Epithelial cells elaborate specialized domains that have distinct protein and lipid compositions, including the apical and basolateral surfaces and primary cilia. Maintaining the identity of these domains is required for proper cell function, and requires the efficient and selective SNARE-mediated fusion of vesicles containing newly synthesized and recycling proteins with the proper target membrane. Multiple pathways exist to deliver newly synthesized proteins to the apical surface of kidney cells, and the post-Golgi SNAREs, or VAMPs, involved in these distinct pathways have not been identified. VAMP7 has been implicated in apical protein delivery in other cell types, and we hypothesized that this SNARE would have differential effects on the trafficking of apical proteins known to take distinct routes to the apical surface in kidney cells. VAMP7 expressed in polarized Madin Darby canine kidney cells colocalized primarily with LAMP2-positive compartments, and siRNA-mediated knockdown modulated lysosome size, consistent with the known function of VAMP7 in lysosomal delivery. Surprisingly, VAMP7 knockdown had no effect on apical delivery of numerous cargoes tested, but did decrease the length and frequency of primary cilia. Additionally, VAMP7 knockdown disrupted cystogenesis in cells grown in a three-dimensional basement membrane matrix. The effects of VAMP7 depletion on ciliogenesis and cystogenesis are not directly linked to the disruption of lysosomal function, as cilia lengths and cyst morphology were unaffected in an MDCK lysosomal storage disorder model. Together, our data suggest that VAMP7 plays an essential role in ciliogenesis and lumen formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study implicating an R-SNARE in ciliogenesis and cystogenesis.
This study investigated the potential relationship between the expression levels of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) 1 and 2 and responses to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in the members of a single family with Fabry disease (FD). LAMP levels were assessed by flow cytometry in leukocytes from 17 FD patients who received an eight-month course of ERT course and 101 healthy individuals. We found that phagocytic cells from the FD patients had higher expression levels of both LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, relative to the levels in phagocytes from the healthy controls (p=0.001). Furthermore, the LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 levels in phagocytes from the FD carriers continuously decreased with ERT administration to reach levels similar to those in healthy controls. We suggest that LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 could be used as additional markers with which to assess ERT effectiveness in FD.
Accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and other neutral glycosphingolipids with galactosyl residues is the hallmark of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (?-gal A). These lipids are incorporated into the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes, with a preference for lipid rafts. Disruption of raft mediated cell processes is implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, but little is known about the effects of the accumulation of glycosphingolipids on raft dynamics in the context of Fabry disease. Using siRNA technology, we have generated a polarized renal epithelial cell model of Fabry disease in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These cells present increased levels of Gb3 and enlarged lysosomes, and progressively accumulate zebra bodies. The polarized delivery of both raft-associated and raft-independent proteins was unaffected by ?-gal A knockdown, suggesting that accumulation of Gb3 does not disrupt biosynthetic trafficking pathways. To assess the effect of ?-gal A silencing on lipid raft dynamics, we employed number and brightness (N&B) analysis to measure the oligomeric status and mobility of the model glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein GFP-GPI. We observed a significant increase in the oligomeric size of antibody-induced clusters of GFP-GPI at the plasma membrane of ?-gal A silenced cells compared with control cells. Our results suggest that the interaction of GFP-GPI with lipid rafts may be altered in the presence of accumulated Gb3. The implications of our results with respect to the pathogenesis of Fabry disease are discussed.
Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen generated in carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs upon heating. Glycidamide (GA), formed via epoxidation, presumably mediated by cytochrome P450 2E1, is considered to be the active metabolite that plays a central role in the genotoxicity of AA. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytogenetic damage induced by AA and GA in cultured human lymphocytes by use of the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. Furthermore, this report addresses the role of individual genetic polymorphisms in key genes involved in detoxification and DNA-repair pathways (BER, NER, HRR and NHEJ) on the induction of SCE by GA. While AA induced the number of SCE/metaphase only slightly, especially for the highest concentration tested (2000?M), GA markedly induced SCEs in a concentration-dependent manner up to concentrations of 750?M, leading to an increase in SCEs of up to about 10-fold compared with controls. By combining DNA damage in GA-treated lymphocytes and data on polymorphisms, associations between the induction of SCEs with GSTP1 (Ile105Val) and GSTA2 (Glu210Ala) genotypes are suggested.
Kidney function requires the appropriate distribution of membrane proteins between the apical and basolateral surfaces along the kidney tubule. Further, the absolute amount of a protein at the cell surface versus intracellular compartments must be attuned to specific physiological needs. Endolyn (CD164) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed at the brush border and in apical endosomes of the proximal convoluted tubule and in lysosomes of more distal segments of the kidney. Endolyn has been shown to regulate CXCR4 signaling in hematopoietic precursor cells and myoblasts; however, little is known about endolyn function in the adult or developing kidney. Here we identify endolyn as a gene important for zebrafish pronephric kidney function. Zebrafish endolyn lacks the N-terminal mucin-like domain of the mammalian protein, but is otherwise highly conserved. Using in situ hybridization we show that endolyn is expressed early during development in zebrafish brain, eye, gut and pronephric kidney. Embryos injected with a translation-inhibiting morpholino oligonucleotide targeted against endolyn developed pericardial edema, hydrocephaly and body curvature. The pronephric kidney appeared normal morphologically, but clearance of fluorescent dextran injected into the common cardinal vein was delayed, consistent with a defect in the regulation of water balance in morphant embryos. Heterologous expression of rat endolyn rescued the morphant phenotypes. Interestingly, rescue experiments using mutant rat endolyn constructs revealed that both apical sorting and endocytic/lysosomal targeting motifs are required for normal pronephric kidney function. This suggests that both polarized targeting and postendocytic trafficking of endolyn are essential for the proteins proper function in mammalian kidney.
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