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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intranasal administration of Mycobacterium bovis BCG induces superior protection against aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Despite the widespread use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), TB remains a global epidemic. To assess whether more direct targeting of the lung mucosa by respiratory immunization would enhance the potency and longevity of BCG-induced anti-TB protective immunity, the long-term impact of intranasal (i.n.) BCG vaccination was compared to conventional subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization by using a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Although significantly improved protection in the lung was seen at early time points (2 and 4 months postvaccination) in i.n. BCG-immunized mice, no differences in pulmonary protection were seen 8 and 10 months postvaccination. In contrast, in all of the study periods, i.n. BCG vaccination induced significantly elevated protective splenic responses relative to s.c. immunization. At five of nine time points, we observed a splenic protective response exceeding 1.9 log10 protection relative to the s.c. route. Furthermore, higher frequencies of CD4 T cells expressing gamma interferon (IFN-?) and IFN-?/tumor necrosis factor alpha, as well as CD8 T cells expressing IFN-?, were detected in the spleens of i.n. vaccinated mice. Using PCR arrays, significantly elevated levels of IFN-?, interleukin-9 (IL-9), IL-11, and IL-21 expression were also seen in the spleen at 8 months after respiratory BCG immunization. Overall, while i.n. BCG vaccination provided short-term enhancement of protection in the lung relative to s.c. immunization, potent and extremely persistent splenic protective responses were seen for at least 10 months following respiratory immunization.
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RTP801 gene expression is differentially upregulated in retinopathy and is silenced by PF-04523655, a 19-Mer siRNA directed against RTP801.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The intraocular pharmacodynamics of PF-04523655, a small-interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against RTP801, was characterized using rat models of retinopathy.
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Gene markers of cellular aging in human multipotent stromal cells in culture.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Human multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or other tissue sources have great potential to treat a wide range of injuries and disorders in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In particular, MSCs have inherent characteristics to suppress the immune system and are being studied in clinical studies to prevent graft-versus-host disease. MSCs can be expanded in vitro and have potential for differentiation into multiple cell lineages. However, the impact of cell passaging on gene expression and function of the cells has not been determined.
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Molecular characterization of antigen-peptide pulsed dendritic cells: immature dendritic cells develop a distinct molecular profile when pulsed with antigen peptide.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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As dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells, they are being tested as cancer vaccines for immunotherapy of established cancers. Although numerous studies have characterized DCs by their phenotype and function, few have identified potential molecular markers of antigen presentation prior to vaccination of host. In this study we generated pre-immature DC (piDC), immature DC (iDC), and mature DC (mDC) from human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) obtained from HLA-A2 healthy donors, and pulsed them with human papillomavirus E7 peptide (p11-20), a class I HLA-A2 binding antigen. We then characterized DCs for cell surface phenotype and gene expression profile by microarray technology. We identified a set of 59 genes that distinguished three differentiation stages of DCs (piDC, iDC and mDC). When piDC, iDC and mDC were pulsed with E7 peptide for 2 hrs, the surface phenotype did not change, however, iDCs rather than mDCs showed transcriptional response by up-regulation of a set of genes. A total of 52 genes were modulated in iDC upon antigen pulsing. Elongation of pulse time for iDCs to 10 and 24 hrs did not significantly bring further changes in gene expression. The E7 peptide up-modulated immune response (KPNA7, IGSF6, NCR3, TREM2, TUBAL3, IL8, NFKBIA), pro-apoptosis (BTG1, SEMA6A, IGFBP3 and SRGN), anti-apoptosis (NFKBIA), DNA repair (MRPS11, RAD21, TXNRD1), and cell adhesion and cell migration genes (EPHA1, PGF, IL8 and CYR61) in iDCs. We confirmed our results by Q-PCR analysis. The E7 peptide but not control peptide (PADRE) induced up-regulation of NFKB1A gene only in HLA-A2 positive iDCs and not in HLA-A2 negative iDCs. These results suggest that E7 up-regulation of genes is specific and HLA restricted and that these genes may represent markers of antigen presentation and help rapidly assess the quality of dendritic cells prior to administration to the host.
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Blastic marginal zone lymphoma: a clinical and pathological study of 8 cases and review of the literature.
Am J Dermatopathol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Blastic transformation (BT) of marginal zone lymphoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been mainly reported in the spleen and stomach. Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma that undergoes BT is rare and not well documented. We describe 8 patients with blastic primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma and compare the clinical, pathologic, and molecular findings of these patients with 10 cases previously reported in the literature.
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Breastfeeding and Active Bonding Protects against Childrens Internalizing Behavior Problems.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This paper aims to explore the effects of both breastfeeding and mother-child interactions on child behavioral outcomes at a later age. Children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study (N = 1267), at age six years old were assessed, along with their parents. Children who were breastfed exclusively for a period of time in the presence of active bonding were compared to those who were breastfed in the absence of active bonding as well as to children who were not exclusively breastfed, with or without active bonding. Results from ANOVA and GLM, using SPSS20, indicate that children who were breastfed and whose mothers actively engaged with them displayed the lowest risk of internalizing problems (mean = 10.01, SD = 7.21), while those who were neither exclusively breastfed nor exposed to active bonding had the least protection against later internalizing problems (mean = 12.79, SD = 8.14). The effect of breastfeeding on internalizing pathology likely represents a biosocial and holistic effect of physiological, and nutritive, and maternal-infant bonding benefits.
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Electrographic seizures in pediatric ICU patients: cohort study of risk factors and mortality.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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We aimed to determine the incidence of electrographic seizures in children in the pediatric intensive care unit who underwent EEG monitoring, risk factors for electrographic seizures, and whether electrographic seizures were associated with increased odds of mortality.
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Electroencephalography monitoring in critically ill children: current practice and implications for future study design.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Survey data indicate that continuous electroencephalography (EEG) (CEEG) monitoring is used with increasing frequency to identify electrographic seizures in critically ill children, but studies of current CEEG practice have not been conducted. We aimed to describe the clinical utilization of CEEG in critically ill children at tertiary care hospitals with a particular focus on variables essential for designing feasible prospective multicenter studies evaluating the impact of electrographic seizures on outcome.
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Congenital disorder of glycosylation due to DPM1 mutations presenting with dystroglycanopathy-type congenital muscular dystrophy.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are rare genetic defects mainly in the post-translational modification of proteins via attachment of carbohydrate chains. We describe an infant with the phenotype of a congenital muscular dystrophy, with borderline microcephaly, hypotonia, camptodactyly, severe motor delay, and elevated creatine kinase. Muscle biopsy showed muscular dystrophy and reduced ?-dystroglycan immunostaining with glycoepitope-specific antibodies in a pattern diagnostic of dystroglycanopathy. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin testing showed a pattern pointing to a CDG type I. Sanger sequencing of DPM1 (dolichol-P-mannose synthase subunit 1) revealed a novel Gly > Val change c.455G > T missense mutation resulting in p.Gly152Val) of unknown pathogenicity and deletion/duplication analysis revealed an intragenic deletion from exons 3 to 7 on the other allele. DPM1 activity in fibroblasts was reduced by 80%, while affinity for the substrate was not depressed, suggesting a decrease in the amount of active enzyme. Transfected cells expressing tagged versions of wild type and the p.Gly152Val mutant displayed reduced binding to DPM3, an essential, non-catalytic subunit of the DPM complex, suggesting a mechanism for pathogenicity. The present case is the first individual described with DPM1-CDG (CDG-Ie) to also have clinical and muscle biopsy findings consistent with dystroglycanopathy.
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Steps physicians report taking to reduce diversion of buprenorphine.
Am J Addict
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Physicians are challenged to effectively treat opioid dependent patients while minimizing diversion of potentially abusable medications, such as buprenorphine. The present study was designed to obtain information on steps physicians report taking to reduce diversion of buprenorphine.
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Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies of the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor MK-0916 in healthy subjects.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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To characterize pharmacokinetic parameters of MK-0916 and its safety and tolerability in lean, healthy male subjects following single and multiple oral doses. To assess (by stable-isotope labelling) the in vivo inhibition of cortisone-to-cortisol conversion following oral MK-0916.
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Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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With tuberculosis continuing to be a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, a new vaccine is urgently needed. Tuberculosis subunit vaccines have been shown to induce robust immune responses in humans and are a potentially safer alternative to BCG for use in HIV-endemic areas. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of 16 different novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens using an aerogenic mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. These antigens were tested as subunit vaccines formulated in dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA) - D(+) with trehalose 6,6 dibenenate (TDB) (DDA/TDB) adjuvant administered alone as monovalent vaccines or in combination. Six of these antigens (Rv1626, Rv1735, Rv1789, Rv2032, Rv2220, and Rv3478) were shown to consistently and significantly reduce bacterial burdens in the lungs of mice relative to nonvaccinated controls. Three of these six (Rv1789, Rv2220, and Rv3478) induced levels of protective immunity that were essentially equivalent to protection induced by the highly immunogenic antigen 85B (>0.5 log??CFU reduction in the lungs relative to naïve mice). Importantly, when these three antigens were combined, protection essentially equivalent to that mediated by BCG was observed. When either Rv1626 or Rv2032 were combined with the highly protective E6-85 fusion protein (antigen 85B fused to ESAT-6), the protection observed was equivalent to BCG-induced protection at one and three months post-aerosol infection and was significantly greater than the protection observed when E6-85 was administered alone at 3 months post-infection. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, monofunctional IFN? CD4T cells and different multifunctional CD4T cell subsets capable of secreting multiple cytokines (IFN?, TNF? and/or IL-2) were shown to be induced by the three most protective antigens with splenocyte CD4T cell frequencies significantly greater than observed in naïve controls. The identification of these highly immunogenic TB antigens and antigen combinations should allow for improved immunization strategies against tuberculosis.
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Equestrian chilblain: another outdoor recreational hazard.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Herein, we describe two cases and review 14 cases of equestrian chilblain or equestrian cold panniculitis in the literature. The first, a 23-year-old healthy female horse trainer, presented with burning nodular swelling on her lateral thighs. The second was a 34-year-old healthy woman with recurrent nodular eruption on the lateral thighs after horseback riding in the winter. Physical examination of both patients revealed erythematous to violaceous nodules with eczema craquelé-like changes. Laboratory workup for systemic and autoimmune connective tissue disease was negative. Punch biopsies from both patients showed a superficial and deep perivascular and periadnexal lymphocytic infiltrate with focal extension into the subcutaneous fat. Parakeratosis, subtle spongiosis and increased pandermal interstitial mucin were also present. Previously reported cases generally showed a similar clinical course and similar histopathologic findings. In contrast, our cases revealed increased pandermal interstitial mucin, resembling tumid lupus erythematosus. We aim to better characterize the histopathologic findings of equestrian chilblain and discuss its relationship to other cold-induced skin injuries and autoimmune connective tissue disease, namely lupus erythematosus.
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Prospective investigation of autism and genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q13 deletion syndrome and SHANK3 deficiency.
Mol Autism
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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22q13 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, and autistic features. SHANK3 has been identified as the critical gene in the neurological and behavioral aspects of this syndrome. The phenotype of SHANK3 deficiency has been described primarily from case studies, with limited evaluation of behavioral and cognitive deficits. The present study used a prospective design and inter-disciplinary clinical evaluations to assess patients with SHANK3 deficiency, with the goal of providing a comprehensive picture of the medical and behavioral profile of the syndrome.
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Molecular analysis of non-specific protection against murine malaria induced by BCG vaccination.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although the effectiveness of BCG vaccination in preventing adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been highly variable, epidemiologic studies have suggested that BCG provides other general health benefits to vaccinees including reducing the impact of asthma, leprosy, and possibly malaria. To further evaluate whether BCG immunization protects against malarial parasitemia and to define molecular correlates of this non-specific immunity, mice were vaccinated with BCG and then challenged 2 months later with asexual blood stage Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (PyNL) parasites. Following challenge with PyNL, significant decreases in parasitemia were observed in BCG vaccinated mice relative to naïve controls. To identify immune molecules that may be associated with the BCG-induced protection, gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR in i) naïve controls, ii) BCG-vaccinated mice, iii) PyNL infected mice and iv) BCG vaccinated/PyNL infected mice at 0, 1, 5, and 9 days after the P. yoelii infection. The expression results showed that i) BCG immunization induces the expression of at least 18 genes including the anti-microbial molecules lactoferrin, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil major basic protein and the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP); ii) an active PyNL infection suppresses the expression of important immune response molecules; and iii) the extent of PyNL-induced suppression of specific genes is reduced in BCG-vaccinated/PyNL infected mice. To validate the gene expression data, we demonstrated that pre-treatment of malaria parasites with lactoferrin or the cathelicidin LL-37 peptide decreases the level of PyNL parasitemias in mice. Overall, our study suggests that BCG vaccination induces the expression of non-specific immune molecules including antimicrobial peptides which may provide an overall benefit to vaccinees by limiting infections of unrelated pathogens such as Plasmodium parasites.
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Effective targeting of Hedgehog signaling in a medulloblastoma model with PF-5274857, a potent and selective Smoothened antagonist that penetrates the blood-brain barrier.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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Inhibition of the Smoothened (Smo) represents a promising therapeutic strategy for treating malignant tumors that are dependent on the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. PF-5274857 is a novel Smo antagonist that specifically binds to Smo with a K(i) of 4.6 ± 1.1 nmol/L and completely blocks the transcriptional activity of the downstream gene Gli1 with an IC(50) of 2.7 ± 1.4 nmol/L in cells. This Smo antagonist showed robust antitumor activity in a mouse model of medulloblastoma with an in vivo IC(50) of 8.9 ± 2.6 nmol/L. The downregulation of Gli1 is closely linked to the tumor growth inhibition in patched(+/-) medulloblastoma mice. Mathematical analysis of the relationship between the drugs pharmacokinetics and Gli1 pharmacodynamics in patched(+/-) medulloblastoma tumor models yielded similar tumor and skin Gli1 IC(50) values, suggesting that skin can be used as a surrogate tissue for the measurement of tumor Gli1 levels. In addition, PF-5274857 was found to effectively penetrate the blood-brain barrier and inhibit Smo activity in the brain of primary medulloblastoma mice, resulting in improved animal survival rates. The brain permeability of PF-5274857 was also confirmed and quantified in nontumor-bearing preclinical species with an intact blood-brain barrier. PF-5274857 was orally available and metabolically stable in vivo. These findings suggest that PF-5274857 is a potentially attractive clinical candidate for the treatment of tumor types including brain tumors and brain metastasis driven by an activated Hh pathway.
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Setleis syndrome in Mexican-Nahua sibs due to a homozygous TWIST2 frameshift mutation and partial expression in heterozygotes: review of the focal facial dermal dysplasias and subtype reclassification.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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The focal facial dermal dysplasias (FFDDs) are a group of inherited disorders of facial development, characterised by bitemporal or preauricular scar-like defects, the former resembling forceps marks. Recently, different homozygous TWIST2 nonsense mutations were reported in unrelated Setleis syndrome (FFDD Type III) patients from consanguineous families, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Mexican-Nahua sibs with facial and ophthalmologic features of FFDD type III were evaluated.
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Evaluation of the effects of a VEGFR-2 inhibitor compound on alanine aminotransferase gene expression and enzymatic activity in the rat liver.
Comp Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Traditional assessment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity includes morphological examination of the liver and evaluation of liver enzyme activity in serum. The objective of the study was to determine the origin of drug-related elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the absence of morphologic changes in the liver by utilizing molecular and immunohistochemical techniques.
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Malaria infections do not compromise vaccine-induced immunity against tuberculosis in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Given the considerable geographic overlap in the endemic regions for malaria and tuberculosis, it is probable that co-infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium species are prevalent. Thus, it is quite likely that both malaria and TB vaccines may be used in the same populations in endemic areas. While novel vaccines are currently being developed and tested individually against each of these pathogens, the efficacy of these vaccines has not been evaluated in co-infection models. To further assess the effectiveness of these new immunization strategies, we investigated whether co-infection with malaria would impact the anti-tuberculosis protection induced by four different types of TB vaccines in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis.
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Effect of d-amphetamine on post-error slowing in healthy volunteers.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Post-error slowing has long been considered a sign of healthy error detection and an important component of cognitive function. However, the neuropharmacological processes underlying post-error slowing are poorly understood.
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Multiple apoptotic defects in hematopoietic cells from mice lacking lipocalin 24p3.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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The lipocalin mouse 24p3 has been implicated in diverse physiological processes, including apoptosis, iron trafficking, development and innate immunity. Studies from our laboratory as well as others demonstrated the proapoptotic activity of 24p3 in a variety of cultured models. However, a general role for the lipocalin 24p3 in the hematopoietic system has not been tested in vivo. To study the role of 24p3, we derived 24p3 null mice and back-crossed them onto C57BL/6 and 129/SVE backgrounds. Homozygous 24p3(-/-) mice developed a progressive accumulation of lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid cells, which was not due to enhanced hematopoiesis because competitive repopulation and recovery from myelosuppression were the same as for wild type. Instead, apoptotic defects were unique to many mature hematopoietic cell types, including neutrophils, cytokine-dependent mast cells, thymocytes, and erythroid cells. Thymocytes isolated from 24p3 null mice also displayed resistance to apoptosis-induced by dexamethasone. Bim response to various apoptotic stimuli was attenuated in 24p3(-/-) cells, thus explaining their resistance to the ensuing cell death. The results of these studies, in conjunction with those of previous studies, reveal 24p3 as a regulator of the hematopoietic compartment with important roles in normal physiology and disease progression. Interestingly, these functions are limited to relatively mature blood cell compartments.
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Randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to promote spectacle use in rural China: the see well to learn well study.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2011
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To test an educational intervention promoting the purchase of spectacles among Chinese children.
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Vaccine-induced anti-tuberculosis protective immunity in mice correlates with the magnitude and quality of multifunctional CD4 T cells.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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The development of improved vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been hindered by a limited understanding of the immune correlates of anti-tuberculosis protective immunity. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term anti-tuberculosis protection and the mycobacterial-specific CD4 multifunctional T (MFT) cell responses induced by five different TB vaccines (live-attenuated, subunit, viral vectored, plasmid DNA, and combination vaccines) in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. In a 14-month experiment, we showed that TB vaccine-induced CD4 T cell responses were heterogenous. Antigen-specific monofunctional CD4 T cells expressing single cytokines and MFT CD4 T cells expressing multiple cytokines (IFN-? and TNF-?, IFN-? and IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-2, and all three cytokines) were identified after the immunizations. Interestingly, compared to the monofunctional cells, significantly higher median fluorescent intensities (MFIs) for IFN-? and TNF-? were detected for triple-positive MFT CD4 T cells induced by the most protective vaccines while modest differences in relative MFI values were seen for the less protective preparations. Most importantly during the 14-month study, the levels of vaccine-induced pulmonary and splenic protective immunity correlated with the frequency and the integrated MFI (iMFI, frequency×MFI) values of triple-positive CD4 T cells that were induced by the same vaccines. These data support efforts to use MFT cell analyses as a measure of TB vaccine immunogenicity in human immunization studies.
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Quality of life and near vision impairment due to functional presbyopia among rural Chinese adults.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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To evaluate the impact of near-vision impairment on visual functioning and quality of life in a rural adult population in Shenyang, northern China.
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Psychoanalysis and detective fiction: a tale of Freud and criminal storytelling.
Perspect. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Much has been written about Freuds influence on popular culture. This article addresses the influence of literature on Freuds psychoanalytical theory, specifically the role that modern detective fiction played in shaping Freudian theory. Edgar Allan Poe gave Freud the literary precedent; Sir Arthur Conan Doyles creation Sherlock Holmes gave him the analytical model. In turn, the world of crime story-telling embedded Freudian theories in subsequent forms, spinning the tales of crime into a journey into the human mind. As these tales were popularized on the silver screen in the early 20th century, psychoanalytical ideas moved from the lecture halls into the cultural mainstream.
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Bioequivalence of the 4-mg Oral Granules and Chewable Tablet Formulations of Montelukast.
Arch Drug Inf
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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PURPOSE: The primary objective of the studies was to demonstrate bioequivalence between the oral granules formulation and chewable tablet of montelukast in the fasted state. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of the oral granules was also evaluated. METHODS: The Formulation Biocomparison Study (Study 1) and the Final Market Image Study (Study 2) each used an open-label, randomized, 3-period crossover design where healthy adult subjects (N = 24 and 30, respectively) received montelukast as a single 4-mg dose of the oral granules formulation and a 4-mg chewable tablet fasted, and a single 4-mg dose of the oral granules formulation with food (on 2 teaspoons of applesauce [Study 1] or after consumption of a high-fat breakfast [Study 2]). The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (oral granules/chewable tablet) for the AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) of montelukast were within the prespecified comparability bounds of (0.80, 1.25). For the food-effect assessment in Study 1, comparability bounds were prespecified as (0.50, 2.00) only for the 90% CI of the GMR (oral granules fed/oral granules fasted) for the AUC(0-infinity) of montelukast; the 90% CI of the GMR for the C(max) of montelukast, however, also was computed. In Study 2, 90% CIs of the GMRs (oral granules fed/oral granules fasted) for the AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) of montelukast were computed; comparability bounds were not prespecified. RESULTS: Comparing the exposure of the formulations, the 90% CIs of the GMRs for AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were within the prespecified bound of (0.80, 1.25). For AUC(0-infinity), the GMRs (90% CI) for Study 1 and Study 2 were 1.01 (0.92, 1.11) and 0.95 (0.91, 0.99), respectively. For C(max), respective values were 0.99 (0.86, 1.13) and 0.92 (0.84, 1.01). When the oral granules formulation was administered with food, 90% CIs of the GMRs for both AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) in both studies were contained within the interval of (0.50, 2.00). CONCLUSIONS: The 4-mg oral granules and 4-mg chewable tablet formulations of montelukast administered in the fasted state are bioequivalent. Single 4-mg doses of the oral granules formulation and the chewable tablet of montelukast are generally well tolerated.
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Population density and refractive error among Chinese children.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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China is urbanizing rapidly, and the prevalence of myopia is high. This study was conducted to identify the reasons for observed differences in the prevalence of myopia among urban versus rural Chinese children.
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Highly persistent and effective prime/boost regimens against tuberculosis that use a multivalent modified vaccine virus Ankara-based tuberculosis vaccine with interleukin-15 as a molecular adjuvant.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Novel immunization strategies are needed to enhance the global control of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, we assessed the immunizing activity of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) construct (MVA/IL-15/5Mtb) which overexpresses five Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens (antigen 85A, antigen 85B, ESAT6, HSP60, and Mtb39), as well as the molecular adjuvant interleukin-15 (IL-15). Homologous prime/boost studies showed that the MVA/IL-15/5Mtb vaccine induced moderate but highly persistent protective immune responses for at least 16 months after the initial vaccination and that the interval between the prime and boost did not significantly alter vaccine-induced antituberculosis protective immunity. At 16 months, when the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and MVA/IL-15/5Mtb vaccine-induced protection was essentially equivalent, the protective responses after a tuberculous challenge were associated with elevated levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-17F, Cxcl9, and Cxcl10. To amplify the immunizing potential of the MVA/IL-15/5Mtb vaccine, a heterologous prime/boost regimen was tested using an ESAT6-antigen 85B (E6-85) fusion protein formulated in dimethyldiotacylammonium bromide/monophosphoryl lipid A (DDA/MPL) adjuvant as the priming vaccine and the MVA/IL-15/5Mtb recombinant virus as the boosting agent. When MVA/IL-15/5Mtb vaccine boosting was done at 2 or 6 months following the final fusion protein injections, the prime/boost regimen evoked protective responses against an aerogenic M. tuberculosis challenge which was equivalent to that induced by BCG immunization. Long-term memory after immunization with the E6-85-MVA/IL-15/5Mtb combination regimen was associated with the induction of monofunctional CD4 and CD8 IFN-gamma-producing T cells and multifunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing IFN-gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), TNF-alpha/IL-2, and IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/IL-2. In contrast, BCG-induced protection was characterized by fewer CD4 and CD8 monofunctional T cells expressing IFN-gamma and only IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/IL-2 expressing multifunctional T (MFT) cells. Taken together, these results suggest that a heterologous prime/boost protocol using an MVA-based tuberculosis vaccines to boost after priming with TB protein/adjuvant preparations should be considered when designing long-lived TB immunization strategies.
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Genetics of caffeine consumption and responses to caffeine.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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Caffeine is widely consumed in foods and beverages and is also used for a variety of medical purposes. Despite its widespread use, relatively little is understood regarding how genetics affects consumption, acute response, or the long-term effects of caffeine.
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PD0325901, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, produces ocular toxicity in a rabbit animal model of retinal vein occlusion.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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PD0325901, a selective inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), was associated with the occurrence of ocular retinal vein occlusion (RVO) during clinical trials in patients with solid tumors. As previous animal safety studies in rats and dogs did not identify the eye as a target organ of toxicity, this work was conducted to develop a rabbit model of ocular toxicity with PD0325901.
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A practical in vitro growth inhibition assay for the evaluation of TB vaccines.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2009
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New vaccines and novel immunization strategies are needed to improve the control of the global tuberculosis epidemic. To facilitate vaccine development, we have been creating in vitro mycobacterial intra-macrophage growth inhibition assays. Here we describe the development of an in vitro assay designed for BSL-2 laboratories which measures the capacity of vaccine-induced immune splenocytes to control the growth of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (INH(r) BCG). The use of the INH(r) BCG as the infecting organism allows the discrimination of BCG bacilli used in murine vaccinations from BCG used in the in vitro assay. In this study, we showed that protective immune responses evoked by four different types of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccines [BCG, an ESAT6/Antigen 85B fusion protein formulated in DDA/MPL adjuvant, a DNA vaccine expressing the same fusion protein, and a TB Modified Vaccinia Ankara construct expressing four TB antigens (MVA-4TB)] were detected. Importantly, the levels of vaccine-induced protective immunity seen in the in vitro assay correlated with the results from in vivo protection studies in the mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Furthermore, the growth inhibition data for the INH(r) BCG assay was similar to the previously reported results for a M. tuberculosis infection assay. The cytokine expression profiles at day 7 of the INH(r) BCG growth inhibition studies were also similar but not identical to the cytokine patterns detected in earlier M. tuberculosis co-culture assays. Overall, we have shown that a BSL-2 compatible in vitro growth inhibition assay using INH(r) BCG as the intra-macrophage target organism should be useful in developing and evaluating new TB immunization strategies.
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Development of a murine mycobacterial growth inhibition assay for evaluating vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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The development and characterization of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines has been impeded by the lack of reproducible and reliable in vitro assays for measuring vaccine activity. In this study, we developed a murine in vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition assay for evaluating TB vaccines that directly assesses the capacity of immune splenocytes to control the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within infected macrophages. Using this in vitro assay, protective immune responses induced by immunization with five different types of TB vaccine preparations (Mycobacterium bovis BCG, an attenuated M. tuberculosis mutant strain, a DNA vaccine, a modified vaccinia virus strain Ankara [MVA] construct expressing four TB antigens, and a TB fusion protein formulated in adjuvant) can be detected. Importantly, the levels of vaccine-induced mycobacterial growth-inhibitory responses seen in vitro after 1 week of coculture correlated with the protective immune responses detected in vivo at 28 days postchallenge in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, similar patterns of cytokine expression were evoked at day 7 of the in vitro culture by immune splenocytes taken from animals immunized with the different TB vaccines. Among the consistently upregulated cytokines detected in the immune cocultures are gamma interferon, growth differentiation factor 15, interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-27, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Overall, we have developed an in vitro functional assay that may be useful for screening and comparing new TB vaccine preparations, investigating vaccine-induced protective mechanisms, and assessing manufacturing issues, including product potency and stability.
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Methylated arginine derivatives in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a methylated L: -arginine (Arg) derivative is associated with endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and hypertension in animals and humans. We examined the relationship between these derivatives, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and awake (AW) and asleep (AS) blood pressure (BP) load in children and adolescents (n = 28) with stage 2-3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in matched intra-familial controls (n = 10). Plasma L: -Arg, ADMA, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Subjects wore a 24-hr ambulatory BP monitor with BP load >95th percentile. ADMA, SDMA/ADMA ratio and SDMA were 38-200% higher in CKD patients while L: -Arg/ADMA and L: -Arg/SDMA ratios and the L: -Arg level were 11-64% lower. The eGFR explained 42-60% of L: -Arg/SDMA, SDMA/ADMA, and SDMA variability (n = 38). Using linear regression, SDMA and SDMA/ADMA separately explained 15-38% of AW and AS systolic (S) BP and diastolic (D) BP load variability (p < 0.001-0.022). Using multivariate stepwise regression with eGFR held constant, SDMA/ADMA was a significant independent variable for AW DBP load (p = 0.03). In conclusion, BP load and a disproportionate elevation of SDMA are seen in children and adolescents with stage 2-3 (mild-moderate) CKD. SDMA is a strong marker for reduced eGFR and serves as a moderate but significant indicator of 24-hr BP load variability.
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Adiposity and incidence of heart failure hospitalization and mortality: a population-based prospective study.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Obesity is associated with heart failure (HF) incidence. We examined the strength of the association of body mass index (BMI) with HF by age and joint associations of BMI and waist circumference (WC).
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Early pulmonary cytokine and chemokine responses in mice immunized with three different vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis determined by PCR array.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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In this study, the early pulmonary cytokine and chemokine responses in mice immunized with either BCG vaccine, a DeltasecA2 mutant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or a DNA vaccine expressing an ESAT6-antigen 85B fusion protein and then aerogenically challenged with a low dose of M. tuberculosis were evaluated by PCR array. The cellular immune responses at day 10 postchallenge were essentially equivalent in the lungs of mice immunized with either the highly immunogenic BCG vaccine or the DeltasecA2 M. tuberculosis mutant strain. Specifically, 12 immune biomolecules (including gamma interferon [IFN-gamma], interleukin-21 [IL-21], IL-27, IL-17f, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) were differentially regulated, relative to the levels for naïve controls, in the lungs of vaccinated mice at this time point. Although the vaccine-related immune responses evoked in mice immunized with the DNA vaccine were relatively limited at 10 days postinfection, upregulation of IFN-gamma RNA synthesis as well as increased expression levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 chemokines were detected.
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Aneuploid cells are differentially susceptible to caspase-mediated death during embryonic cerebral cortical development.
J. Neurosci.
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Neural progenitor cells, neurons, and glia of the normal vertebrate brain are diversely aneuploid, forming mosaics of intermixed aneuploid and euploid cells. The functional significance of neural mosaic aneuploidy is not known; however, the generation of aneuploidy during embryonic neurogenesis, coincident with caspase-dependent programmed cell death (PCD), suggests that a cells karyotype could influence its survival within the CNS. To address this hypothesis, PCD in the mouse embryonic cerebral cortex was attenuated by global pharmacological inhibition of caspases or genetic removal of caspase-3 or caspase-9. The chromosomal repertoire of individual brain cells was then assessed by chromosome counting, spectral karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and DNA content flow cytometry. Reducing PCD resulted in markedly enhanced mosaicism that was comprised of increased numbers of cells with the following: (1) numerical aneuploidy (chromosome losses or gains); (2) extreme forms of numerical aneuploidy (>5 chromosomes lost or gained); and (3) rare karyotypes, including those with coincident chromosome loss and gain, or absence of both members of a chromosome pair (nullisomy). Interestingly, mildly aneuploid (<5 chromosomes lost or gained) populations remained comparatively unchanged. These data demonstrate functional non-equivalence of distinguishable aneuploidies on neural cell survival, providing evidence that somatically generated, cell-autonomous genomic alterations have consequences for neural development and possibly other brain functions.
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A clinical evaluation tool for SNP arrays, especially for autosomal recessive conditions in offspring of consanguineous parents.
Genet. Med.
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Purpose:This report describes a fast online tool to accelerate and improve clinical interpretation of single nucleotide polymorphism array results for diagnostic purposes, when consanguinity or inbreeding is identified.Methods:We developed a web-based program that permits entry of regions of homozygosity and, using OMIM, UCSC, and NCBI databases, retrieves genes within these regions as well as their associated autosomal recessive disorders. Relevant OMIM Clinical Synopses can be searched, using key clinical terms permitting further filtering for candidate genes and disorders.Results:The tool aids the clinician by arriving at a short list of relevant candidate disorders, guiding the continued diagnostic work-up. Its efficacy is illustrated by presenting seven patients who were diagnosed using this tool.Conclusion:The online single nucleotide polymorphism array evaluation tool rapidly and systematically identifies relevant genes and associated conditions mapping to identified regions of homozygosity. The built-in OMIM clinical feature search allows the user to further filter to reach a short list of candidate conditions relevant for the diagnosis, making it possible to strategize more focused diagnostic testing. The tabulated results can be downloaded and saved to the desktop in an Excel format. Its efficacy is illustrated by providing a few clinical examples.Genet Med 2013:15(5):354-360.
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Combining topographical and genetic cues to promote neuronal fate specification in stem cells.
Biomacromolecules
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There is little remedy for the devastating effects resulting from neuronal loss caused by neural injury or neurodegenerative disease. Reconstruction of damaged neural circuitry with stem cell-derived neurons is a promising approach to repair these defects, but controlling differentiation and guiding synaptic integration with existing neurons remain significant unmet challenges. Biomaterial surfaces can present nanoscale topographical cues that influence neuronal differentiation and process outgrowth. By combining these scaffolds with additional molecular biology strategies, synergistic control over cell fate can be achieved. Here, we review recent progress in promoting neuronal fate using techniques at the interface of biomaterial science and genetic engineering. New data demonstrates that combining nanofiber topography with an induced genetic program enhances neuritogenesis in a synergistic fashion. We propose combining patterned biomaterial surface cues with prescribed genetic programs to achieve neuronal cell fates with the desired sublineage specification, neurochemical profile, targeted integration, and electrophysiological properties.
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BDNF profoundly and specifically increases KCNQ4 expression in neurons derived from embryonic stem cells.
Stem Cell Res
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Neurons resembling the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the auditory nerve can be generated from embryonic stem cells through induced overexpression of the transcription factor Neurogenin-1 (Neurog1). While recapitulating this developmental pathway produces glutamatergic, bipolar neurons reminiscent of SGNs, these neurons are functionally immature, being characterized by a depolarized resting potential and limited excitability. We explored the effects of two neurotrophins known to be present in the inner ear, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), on the electrophysiology of neurons following Neurog1 induction. Our data reveal a significant reduction in resting membrane potential (RMP) following neurotrophin exposure, with BDNF producing a more robust effect than NT-3. This effect was accompanied by a profound and specific upregulation of the KCNQ4 subtype, where a 9-fold increase was observed with quantitative PCR. The other neuronally expressed KCNQ subtypes (2, 3, and 5) exhibited upregulation which was 3-fold or less in magnitude. Quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed the increase in KCNQ4 expression at the protein level. The present data show a novel link between BDNF and KCNQ4 expression, yielding insight into the restricted expression pattern of a channel known to play special roles in setting the resting potential of auditory cells and in the etiology of progressive high-frequency hearing loss.
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Formulation of a mmaA4 gene deletion mutant of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in cationic liposomes significantly enhances protection against tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
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A new vaccination strategy is urgently needed for improved control of the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Using a mouse aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge model, we investigated the protective efficacy of a mmaA4 gene deletion mutant of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (?mmaA4BCG) formulated in dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA) - D(+) trehalose 6,6 dibenenate (TDB) (DDA/TDB) adjuvant. In previous studies, deletion of the mmaA4 gene was shown to reduce the suppression of IL-12 production often seen after mycobacterial infections. While the non-adjuvanted ?mmaA4BCG strain did not protect mice substantially better than conventional BCG against a tuberculous challenge in four protection experiments, the protective responses induced by the ?mmaA4BCG vaccine formulated in DDA/TDB adjuvant was consistently increased relative to nonadjuvanted BCG controls. Furthermore, the ?mmaA4BCG-DDA/TDB vaccine induced significantly higher frequencies of multifunctional (MFT) CD4 T cells expressing both IFN? and TNF? (double positive) or IFN?, TNF? and IL-2 (triple positive) than CD4 T cells derived from mice vaccinated with BCG. These MFT cells were characterized by having higher IFN? and TNF? median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values than monofunctional CD4 T cells. Interestingly, both BCG/adjuvant and ?mmaA4BCG/adjuvant formulations induced significantly higher frequencies of CD4 T cells expressing TNF? and IL-2 than nonadjuvanted BCG or ?mmaA4BCG vaccines indicating that BCG/adjuvant mixtures may be more effective at inducing central memory T cells. Importantly, when either conventional BCG or the mutant were formulated in adjuvant and administered to SCID mice or immunocompromised mice depleted of IFN?, significantly lower vaccine-derived mycobacterial CFU were detected relative to immunodeficient mice injected with non-adjuvanted BCG. Overall, these data suggest that immunization with the ?mmaA4BCG/adjuvant formulation may be an effective, safe, and relatively inexpensive alternative to vaccination with conventional BCG.
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Evaluation of potential gastrointestinal biomarkers in a PAK4 inhibitor-treated preclinical toxicity model to address unmonitorable gastrointestinal toxicity.
Toxicol Pathol
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Although gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is a significant dose-limiting safety concern noted in multiple therapeutic areas, there are no GI biomarkers that can accurately track, precede, or reliably correlate with histologic evidence of injury. While significant efforts have been made within the pharmaceutical industry, academia, and consortia to address the biomarker gaps in other target organs such as liver, kidney, and muscle (cardiac and skeletal), there have been no concerted efforts in the area of GI biomarkers. Using PAK4 inhibitor as a preclinical rat model of gastric toxicity, selected candidate biomarkers from literature were evaluated to test their usefulness as gastric injury biomarkers in this study. Biomarkers selected in this study include plasma diamino oxidase and citrulline, fecal calprotectin, bile acids, and miRNA. Based on the results, L-citrulline and miR-194 results appear to correlate well with histopathology findings. Although these biomarkers will need additional assay validation and qualification to test if they truly predict the injury prior to histopathology, the results provide promise for further testing using additional GI toxicants. In addition, this article highlights important gaps in GI biomarkers and provides substrate and rationale for additional investments either for further testing of already available biomarkers or to pursue extensive biomarker discovery approaches.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.