After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation.
This case report described a patient of Behçet disease (BD)-related vascular lesions that initially presented as occlusion of superior vena cava (SVC) without any evidence of thrombosis. The patient was treated first by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent implantation, and he developed thrombosis in the stent and then received open bypass operation. Pathologic examination of the SVC specimen and the postoperative manifestations revealed that the underlying cause of his symptoms as BD. Afterward, methylprednisolone plus anticoagulant therapy was routinely given, which relieved the symptoms of the patient.
Caenorhabditis elegans RAB-10 functions in endocytic recycling in polarized cells, regulating basolateral cargo transport in the intestinal epithelia and postsynaptic cargo transport in interneurons. A similar role was found for mammalian Rab10 in MDCK cells, suggesting that a conserved mechanism regulates these related pathways in metazoans. In a yeast two-hybrid screen for binding partners of RAB-10 we identified EHBP-1, a calponin homology domain (CH) protein, whose mammalian homolog Ehbp1 was previously shown to function during endocytic transport of GLUT4 in adipocytes. In vivo we find that EHBP-1-GFP colocalizes with RFP-RAB-10 on endosomal structures of the intestine and interneurons and that ehbp-1 loss-of-function mutants share with rab-10 mutants specific endosome morphology and cargo localization defects. We also show that loss of EHBP-1 disrupts transport of membrane proteins to the plasma membrane of the nonpolarized germline cells, a defect that can be phenocopied by codepletion of RAB-10 and its closest paralog RAB-8. These results indicate that RAB-10 and EHBP-1 function together in many cell types and suggests that there are differences in the level of redundancy among Rab family members in polarized versus nonpolarized cells.
Clathrin and retromer have key functions for retrograde trafficking between early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Previous studies on Shiga toxin suggested that these two coat complexes operate in a sequential manner. Here, we show that the curvature recognition subunit component sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) of retromer interacts with receptor-mediated endocytosis-8 (RME-8) protein, and that RME-8 and SNX1 colocalize on early endosomes together with a model cargo of the retrograde route, the receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB). RME-8 has previously been found to bind to the clathrin uncoating adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Hsc70, and we now report that depletion of RME-8 or Hsc70 affects retrograde trafficking at the early endosomes-TGN interface of STxB and the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, an endogenous retrograde cargo protein. We also provide evidence that retromer interacts with the clathrin-binding protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) not only via SNX1, as previously published (Chin Raynor MC, Wei X, Chen HQ, Li L. Hrs interacts with sorting nexin 1 and regulates degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem 2001;276:7069-7078), but also via the core complex component Vps35. Hrs codistributes at the ultrastructural level with STxB on early endosomes, and interfering with Hrs function using antibodies or mild overexpression inhibits retrograde transport. Our combined data suggest a model according to which the functions in retrograde sorting on early endosomes of SNX1/retromer and clathrin are articulated by RME-8, and possibly also by Hrs.
After endocytosis, most cargo enters the pleiomorphic early endosomes in which sorting occurs. As endosomes mature, transmembrane cargo can be sequestered into inwardly budding vesicles for degradation, or can exit the endosome in membrane tubules for recycling to the plasma membrane, the recycling endosome, or the Golgi apparatus. Endosome to Golgi transport requires the retromer complex. Without retromer, recycling cargo such as the MIG-14/Wntless protein aberrantly enters the degradative pathway and is depleted from the Golgi. Endosome-associated clathrin also affects the recycling of retrograde cargo and has been shown to function in the formation of endosomal subdomains. Here, we find that the Caemorhabditis elegans endosomal J-domain protein RME-8 associates with the retromer component SNX-1. Loss of SNX-1, RME-8, or the clathrin chaperone Hsc70/HSP-1 leads to over-accumulation of endosomal clathrin, reduced clathrin dynamics, and missorting of MIG-14 to the lysosome. Our results indicate a mechanism, whereby retromer can regulate endosomal clathrin dynamics through RME-8 and Hsc70, promoting the sorting of recycling cargo into the retrograde pathway.
Rac1 is a founding member of the Rho-GTPase family and a key regulator of membrane remodeling. In the context of apoptotic cell corpse engulfment, CED-10/Rac1 acts with its bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor, CED-5/Dock180-CED-12/ELMO, in an evolutionarily conserved pathway to promote phagocytosis. Here we show that in the context of the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium CED-10/Rac1, CED-5/Dock180, and CED-12/ELMO promote basolateral recycling. Furthermore, we show that CED-10 binds to the RAB-5 GTPase activating protein TBC-2, that CED-10 contributes to recruitment of TBC-2 to endosomes, and that recycling cargo is trapped in recycling endosomes in ced-12, ced-10, and tbc-2 mutants. Expression of GTPase defective RAB-5(Q78L) also traps recycling cargo. Our results indicate that down-regulation of early endosome regulator RAB-5/Rab5 by a CED-5, CED-12, CED-10, TBC-2 cascade is an important step in the transport of cargo through the basolateral recycling endosome for delivery to the plasma membrane.
Caenorhabditis elegans RAB-10 and mammalian Rab10 are key regulators of endocytic recycling, especially in the basolateral recycling pathways of polarized epithelial cells. To understand better how RAB-10 contributes to recycling endosome function, we sought to identify RAB-10 effectors. One RAB-10-binding partner that we identified, CNT-1, is the only C. elegans homolog of the mammalian Arf6 GTPase-activating proteins ACAP1 and ACAP2. Arf6 is known to regulate endosome-to-plasma membrane transport, in part through activation of type I phophatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5 kinase. Here we show that CNT-1 binds to RAB-10 through its C-terminal ankyrin repeats and colocalizes with RAB-10 and ARF-6 on recycling endosomes in vivo. Furthermore, we find that RAB-10 is required for the recruitment of CNT-1 to endosomal membranes in the intestinal epithelium. Consistent with negative regulation of ARF-6 by RAB-10 and CNT-1, we found overaccumulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in cnt-1 and rab-10 mutants and reduced endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels in arf-6 mutants. These mutants produced similar effects on endosomal recruitment of the PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/Pacsin and resulted in endosomal trapping of specific recycling cargo. Our studies identify a RAB-10-to-ARF-6 regulatory loop required to regulate endosomal PI(4,5)P2, a key phosphoinositide in membrane traffic.
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