varied by PTEN levels, type of endocrine therapy, and the specific inhibitor(s). A single agent AKT inhibitor combined with fulvestrant conferred superior efficacy in overcoming resistance, inducing apoptosis and tumor regression.ConclusionsModerate reduction in PTEN, without complete loss, can activate the PI3K pathway to cause endocrine resistance in ER-positive breast cancer, which can be overcome by combining endocrine therapy with inhibitors of the PI3K pathway. Our data suggests that the ER degrader fulvestrant, to block both ligand-dependent and -independent ER signaling, combined with an AKT inhibitor is an effective strategy to test in patients.
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The surprising in vivo instability of near-IR-absorbing hollow Au-Ag nanoshells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Photothermal ablation based on resonant illumination of near-infrared-absorbing noble metal nanoparticles that have accumulated in tumors is a highly promising cancer therapy, currently in multiple clinical trials. A crucial aspect of this therapy is the nanoparticle size for optimal tumor uptake. A class of nanoparticles known as hollow Au (or Au-Ag) nanoshells (HGNS) is appealing because near-IR resonances are achievable in this system with diameters less than 100 nm. However, in this study, we report a surprising finding that in vivo HGNS are unstable, fragmenting with the Au and the remnants of the sacrificial Ag core accumulating differently in various organs. We synthesized 43, 62, and 82 nm diameter HGNS through a galvanic replacement reaction, with nanoparticles of all sizes showing virtually identical NIR resonances at ?800 nm. A theoretical model indicated that alloying, residual Ag in the nanoparticle core, nanoparticle porosity, and surface defects all contribute to the presence of the plasmon resonance at the observed wavelength, with the major contributing factor being the residual Ag. While PEG functionalization resulted in stable nanoparticles under laser irradiation in solution, an anomalous, strongly element-specific biodistribution observed in tumor-bearing mice suggests that an avid fragmentation of all three sizes of nanoparticles occurred in vivo. Stability studies across a wide range of pH environments and in serum confirmed HGNS fragmentation. These results show that NIR resonant HGNS contain residual Ag, which does not stay contained within the HGNS in vivo. This demonstrates the importance of tracking both materials of a galvanic replacement nanoparticle in biodistribution studies and of performing thorough nanoparticle stability studies prior to any intended in vivo trial application.
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Comprehensive analyses of DNA repair pathways, smoking and bladder cancer risk in Los Angeles and Shanghai.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Tobacco smoking is a bladder cancer risk factor and a source of carcinogens that induce DNA damage to urothelial cells. Using data and samples from 988 cases and 1,004 controls enrolled in the Los Angeles County Bladder Cancer Study and the Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study, we investigated associations between bladder cancer risk and 632 tagSNPs that comprehensively capture genetic variation in 28 DNA repair genes from four DNA repair pathways: base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HHR). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each tagSNP were corrected for multiple testing for all SNPs within each gene using pACT and for genes within each pathway and across pathways with Bonferroni. Gene and pathway summary estimates were obtained using ARTP. We observed an association between bladder cancer and POLB rs7832529 (BER) (pACT = 0.003; ppathway = 0.021) among all, and SNPs in XPC (NER) and OGG1 (BER) among Chinese men and women, respectively. The NER pathway showed an overall association with risk among Chinese males (ARTP NER p = 0.034). The XRCC6 SNP rs2284082 (NHEJ), also in LD with SREBF2, showed an interaction with smoking (smoking status interaction pgene = 0.001, ppathway = 0.008, poverall = 0.034). Our findings support a role in bladder carcinogenesis for regions that map close to or within BER (POLB, OGG1) and NER genes (XPC). A SNP that tags both the XRCC6 and SREBF2 genes strongly modifies the association between bladder cancer risk and smoking.
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Leveraging family history in population-based case-control association studies.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Population-based epidemiologic studies often gather information from study participants on disease history among their family members. Although investigators widely recognize that family history will be associated with genotypes of the participants at disease susceptibility loci, they commonly ignore such information in primary genetic association analyses. In this report, we propose a simple approach to association testing by incorporating family history information as a "phenotype." We account for the expected attenuation in strength of association of the genotype of study participants with family history under Mendelian transmission. The proposed analysis can be performed using standard statistical software adopting either a meta- or pooled-analysis framework. Re-analysis of a total of 115 known susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms, discovered through genome-wide association studies for several disease traits, indicates that incorporation of family history information can increase efficiency by as much as 40%. Efficiency gain depends on the type of design used for conducting the primary study, extent of family history, and accuracy and completeness of reporting.
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High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy.
Cancer Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ?3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ?3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon.
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Joint effects of colorectal cancer susceptibility loci, circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several SNPs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. Vitamin D is also inversely associated with CRC risk.
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Targeting pancreatic cancer with magneto-fluorescent theranostic gold nanoshells.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Aim: We report a magneto-fluorescent theranostic nanocomplex targeted to neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for imaging and therapy of pancreatic cancer. Materials & methods: Gold nanoshells resonant at 810 nm were encapsulated in silica epilayers doped with iron oxide and the near-infrared (NIR) dye indocyanine green, resulting in theranostic gold nanoshells (TGNS), which were subsequently conjugated with antibodies targeting NGAL in AsPC-1-derived xenografts in nude mice. Results: Anti-NGAL-conjugated TGNS specifically targeted pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo providing contrast for both NIR fluorescence and T2-weighted MRI with higher tumor contrast than can be obtained using long-circulating, but nontargeted, PEGylated nanoparticles. The nanocomplexes also enabled highly specific cancer cell death via NIR photothermal therapy in vitro. Conclusion: TGNS with embedded NIR and magnetic resonance contrasts can be specifically targeted to pancreatic cancer cells with expression of early disease marker NGAL, and enable molecularly targeted imaging and photothermal therapy. Original submitted 6 November 2012; Revised submitted 25 March 2013.
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Stage IV lung cancer: Is cure possible?
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Reporting a case, 53 years old male with stage IV Nonsamall cell lung cancer in view of cytologically proven malignant pleural effusion. Usually the management of stage IV lung cancer is with palliative intent where the patient receives palliative chemotherapy along with palliative radiotherapy and surgery if required. Most of the data on curative management of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer includes patient with adrenal metastasis and some reports with brain metastasis. There is scarce literature on the surgical management of stage IV lung cancer with pleural effusion.
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A diagnostic dilemma in a patient with lymphoma.
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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We report the case of a 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of gastric diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma, treated with two lines of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, and presented about 3 months after completing therapy with recurrent episodes of epigastric pain, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Computed tomography scan, positron emission tomography scan, and upper GI endoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening and lymphadenopathy. Biopsy and histopathology ultimately revealed Strongyloides stercoralis infection that was mimicking disease recurrence. Opportunistic parasitic infections represent one of the major challenges in the management of cancer patients.
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Thin-layer chromatography of phospholipids.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a technique that has been routinely used for the separation and identification of lipids. Here we describe an optimized protocol for the steady state labeling, separation, and quantification of yeast phospholipids using 1-D TLC.
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Reversal of boswellic acid analog BA145 induced caspase dependent apoptosis by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and MEK inhibitor PD98059.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways are important for growth and proliferation of many types of cancers. Therefore, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (LY) and MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (PD) are used to sensitize many types of cancer cell lines to chemotherapeutic agents, where AKT and ERK pathways are over activated. However, in this study, we show for the first time that PD could protect the leukemia cells independent of ERK pathway inhibition, besides, we also report a detailed mechanism for antiapoptotic effect of LY in HL-60 cells against the cytotoxicity induced by a boswellic acid analog BA145. Apoptosis induced by BA145 is accompanied by downregulation of PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways in human myelogenous leukemia HL-60 cells, having activating N-Ras mutation. Both LY and PD protected the cells against mitochondrial stress caused by BA145, and reduced the release of cytochrome c and consequent activation of caspase-9. LY and PD also diminished the activation of caspase-8 without affecting the death receptors. Besides, LY and PD also reversed the caspase dependent DNA damage induced by BA145. Further studies revealed that LY and PD significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of BA145 on cell cycle regulatory proteins by upregulating hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma, pRB (S795) and downregulating p21 and cyclin E. More importantly, all these events were reversed by caspase inhibition by Z-VAD-fmk, suggesting that both LY and PD act at the level of caspases to diminish the apoptosis induced by BA145. These results indicate that inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways can play dual role and act against chemotherapeutic agents.
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Case of childhood laryngeal papillomatosis with metastatic carcinoma esophagus in adulthood.
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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A young male patient was diagnosed to have laryngeal papillomas at the age of 3 years for which he underwent permanent tracheostomy and also multiple surgical and laser excision procedures. Then, later in life, the patient had progressive breathlessness and dysphagia. On examination, he had supraclavicular lymphadenopathy showing squamous carcinoma pathology. Since laryngeal papillomas have a high propensity to transform into laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, he was first evaluated for laryngeal carcinoma which was negative. Esophagoscopy showed a growth in the esophagus, the biopsy of which was positive for squamous malignant cells. Patient was then started on palliative chemotherapy with combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin, and at progression with weekly nanoxel with stable disease. This is a rare case of childhood laryngeal papillomatosis progressing to metastatic esophageal carcinoma. This case has been presented to highlight the fact that patients with laryngeal papillomas are not only at high risk of progressing to laryngeal carcinoma but can also have other malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung. Most of them have been correlated to human papilloma virus (HPV), but in our patient HPV DNA was negative.
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Resistant metastatic penile carcinoma and response to biochemotherapy with paclitaxel and epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, nimotuzumab.
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Carcinoma penis is one of the common malignancies in developing world especially among rural population. Multimodality treatment with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy for advanced penile carcinoma with groin nodal metastasis is crucial to optimise the outcome. Cisplatin, fluorouracil, methotrexate, vinorelbine, bleomycin and paclitaxel are the common chemotherapeutic agents used along with local therapy. Paucity of data to show superiority of one chemotherapeutic regime over another and only modest response to any combination chemotherapy. Progression of disease after surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is associated with poor outcome and quality of life. Nimotuzumab, Anti EGFR monoclonal antibody, along with paclitaxel in our case of resistant metastatic penile carcinoma has shown good symptomatic palliation and clinical response.
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Induction chemotherapy in technically unresectable locally advanced oral cavity cancers: does it make a difference?
Indian J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Locally advanced and unresectable oral cavity cancers have a poor prognosis. Induction might be beneficial in this setting by reducing tumor bulk and allowing definitive surgery.
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Tru-cut biopsy as the initial method of tissue diagnosis in bone tumors with soft tissue extension.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Tru-cut biopsy in suspected bone tumors can be performed even in less specialized centers. Tru-cut biopsy has been proved as safe with more than 90% accuracy. However, its usefulness was not widely studied in general hospitals where Tru-cut biopsy is performed by orthopedic surgeons. This study was conducted to find out the accuracy and adequacy of Tru-cut biopsy performed by an orthopedic surgeon not trained in musculoskeletal oncology, in a general hospital.
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Paper-based electrochemiluminescent screening for genotoxic activity in the environment.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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A low cost, microfluidic paper electrochemical device (?PED) was fabricated using screen printing of electrodes and heat transfer of patterned wax paper onto filter paper. The ?PED features films of a light-emitting ruthenium metallopolymer, microsomal metabolic enzymes, and DNA to detect potential genotoxic pollutant activity in environmental samples. Unlike conventional analytical methods that detect specific pollutant compounds, the ?PED was designed to rapidly measure the presence of genotoxic equivalents in environmental samples with the signal related to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as a reference standard. The analytical end point is the detection of DNA damage from metabolites produced in the device using an electrochemiluminescence output measured with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Proof-of-concept of this measurement was established for smoke, water, and food samples. The ?PED provides a rapid screening tool for on-site environmental monitoring that specifically monitors the genotoxic reactivity of metabolites of toxic compounds present in the samples.
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Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array.
Rosalind A Eeles, Ali Amin Al Olama, Sara Benlloch, Edward J Saunders, Daniel A Leongamornlert, Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz, Maya Ghoussaini, Craig Luccarini, Joe Dennis, Sarah Jugurnauth-Little, Tokhir Dadaev, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy, Jenny L Donovan, Ken Muir, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Fredrik Wiklund, Henrik Grönberg, Christopher A Haiman, Fredrick Schumacher, Brian E Henderson, Loic Le Marchand, Sara Lindstrom, Peter Kraft, David J Hunter, Susan Gapstur, Stephen J Chanock, Sonja I Berndt, Demetrius Albanes, Gerald Andriole, Johanna Schleutker, Maren Weischer, Federico Canzian, Elio Riboli, Tim J Key, Ruth C Travis, Daniele Campa, Sue A Ingles, Esther M John, Richard B Hayes, Paul D P Pharoah, Nora Pashayan, Kay-Tee Khaw, Janet L Stanford, Elaine A Ostrander, Lisa B Signorello, Stephen N Thibodeau, Dan Schaid, Christiane Maier, Walther Vogel, Adam S Kibel, Cezary Cybulski, Jan Lubiński, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Hermann Brenner, Jong Y Park, Radka Kaneva, Jyotsna Batra, Amanda B Spurdle, Judith A Clements, Manuel R Teixeira, Ed Dicks, Andrew Lee, Alison M Dunning, Caroline Baynes, Don Conroy, Melanie J Maranian, Shahana Ahmed, Koveela Govindasami, Michelle Guy, Rosemary A Wilkinson, Emma J Sawyer, Angela Morgan, David P Dearnaley, Alan Horwich, Robert A Huddart, Vincent S Khoo, Christopher C Parker, Nicholas J Van As, Christopher J Woodhouse, Alan Thompson, Tim Dudderidge, Chris Ogden, Colin S Cooper, Artitaya Lophatananon, Angela Cox, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper, Dallas R English, Markus Aly, Jan Adolfsson, Jiangfeng Xu, Siqun L Zheng, Meredith Yeager, Rudolf Kaaks, W Ryan Diver, Mia M Gaudet, Mariana C Stern, Román Corral, Amit D Joshi, Ahva Shahabi, Tiina Wahlfors, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen, Jarmo Virtamo, Peter Klarskov, Børge G Nordestgaard, M Andreas Røder, Sune F Nielsen, Stig E Bojesen, Afshan Siddiq, Liesel M Fitzgerald, Suzanne Kolb, Erika M Kwon, Danielle M Karyadi, William J Blot, Wei Zheng, Qiuyin Cai, Shannon K McDonnell, Antje E Rinckleb, Bettina Drake, Graham Colditz, Dominika Wokolorczyk, Robert A Stephenson, Craig Teerlink, Heiko Muller, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Thomas A Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, Chavdar Slavov, Vanio Mitev, Felicity Lose, Srilakshmi Srinivasan, Sofia Maia, Paula Paulo, Ethan Lange, Kathleen A Cooney, Antonis C Antoniou, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Daniel C Tessier, , Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Douglas F Easton.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining ?30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies.
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Frequency of EGFR Mutations in 907 Lung Adenocarcioma Patients of Indian Ethnicity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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During the past decade, the incidence of EGFR mutation has been shown to vary across different ethnicities. It occurs at the rate of 10-15% in North Americans and Europeans, 19% in African-Americans, 20-30% in various East Asian series including Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese. Frequency of EGFR mutations in India however remains sparsely explored.
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Genetic variation in the base excision repair pathway, environmental risk factors, and colorectal adenoma risk.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cigarette smoking, high alcohol intake, and low dietary folate levels are risk factors for colorectal adenomas. Oxidative damage caused by these three factors can be repaired through the base excision repair pathway (BER). We hypothesized that genetic variation in BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. In a sigmoidoscopy-based study, we examined associations between 182 haplotype tagging SNPs in 14 BER genes, and colorectal adenoma risk, and examined their potential role as modifiers of the effect cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and dietary folate levels. Among all individuals, no statistically significant associations between BER SNPs and adenoma risk persisted after correction for multiple comparisons. However, among Asian-Pacific Islanders we observed two SNPs in FEN1 and one in NTHL1, and among African-Americans one SNP in APEX1 that were associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Significant associations were also observed between SNPs in the NEIL2 gene and rectal adenoma risk. Three SNPS modified the effect of smoking (MUTYH interaction p?=?0.002; OGG1 interaction p?=?0.013); FEN1 interaction p?=?0.013)), one SNP in LIG3 modified the effect of alcohol consumption (interaction p?=?0.024) and two SNPs in LIG3 modified the effect of dietary folate (interaction p?=?0.001 and p?=?0.08) on colorectal adenoma risk. These findings support a role for genetic variants in the BER pathway as potential modifiers of colorectal adenoma risk. Our findings strengthen the role of oxidative damage induced by key lifestyle and dietary risk factors in colorectal adenoma formation.
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EGFR mutations in Indian lung cancer patients: clinical correlation and outcome to EGFR targeted therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Screening for EGFR mutation is a key molecular test for management of lung cancer patients. Outcome of patients with mutation receiving EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor is known to be better across different ethnic populations. However, frequency of EGFR mutations and the clinical response in most other ethnic populations, including India, remains to be explored. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Indian lung cancer patients who were managed with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Majority of the patients in the study had adenocarcinoma and were non-smokers. 39/111 patients tested positive for EGFR kinase domain mutations determined by Taqman based real time PCR. The overall response to oral TKI therapy was 30%. Patients with an activating mutation of EGFR had a response rate of 74%, while the response rate in patients with wild type EGFR was 5%, which was a statistically significant difference. Progression free survival of patients with EGFR mutations was 10 months compared to 2 months for EGFR mutation negative patients. Overall survival was 19 months for EGFR mutation patients and 13 months for mutation negative patients. This study emphasizes EGFR mutation as an important predictive marker for response to oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the Indian population.
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No association of PTGDR -441C/T polymorphism with asthma in a North Indian population.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Asthma is the most prevalent disease in India according to the national survey conducted by NFHS 2 in 1998-399. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a bronchoconstriction inducing metabolite of arachidonic acid in the mast cells, which is produced on exposure to allergens and acts as a ligand for the Prostaglandin D2 Receptor (PTGDR). Polymorphisms in the PTGDR gene have been suggested to be involved in the mechanism of asthma.
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Simultaneous estimation of etoricoxib and thiocolchicoside by RP-HPLC method in combined dosage forms.
Acta Pol Pharm
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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A simple, reproducible and efficient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of etoricoxib and thiocolchicoside in combined tablet dosage form. Formulation containing etoricoxib and thiocolchicoside is used as analgesic. Chromatography was performed on a 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size, BDS Hypersil C-18 column with trifluoroacetic acid buffer (pH 2.6) and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v) as a mobile phase. The detection of the combined dosage form was carried out at 220 nm and a flow rate employed was 1.5 mL/min. The retention times were 6.6 and 3.1 min for etoricoxib and thiocolchicoside, respectively. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range 20 to 160 ppm for etoricoxib and in the range 2 to 16 ppm for thiocolchicoside with a correlation coefficient of 0.9918 and 0.9994, respectively. The results of the analysis were validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy and precision of the proposed method.
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Calibrating the photo-thermal response of magneto-fluorescent gold nanoshells.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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We report the photothermal response and Near Infrared (NIR) imaging sensitivities of magneto-fluorescent silica core gold nanocomplexes designed for molecular image guided thermal therapy of cancer. Approximately 160 nm Silica core gold nanoshells were designed to provide NIR fluorescent and Magnetic Resonance (MR) contrast by incorporating FDA approved dye indocyanine green (ICG) and iron-oxide within an outer silica epilayer. The imaging and therapeutic sensitivity, and the stability of fluorescence contrast for 12 microliters of suspension (containing approximately 7.9 × 10(8) or 1.3 femtoMole nanoshells) buried at depths of 2-8 mm in tissue mimicking scattering media is reported.
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Fish intake, cooking practices, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multi-ethnic case-control study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Studies conducted to assess the association between fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk are inconclusive. However, few studies have distinguished between fatty and lean fish, and no studies have considered the role of different cooking practices, which may lead to differential accumulation of chemical carcinogens. In this study, we investigated the association between fish intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account fish types (lean vs. fatty) and cooking practices.
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Theranostic nanoshells: from probe design to imaging and treatment of cancer.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Recent advances in nanoscience and biomedicine have expanded our ability to design and construct multifunctional nanoparticles that combine targeting, therapeutic, and diagnostic functions within a single nanoscale complex. The theranostic capabilities of gold nanoshells, spherical nanoparticles with silica cores and gold shells, have attracted tremendous attention over the past decade as nanoshells have emerged as a promising tool for cancer therapy and bioimaging enhancement. This Account examines the design and synthesis of nanoshell-based theranostic agents, their plasmon-derived optical properties, and their corresponding applications. We discuss the design and preparation of nanoshell complexes and their ability to enhance the photoluminescence of fluorophores while maintaining their properties as MR contrast agents. In this Account, we discuss the underlying physical principles that contribute to the photothermal response of nanoshells. We then elucidate the photophysical processes that induce nanoshells to enhance the fluorescence of weak near-infrared fluorophores. Nanoshells illuminated with resonant light are either strong optical absorbers or scatterers, properties that give rise to their unique capabilities. These physical processes have been harnessed to visualize and eliminate cancer cells. We describe the application of nanoshells as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography of breast carcinoma cells in vivo. Our recent studies examine nanoshells as a multimodal theranostic probe, using these nanoparticles for near-infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for the photothermal ablation of cancer cells. Multimodal nanoshells show theranostic potential for imaging subcutaneous breast cancer tumors in animal models and the distribution of tumors in various tissues. Nanoshells also show promise as light-triggered gene therapy vectors, adding temporal control to the spatial control characteristic of nanoparticle-based gene therapy approaches. We describe the fabrication of DNA-conjugated nanoshell complexes and compare the efficiency of light-induced and thermally-induced release of DNA. Double-stranded DNA nanoshells also provide a way to deliver small molecules into cells: we describe the delivery and light-triggered release of DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), a dye molecule used to stain DNA in the nuclei of cells.
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Applications of ?-gal-III isozyme from Bacillus coagulans RCS3, in lactose hydrolysis.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Bacillus coagulans RCS3 isolated from hot water springs secreted five isozymes i.e. ?-gal I-V of ?-galactosidase. ?-gal III isozyme was purified using DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G 100 column chromatography. Its molecular weight characterization showed a single band at 315kD in Native PAGE, while two subunits of 50.1 and 53.7 kD in SDS PAGE. ?-Gal III had pH optima in the range of 6-7 and temperature optima at 65°C. It preferred nitro-aryl-?-d-galactoside as substrate having K(m) of 4.16 mM with ONPG. More than 85% and 80% hydrolysis of lactose (1-5%, w/v) was recorded within 48 h of incubation at 55°C and 50°C respectively and pH range of 6-7. About 78-86% hydrolysis of lactose in various brands of standardized milk was recorded at incubation temperature of 50°C. These results marked the applications of ?-gal III in processing of milk/whey industry.
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Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study.
Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Ali Amin Al Olama, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Johanna Schleutker, Maren Weischer, Daniele Campa, Elio Riboli, Tim Key, Henrik Grönberg, David J Hunter, Peter Kraft, Michael J Thun, Sue Ingles, Stephen Chanock, Demetrius Albanes, Richard B Hayes, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy, Jenny L Donovan, Paul Pharoah, Fredrick Schumacher, Brian E Henderson, Janet L Stanford, Elaine A Ostrander, Karina Dalsgaard Sorensen, Thilo Dörk, Gerald Andriole, Joanne L Dickinson, Cezary Cybulski, Jan Lubiński, Amanda Spurdle, Judith A Clements, Suzanne Chambers, Joanne Aitken, R A Frank Gardiner, Stephen N Thibodeau, Dan Schaid, Esther M John, Christiane Maier, Walther Vogel, Kathleen A Cooney, Jong Y Park, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Hermann Brenner, Tomonori Habuchi, Hong-Wei Zhang, Yong-Jie Lu, Radka Kaneva, Ken Muir, Sara Benlloch, Daniel A Leongamornlert, Edward J Saunders, Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz, Nadiya Mahmud, Michelle Guy, Lynne T O'Brien, Rosemary A Wilkinson, Amanda L Hall, Emma J Sawyer, Tokhir Dadaev, Jonathan Morrison, David P Dearnaley, Alan Horwich, Robert A Huddart, Vincent S Khoo, Christopher C Parker, Nicholas van As, Christopher J Woodhouse, Alan Thompson, Tim Christmas, Chris Ogden, Colin S Cooper, Aritaya Lophatonanon, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper, Dallas R English, Tiina Wahlfors, Teuvo L J Tammela, Peter Klarskov, Børge G Nordestgaard, M Andreas Røder, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Stig E Bojesen, Ruth Travis, Federico Canzian, Rudolf Kaaks, Fredrik Wiklund, Markus Aly, Sara Lindstrom, W Ryan Diver, Susan Gapstur, Mariana C Stern, Román Corral, Jarmo Virtamo, Angela Cox, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand, Liesel Fitzgerald, Suzanne Kolb, Erika M Kwon, Danielle M Karyadi, Torben Falck Orntoft, Michael Borre, Andreas Meyer, Jürgen Serth, Meredith Yeager, Sonja I Berndt, James R Marthick, Briony Patterson, Dominika Wokolorczyk, Jyotsna Batra, Felicity Lose, Shannon K McDonnell, Amit D Joshi, Ahva Shahabi, Antje E Rinckleb, Ana Ray, Thomas A Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, Robert A Stephenson, James Farnham, Heiko Muller, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Shintaro Narita, Guang-Wen Cao, Chavdar Slavov, Vanio Mitev, Douglas F Easton, Rosalind A Eeles, .
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of stage 3, in which we evaluated 1,536 SNPs in 4,574 individuals with prostate cancer (cases) and 4,164 controls. We followed up ten new association signals through genotyping in 51,311 samples in 30 studies from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2p11, 3q23, 3q26, 5p12, 6p21, 12q13 and Xq12 (P = 4.0 × 10(-8) to P = 2.7 × 10(-24)). We also identified a SNP in TERT more strongly associated with PrCa than that previously reported. More than 40 PrCa susceptibility loci, explaining ?25% of the familial risk in this disease, have now been identified.
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DNA methylation changes in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, and lung adenocarcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Aberrant DNA methylation is common in lung adenocarcinoma, but its timing in the phases of tumor development is largely unknown. Delineating when abnormal DNA methylation arises may provide insight into the natural history of lung adenocarcinoma and the role that DNA methylation alterations play in tumor formation.
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Structure-based design of a heptavalent anthrax toxin inhibitor.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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The design of polyvalent molecules, consisting of multiple copies of a biospecific ligand attached to a suitable scaffold, represents a promising approach to inhibit pathogens and oligomeric microbial toxins. Despite the increasing interest in structure-based drug design, few polyvalent inhibitors based on this approach have shown efficacy in vivo. Here we demonstrate the structure-based design of potent biospecific heptavalent inhibitors of anthrax lethal toxin. Specifically, we illustrate the ability to design potent polyvalent ligands by matching the pattern of binding sites on the biological target. We used a combination of experimental studies based on mutagenesis and computational docking studies to identify the binding site for an inhibitory peptide on the heptameric subunit of anthrax toxin. We developed an approach based on copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click-chemistry) to facilitate the attachment of seven copies of the inhibitory peptide to a ?-cyclodextrin core via a polyethylene glycol linker of an appropriate length. The resulting heptavalent inhibitors neutralized anthrax lethal toxin both in vitro and in vivo and showed appreciable stability in serum. Given the inherent biocompatibility of cyclodextrin and polyethylene glycol, these potent well-defined heptavalent inhibitors show considerable promise as anthrax antitoxins.
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Carcinogen metabolism genes, red meat and poultry intake, and colorectal cancer risk.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Diets high in red meat are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Carcinogenic compounds generated during meat cooking have been implicated as causal agents. We conducted a family-based case-control study to investigate the association between polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism genes (CYP1A2 -154A>C, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, CYP2E1 -1054C>T, GSTP1 Ile105Val, PTGS2 5UTR -765, EPHX1 Tyr113His, NAT2 Ile114Thr, NAT2 Arg197Gln and NAT2 Gly286Glu) and CRC risk. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (N = 577) and compared statistically significant results to those obtained using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (N = 307 sibships). Our results suggested that CYP1A2 -154A>C might modify the association between intake of red meat cooked using high temperature methods and well done on the inside and CRC risk (case-only interaction OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.19-1.97; p = 0.0008) and the association between intake of red meat heavily browned on the outside and rectal cancer risk (case-only interaction OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003). We also found that GSTP1 Ile105Val might modify the association between intake of poultry cooked with high temperature methods and CRC risk (p = 0.0035), a finding that was stronger among rectal cancer cases. Our results support a role for heterocyclic amines that form in red meat as a potential explanation for the observed association between diets high in red meat and CRC. Our findings also suggest a possible role for diets high in poultry cooked at high temperatures in CRC risk.
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Tracking of multimodal therapeutic nanocomplexes targeting breast cancer in vivo.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2010
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Nanoparticle-based therapeutics with local delivery and external electromagnetic field modulation holds extraordinary promise for soft-tissue cancers such as breast cancer; however, knowledge of the distribution and fate of nanoparticles in vivo is crucial for clinical translation. Here we demonstrate that multiple diagnostic capabilities can be introduced in photothermal therapeutic nanocomplexes by simultaneously enhancing both near-infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We track nanocomplexes in vivo, examining the influence of HER2 antibody targeting on nanocomplex distribution over 72 h. This approach provides valuable, detailed information regarding the distribution and fate of complex nanoparticles designed for specific diagnostic and therapeutic functions.
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Murine aldo-keto reductase family 1 subfamily B: identification of AKR1B8 as an ortholog of human AKR1B10.
Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2010
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Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10), over-expressed in multiple human cancers, might be implicated in cancer development and progression via detoxifying cytotoxic carbonyls and regulating fatty acid synthesis. In the present study, we investigated the ortholog of AKR1B10 in mice, an ideal modeling organism greatly contributing to human disease investigations. In the mouse, there are three aldo-keto reductase family 1 subfamily B (AKR1B) members, i.e., AKR1B3, AKR1B7, and AKR1B8. Among them, AKR1B8 has the highest similarity to human AKR1B10 in terms of amino acid sequence, computer-modeled structures, substrate spectra and specificity, and tissue distribution. More importantly, similar to human AKR1B10, mouse AKR1B8 associates with murine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-? and mediates fatty acid synthesis in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that murine AKR1B8 is the ortholog of human AKR1B10.
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Validation of genome-wide prostate cancer associations in men of African descent.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, but these loci have been identified primarily in men of European descent. There is limited information about the role of these loci in men of African descent.
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TP53 R72P and MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Tumor protein p53 gene and its negative regulator, murine double minute 2 homolog are important components for cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. An arginine-to-proline substitution at codon 72 in the p53 gene is reported to decrease apoptotic potential, while a thymine-to-guanine polymorphism at nucleotide 309, named SNP309, of murine double minute 2 gene increases transcription of the gene. These two polymorphisms therefore may be of importance in colorectal carcinogenesis. The relation of these polymorphisms to colorectal cancer risk was addressed in the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.
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Polymorphisms in base excision repair genes as colorectal cancer risk factors and modifiers of the effect of diets high in red meat.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
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A diet high in red meat is an established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factor. Carcinogens generated during meat cooking have been implicated as causal agents and can induce oxidative DNA damage, which elicits repair by the base excision repair (BER) pathway.
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Soy food and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2010
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It has been suggested that soy food and isoflavone intake may be protective against the risk of colorectal cancer. However, epidemiologic evidence remains sparse and inconsistent. We addressed this issue in the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.
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Concurrent robotic trans-abdominal pre-peritoneal (TAP) herniorrhaphy during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.
Int J Med Robot
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Robotic prostatectomy (RP) is now increasingly performed because it allows for precise dissection of neurovascular structures with better outcomes. It is estimated that 5-12% of candidates for radical prostatectomy have detectable inguinal hernias, and simultaneous mesh hernioplasty is now well supported. A disadvantage of radical prostatectomy is obliteration of the preperitoneal space of Bogros, which can make future totally extraperitoneal (TEP) herniorrhaphy difficult and prone to complication.
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Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in a Japanese population: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Few studies have addressed the relation between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Japan. We investigated dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study. The association with dietary patterns was also examined for different sites of colorectal cancer. Data were derived from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, including 800 cases and 775 controls interviewed from September 2000 to December 2003. The cases were admitted to one of the participating hospitals for the first surgical treatment during this period. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of intakes of twenty-nine items of food groups and specific foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for in the analysis. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, high-fat and light-meal patterns. The prudent dietary pattern characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, seafoods and soya foods showed a nearly significant protective association with the overall risk of colorectal cancer (trend P = 0.054), and it was statistically significantly related to a decreased risk of distal colon cancer (trend P = 0.002), but not to that of either proximal colon or rectal cancer. The high-fat and light-meal dietary patterns were not materially related to the overall or site-specific risk of colorectal cancer. In summary, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, especially with that of distal colon cancer, in a fairly large case-control study in Japan.
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A molecularly targeted theranostic probe for ovarian cancer.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family has been implicated in ovarian cancer because of its participation in signaling pathway regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. Currently, effective diagnostic and therapeutic schemes are lacking for treating ovarian cancer, and consequently ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate. Although HER2 receptor expression does not usually affect the survival rates of ovarian cancer to the same extent as in breast cancer, it can be used as a docking site for directed nanotherapies in cases with de novo or acquired chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we have exploited a novel gold nanoshell-based complex (nanocomplex) for targeting, dual modal imaging, and photothermal therapy of HER2-overexpressing and drug-resistant ovarian cancer OVCAR3 cells in vitro. The nanocomplexes are engineered to simultaneously provide contrast as fluorescence optical imaging probe and a magnetic resonance imaging agent. Immunofluorescence staining and magnetic resonance imaging successfully show that nanocomplex-anti-HER2 conjugates specifically bind to OVCAR3 cells as opposed to the control, MDA-MB-231 cells, which have low HER2 expression. In addition, nanocomplexes targeted to OVCAR3 cells, when irradiated with near-IR laser, result in selective destruction of cancer cells through photothermal ablation. We also show that near-IR light therapy and the nanocomplexes by themselves are noncytotoxic in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful integration of dual modal bioimaging with photothermal cancer therapy for treatment of ovarian cancer. Based on their efficacy in vitro, these nanocomplexes are highly promising for image-guided photothermal therapy of ovarian cancer, as well as other HER2-overexpressing cancers. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1028-38. (c)2010 AACR.
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids, DNA repair single nucleotide polymorphisms and colorectal cancer in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.
J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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Animal and in vitrostudies support a role for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in colon carcinogenesis; however, the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. Recently, we investigated their role within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort of Singapore Chinese men and women. We reported that a high intake of marine n-3 PUFAs was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Oxidation of PUFAs incorporated into cell membranes generates lipid hydroperoxides, which can be mutagenic. In this report, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes modified the effect of PUFAs on CRC risk using a nested case-control study within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. We genotyped 1,181 controls and 311 cases (180 colon and 131 rectal cancer) for SNPs in the XRCC1 (Arg194Trp, Arg399Gln), OGG1 (Ser326Cys), PARP (Val762Ala, Lys940Arg), and XPD (Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln) genes. We observed that the PARP Val762Ala SNP modified the association between marine n-3 PUFA and rectal cancer risk, with no evidence of interaction among colon cancer (heterogeneity test p=0.003). Our results suggest a positive association between high intake of marine n-3 PUFA and rectal cancer risk among carriers of at least one PARP codon 762 Ala allele (odds ratio=1.7, 95% confidence interval=1.1-2.7).
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Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, smoking, and bladder cancer risk: findings from the international consortium of bladder cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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Tobacco smoking is the most important and well-established bladder cancer risk factor and a rich source of chemical carcinogens and reactive oxygen species that can induce damage to DNA in urothelial cells. Therefore, common variation in DNA repair genes might modify bladder cancer risk. In this study, we present results from meta-analyses and pooled analyses conducted as part of the International Consortium of Bladder Cancer. We included data on 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms corresponding to seven DNA repair genes from 13 studies. Pooled analyses and meta-analyses included 5,282 cases and 5,954 controls of non-Latino white origin. We found evidence for weak but consistent associations with ERCC2 D312N [rs1799793; per-allele odds ratio (OR), 1.10; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-1.19; P = 0.021], NBN E185Q (rs1805794; per-allele OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18; P = 0.028), and XPC A499V (rs2228000; per-allele OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = 0.044). The association with NBN E185Q was limited to ever smokers (interaction P = 0.002) and was strongest for the highest levels of smoking dose and smoking duration. Overall, our study provides the strongest evidence to date for a role of common variants in DNA repair genes in bladder carcinogenesis.
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Late-onset hepatic veno-occlusive disease post autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation successfully treated with oral defibrotide.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) remains one of the commonest and most serious complications after myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Clinical diagnosis of hepatic VOD is based on the finding of the triad of painful hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, and unexplained fluid retention occurring within 21 days of the transplant. However, the uncommon clinical entity of late-onset VOD can occur even beyond 20 days and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any liver disease of more than 3 weeks duration. While mild cases usually resolve spontaneously, severe VOD is associated with a grim prognosis. Defibrotide, a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotide with antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects on microvascular endothelium, has emerged as an effective and safe therapy for patients with severe VOD. We describe a patient who presented 55 days post transplant with clinical features suggestive of VOD. Upon treatment with oral defibrotide, he showed complete resolution of the VOD.
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Mitochondrial cardiolipin involved in outer-membrane protein biogenesis: implications for Barth syndrome.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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The biogenesis of mitochondria requires the import of a large number of proteins from the cytosol [1, 2]. Although numerous studies have defined the proteinaceous machineries that mediate mitochondrial protein sorting, little is known about the role of lipids in mitochondrial protein import. Cardiolipin, the signature phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane [3-5], affects the stability of many inner-membrane protein complexes [6-12]. Perturbation of cardiolipin metabolism leads to the X-linked cardioskeletal myopathy Barth syndrome [13-18]. We report that cardiolipin affects the preprotein translocases of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Cardiolipin mutants genetically interact with mutants of outer-membrane translocases. Mitochondria from cardiolipin yeast mutants, as well as Barth syndrome patients, are impaired in the biogenesis of outer-membrane proteins. Our findings reveal a new role for cardiolipin in protein sorting at the mitochondrial outer membrane and bear implications for the pathogenesis of Barth syndrome.
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Red meat and poultry intake, polymorphisms in the nucleotide excision repair and mismatch repair pathways and colorectal cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Diets high in red meat have been consistently associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and may result in exposure to carcinogens that cause DNA damage [i.e polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and N-nitroso compounds]. Using a family-based study, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) (ERCC1 3 untranslated region (UTR) G/T, XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln, XPC intron 11 C/A, XPA 5 UTR C/T, XPF Arg415Gln and XPG Asp1104His) and mismatch repair (MLH1 Ile219Val and MSH2 Gly322Asp) pathways modified the association with red meat and poultry intake. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (n = 577) and compared the results using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (n = 307 sibships). Increased risk of CRC was observed for intake of more than or equal to three servings per week of red meat [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-2.5)] or high-temperature cooked red meat (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2). Intake of red meat heavily brown on the outside or inside increased CRC risk only among subjects who carried the XPD codon 751 Lys/Lys genotype (case-only interaction P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively, for doneness outside or inside) or the XPD codon 312 Asp/Asp genotype (case-only interaction P = 0.090 and P < 0.001, respectively). These interactions were stronger for rectal cancer cases (heterogeneity test P = 0.002 for XPD Asp312Asn and P = 0.03 for XPD Lys751Gln) and remained statistically significant after accounting for multiple testing. Case-unaffected sibling analyses were generally supportive of the case-only results. These findings highlight the possible contribution of diets high in red meat to the formation of lesions that elicit the NER pathway, such as carcinogen-induced bulky adducts.
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Parallel synthesis and screening of polymers for nonviral gene delivery.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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We describe the parallel synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a cationic polymer library for the discovery of nonviral gene delivery vectors. The library was synthesized based on the ring-opening polymerization reaction between epoxide groups of diglycidyl ethers and the amines of (poly)amines. Parallel screening of soluble library constituents led to the identification of lead polymers with high DNA-binding efficacies. Transfection efficacies of lead polymers were evaluated using PC3-PSMA human prostate cancer cells and murine osteoblasts in the absence and presence of serum. In vitro experiments resulted in the identification of a candidate polymer that demonstrated significantly higher transfection efficacies and lower cytotoxicities than poly(ethyleneimine) (pEI), the current standard for polymeric transfection agents. In addition, polymers that demonstrated moderately higher and comparable transfection efficacies with respect to pEI were also identified. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput synthesis and screening of polymers is a powerful approach for the identification of novel nonviral gene delivery agents.
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Metagenomics: Concept, methodology, ecological inference and recent advances.
Biotechnol J
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Microorganisms constitute two third of the Earths biological diversity. As many as 99% of the microorganisms present in certain environments cannot be cultured by standard techniques. Culture-independent methods are required to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and ecological roles of the majority of organisms. Metagenomics is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from their natural environment. Protocols have been developed to capture unexplored microbial diversity to overcome the existing barriers in estimation of diversity. New screening methods have been designed to select specific functional genes within metagenomic libraries to detect novel biocatalysts as well as bioactive molecules applicable to mankind. To study the complete gene or operon clusters, various vectors including cosmid, fosmid or bacterial artificial chromosomes are being developed. Bioinformatics tools and databases have added much to the study of microbial diversity. This review describes the various methodologies and tools developed to understand the biology of uncultured microbes including bacteria, archaea and viruses through metagenomic analysis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.