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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chronic granulomatous disease - conventional treatment vs. hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: an update.
Curr. Opin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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We update and summarize the recent findings in conventional treatment and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We also summarize the contemporary view on when hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be the preferred treatment of choice in CGD.
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Newborn screening for severe T and B cell lymphopenia identifies a fraction of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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The lack or marked reduction of recently formed T and B cells provides a basis for neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Newborns with other conditions are also identified if a severe T or B cell lymphopenia is present at birth. We retrospectively analyzed Guthrie card samples from 11 children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), a rare disease that requires early diagnosis and treatment, to determine whether combined T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) screening could identify these patients. 4 of 11 patients showed markedly reduced TREC or KREC copy numbers in their DBS as compared to storage-time matched controls and prospectively screened Swedish and German newborns. No correlation was observed between the WAS gene mutations, the clinical severity/course and the result of the screening assay. A diagnosis of WAS should thus be considered in newborns with positive TREC or KREC screening results.
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Anti-type II collagen antibodies, anti-CCP, IgA RF and IgM RF are associated with joint damage, assessed eight years after onset of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Early appearance of antibodies specific for native human type II collagen (anti-CII) characterizes an early inflammatory and destructive phenotype in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-CII, IgM RF, IgA RF and anti-CCP in serum samples obtained early after diagnosis, and to relate the occurrence of autoantibodies to outcome after eight years of disease in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
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Clinical features of childhood granulomatosis with polyangiitis (wegener's granulomatosis).
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), belongs to the group of ANCA-associated necrotizing vasculitides. This study describes the clinical picture of the disease in a large cohort of GPA paediatric patients. Children with age at diagnosis???18 years, fulfilling the EULAR/PRINTO/PRES GPA/WG classification criteria were extracted from the PRINTO vasculitis database. The clinical signs/symptoms and laboratory features were analysed before or at the time of diagnosis and at least 3 months thereafter and compared with other paediatric and adult case series (>50 patients) derived from the literature.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning and HLA-matched haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: a prospective multicentre study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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In chronic granulomatous disease allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in adolescents and young adults and patients with high-risk disease is complicated by graft-failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality. We examined the effect of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen designed to enhance myeloid engraftment and reduce organ toxicity in these patients.
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A glycosylation-dependent CD45RB epitope defines previously unacknowledged CD2(-IgMhigh B cell subpopulations enriched in young children and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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The immune system is dysfunctional for years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A potential cause is an intrinsic B cell deficiency. In a cohort of pediatric HSCT patients few CD27(+) B cells formed after transplantation with the number of CD27(+)IgM(high) cells more affected than class-switched ones. A previously unacknowledged population of CD27(-)IgM(high) cells made up the majority of B cells and this population was also enlarged in healthy children compared to adults. Only a minority of these CD27(-)IgM(high) B cells expressed markers typical for transitional B cells, and the non-transitional CD27(-)IgM(high) cells could be further divided into subpopulations based on their ability to extrude the dye Rhodamine 123 and their expression of CD45RB(MEM55), a glycosylation-dependent epitope. Thus, we define several novel human CD27(-)IgM(high) B cell subpopulations in blood, all of which are present in higher frequencies and numbers in young children and after HSCT than in adults.
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Increased intracellular oxygen radical production in neutrophils during febrile episodes of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis syndrome.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is an autoinflammatory disease of unknown etiology that primarily affects preschool-aged children. PFAPA syndrome is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and symptoms of inflammation consistent with the disease acronym. Since autoinflammatory diseases are, by definition, mediated by cells of the innate immune system, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional features of neutrophils, the most abundant innate immune cell in the circulation, in children with PFAPA syndrome.
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Subcutaneous immunoglobulin for primary and secondary immunodeficiencies: an evidence-based review.
Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Substitution with immunoglobulin can be administered intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) to patients with immunodeficiency, but it is not clear which route is to be preferred.
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Chronic granulomatous disease - haematopoietic stem cell transplantation versus conventional treatment.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare X-linked or autosomal recessive primary immune deficiency characterized by recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Mortality rates are high with conventional treatment. However, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers cure. Here, we compare the outcome of HSCT in 14 Swedish patients with CGD to that in 27 patients with CGD who were given conventional treatment.
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Lentiviral gene transfer of TCIRG1 into peripheral blood CD34(+) cells restores osteoclast function in infantile malignant osteopetrosis.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is a rare, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by non-functional osteoclasts. More than 50% of the patients have mutations in the TCIRG1 gene, encoding for a subunit of the osteoclast proton pump. The aim of this study was to restore the resorptive function of IMO osteoclasts by lentiviral mediated gene transfer of the TCIRG1 cDNA. CD34(+) cells from peripheral blood of five IMO patients and from normal cord blood were transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing TCIRG1 and GFP under a SFFV promoter, expanded in culture and differentiated on bone slices to mature osteoclasts. qPCR analysis and western blot revealed increased mRNA and protein levels of TCIRG1, comparable to controls. Vector corrected IMO osteoclasts generated increased release of Ca(2+) and bone degradation product CTX-I into the media as well as increased formation of resorption pits in the bone slices, while non-corrected IMO osteoclasts failed to resorb bone. Resorption was approximately 70-80% of that of osteoclasts generated from cord blood. Furthermore, transduced CD34(+) cells successfully engrafted in NSG-mice. In conclusion we provide the first evidence of lentiviral-mediated correction of a human genetic disease affecting the osteoclastic lineage.
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Outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with dyskeratosis congenita.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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We describe outcomes after allogeneic transplantation in 34 patients with dyskeratosis congenita who underwent transplantation between 1981 and 2009. The median age at transplantation was 13 years (range, 2 to 35). Approximately 50% of transplantations were from related donors. Bone marrow was the predominant source of stem cells (24 of 34). The day-28 probability of neutrophil recovery was 73% and the day-100 platelet recovery was 72%. The day-100 probability of grade II to IV acute GVHD and the 3-year probability of chronic graft-versus-host disease were 24% and 37%, respectively. The 10-year probability of survival was 30%; 14 patients were alive at last follow-up. Ten deaths occurred within 4 months from transplantation because of graft failure (n = 6) or other transplantation-related complications; 9 of these patients had undergone transplantation from mismatched related or from unrelated donors. Another 10 deaths occurred after 4 months; 6 of them occurred more than 5 years after transplantation, and 4 of these were attributed to pulmonary failure. Transplantation regimen intensity and transplantations from mismatched related or unrelated donors were associated with early mortality. Transplantation of grafts from HLA-matched siblings with cyclophosphamide-containing nonradiation regimens was associated with early low toxicity. Late mortality was attributed mainly to pulmonary complications and likely related to the underlying disease.
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Disease course, outcome, and predictors of outcome in a population-based juvenile chronic arthritis cohort followed for 17 years.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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To investigate disease course, outcome, and predictors of outcome in an unselected population-based cohort of individuals diagnosed with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) followed for 17 years.
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Muscle strength, physical fitness and well-being in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the effect of an exercise programme: a randomized controlled trial.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Decreased muscle strength, fitness and well-being are common in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared to healthy peers. Biological drugs have improved health in children with JIA, but despite this pain is still a major symptom and bone health is reported as decreased in the group. The improvement made by the biological drugs makes it possible to more demanding exercises. To jump is an exercise that can improve bone heath, fitness and muscle strength. The aim of the study was to see if an exercise programme with jumps had an effect on muscle strength, physical fitness and well-being and how it was tolerated.
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SNX10 mutations define a subgroup of human autosomal recessive osteopetrosis with variable clinical severity.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Human Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis (ARO) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by reduced bone resorption by osteoclasts. In 2000, we found that mutations in the TCIRG1 gene encoding for a subunit of the proton pump (V-ATPase) are responsible for more than one-half of ARO cases. Since then, five additional genes have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, leaving approximately 25% of cases that could not be associated with a genotype. Very recently, a mutation in the sorting nexin 10 (SNX10) gene, whose product is suggested to interact with the proton pump, has been found in 3 consanguineous families of Palestinian origin, thus adding a new candidate gene in patients not previously classified. Here we report the identification of 9 novel mutations in this gene in 14 ARO patients from 12 unrelated families of different geographic origin. Interestingly, we define the molecular defect in three cases of "Västerbottenian osteopetrosis," named for the Swedish Province where a higher incidence of the disease has been reported. In our cohort of more than 310 patients from all over the world, SNX10-dependent ARO constitutes 4% of the cases, with a frequency comparable to the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) and osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1 (OSTM1)-dependent subsets. Although the clinical presentation is relatively variable in severity, bone seems to be the only affected tissue and the defect can be almost completely rescued by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). These results confirm the involvement of the SNX10 gene in human ARO and identify a new subset with a relatively favorable prognosis as compared to TCIRG1-dependent cases. Further analyses will help to better understand the role of SNX10 in osteoclast physiology and verify whether this protein might be considered a new target for selective antiresorptive therapies.
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Neonatal screening for severe primary immunodeficiency diseases using high-throughput triplex real-time PCR.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) are inborn errors of immune function that require prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent life-threatening infections. The lack of functional T or B lymphocytes in these diseases serves as a diagnostic criterion and can be applied to neonatal screening. A robust triplex PCR method for quantitation of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and ?-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs), using a single Guthrie card punch, was developed and validated in a cohort of 2560 anonymized newborn screening cards and in 49 original stored Guthrie cards from patients diagnosed with SCID, XLA, ataxia-telangiectasia, Nijmegen-breakage-syndrome, common variable immunodeficiency, immunoglobulin A deficiency, or X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Simultaneous measurement of TREC and KREC copy numbers in Guthrie card samples readily identified patients with SCID, XLA, ataxia-telangiectasia and Nijmegen-breakage-syndrome and thus facilitates effective newborn screening for severe immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by the absence of T or B cells.
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Secondary autoimmune diseases occurring after HSCT for an autoimmune disease: a retrospective study of the EBMT Autoimmune Disease Working Party.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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To specify the incidence and risk factors for secondary autoimmune diseases (ADs) after HSCT for a primary AD, we retrospectively analyzed AD patients treated by HSCT reported to EBMT from 1995 to 2009 with at least 1 secondary AD (cases) and those without (controls). After autologous HSCT, 29 of 347 patients developed at least 1 secondary AD within 21.9 (0.6-49) months and after allogeneic HSCT, 3 of 16 patients. The observed secondary ADs included: autoimmune hemolytic anemia (n = 3), acquired hemophilia (n = 3), autoimmune thrombocytopenia (n = 3), antiphospholipid syndrome (n = 2), thyroiditis (n = 12), blocking thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (n = 1), Graves disease (n = 2), myasthenia gravis (n = 1), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 2), sarcoidosis (n = 2), vasculitis (n = 1), psoriasis (n = 1), and psoriatic arthritis (n = 1). After autologous HSCT for primary AD, the cumulative incidence of secondary AD was 9.8% ± 2% at 5 years. Lupus erythematosus as primary AD, and antithymocyte globulin use plus CD34(+) graft selection were important risk factors for secondary AD by multivariate analysis. With a median follow-up of 6.2 (0.54-11) years after autologous HSCT, 26 of 29 patients with secondary AD were alive, 2 died during their secondary AD (antiphospholipid syndrome, hemophilia), and 1 death was HSCT-related. This European multicenter study underlines the need for careful management and follow-up for secondary AD after HSCT.
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Ongoing disease activity and changing categories in a long-term nordic cohort study of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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To describe the disease characteristics, long-term course, and outcome of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a population-based setting.
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Ultrasonography and color Doppler of proximal gluteal enthesitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a descriptive study.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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The presence of enthesitis (insertional inflammation) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is difficult to establish clinically and may influence classification and treatment of the disease. We used ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler (CD) imaging to detect enthesitis at the small and deep-seated proximal insertion of the gluteus medius fascia on the posterior iliac crest where clinical diagnosis is difficult. The findings in JIA patients were compared with those obtained in healthy controls and with the patients MRI results.
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Ultrasonography and color Doppler in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: diagnosis and follow-up of ultrasound-guided steroid injection in the ankle region. A descriptive interventional study.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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The ankle region is frequently involved in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) but difficult to examine clinically due to its anatomical complexity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US) of the ankle and midfoot (ankle region) in JIA. Doppler-US detected synovial hypertrophy, effusion and hyperemia and US was used for guidance of steroid injection and to assess treatment efficacy.
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Umbilical cord blood transplantation for children with thalassemia and sickle cell disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
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We examined the efficacy of unrelated cord blood (CB) transplantation in children with thalassemia (n = 35) and sickle cell disease (n = 16), using data reported to 3 registries. Donor-recipient pairs were matched at HLA-A and -B (antigen level) and DRB1 (allele level) in 7 or HLA mismatched at 1 (n = 18), 2 (n = 25), or 3 loci (n = 1). Transplant conditioning was myeloablative (n = 39) or reduced intensity (n = 12). Neutrophil recovery with donor chimerism was documented in 24 patients; 11 patients developed grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and 10 patients, chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 62% and 21% for thalassemia and 94% and 50% for sickle cell disease (SCD), respectively. In multivariate analysis, engraftment rate (hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, P = .05) and DFS (HR 0.4, P = .01) were higher with cell dose >5 × 10(7)/kg. The 2-year probability of DFS was 45% in patients who received grafts with cell dose >5 × 10(7)/kg and 13% with lower cell dose. Primary graft failure was the predominant cause of treatment failure occurring in 20 patients with thalassemia and 7 patients with SCD. Primary graft failure was fatal in 5 patients with thalassemia. These results suggest that only CB units containing an expected infused cell dose >5 × 10(7)/kg should be considered for transplantation for hemoglobinopathy.
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IL-2 induces a WAVE2-dependent pathway for actin reorganization that enables WASp-independent human NK cell function.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency associated with an increased susceptibility to herpesvirus infection and hematologic malignancy as well as a deficiency of NK cell function. It is caused by defective WAS protein (WASp). WASp facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) branching and is required for F-actin accumulation at the NK cell immunological synapse and NK cell cytotoxicity ex vivo. Importantly, the function of WASp-deficient NK cells can be restored in vitro after exposure to IL-2, but the mechanisms underlying this remain unknown. Using a WASp inhibitor as well as cells from patients with WAS, we have defined a direct effect of IL-2 signaling upon F-actin that is independent of WASp function. We found that IL-2 treatment of a patient with WAS enhanced the cytotoxicity of their NK cells and the F-actin content at the immunological synapses formed by their NK cells. IL-2 stimulation of NK cells in vitro activated the WASp homolog WAVE2, which was required for inducing WASp-independent NK cell function, but not for baseline activity. Thus, WAVE2 and WASp define parallel pathways to F-actin reorganization and function in human NK cells; although WAVE2 was not required for NK cell innate function, it was accessible through adaptive immunity via IL-2. These results demonstrate how overlapping cytoskeletal activities can utilize immunologically distinct pathways to achieve synonymous immune function.
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Profile of blood cells and inflammatory mediators in periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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This study aimed to profile levels of blood cells and serum cytokines during afebrile and febrile phases of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome to advance pathophysiological understanding of this pediatric disease.
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X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) due to WAS mutations: clinical characteristics, long-term outcome, and treatment options.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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A large proportion of patients with mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein gene exhibit the milder phenotype termed X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT). Whereas stem cell transplantation at an early age is the treatment of choice for patients with WAS, therapeutic options for patients with XLT are controversial. In a retrospective multicenter study we defined the clinical phenotype of XLT and determined the probability of severe disease-related complications in patients older than 2 years with documented WAS gene mutations and mild-to-moderate eczema or mild, infrequent infections. Enrolled were 173 patients (median age, 11.5 years) from 12 countries spanning 2830 patient-years. Serious bleeding episodes occurred in 13.9%, life-threatening infections in 6.9%, autoimmunity in 12.1%, and malignancy in 5.2% of patients. Overall and event-free survival probabilities were not significantly influenced by the type of mutation or intravenous immunoglobulin or antibiotic prophylaxis. Splenectomy resulted in increased risk of severe infections. This analysis of the clinical outcome and molecular basis of patients with XLT shows excellent long-term survival but also a high probability of severe disease-related complications. These observations will allow better decision making when considering treatment options for individual patients with XLT.
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Population pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: new initial dosage suggestions and a model-based dosage adjustment tool.
Ther Drug Monit
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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The population pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus was described in 22 pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and a model-based dosage adjustment tool that may assist with therapy in new patients was developed. Patients received tacrolimus by continuous intravenous (IV) infusion (0.03 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) starting 2 days before transplantation, with conversion to oral therapy 2-3 weeks after transplant. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM. A Bayesian dosage adjustment tool that searches for individual parameter estimates to describe concentration measurements, counterbalanced by the final population model, was created in Excel. Typical clearance was 106 mL x h(-1) x kg(-0.75), typical distribution volume was 3.71 L/kg, and typical bioavailability was 15.7%. Tacrolimus clearance decreased with increasing serum creatinine, and bioavailability decreased with postoperative day. A Bayesian dosage adjustment tool capable of suggesting an initial infusion rate based on patient covariate values and devising a further individualized dosage regimen as drug concentration measures become available was developed. Predictions from the model showed that current IV dose recommendations of 0.03 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) may potentially produce toxic drug concentrations in this patient population, whereas current oral conversion of 4 times the adjusted IV dose may lead to subtherapeutic concentrations. A more suitable infusion rate to obtain a steady state concentration of 12 ng/mL was predicted to be 0.035 mg x kg(-0.75) x (-1)d. An additional loading dose of 0.07 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) (total dose: 0.07 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) + 0.035 mg x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)) during the first 24 hours of therapy should allow rapid achievement of steady state concentrations. A conversion factor of 6 from IV to enteric therapy may be more suitable. Such dosage recommendations may be site specific. The appropriateness of targets was not investigated in this study. The Bayesian dosing adjustment tool and suggested dose recommendations need to be evaluated in a prospective study before they can be applied in the clinical setting.
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Prospects for gene therapy of osteopetrosis.
Curr Gene Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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Dysfunction in or lack of osteoclasts result in osteopetrosis, a group of rare but often severe, genetic disorders characterized by an increase in bone mass, skeletal malformations and bone marrow failure that may be fatal. Several of the underlying defects have lately been characterized in humans and in animal disease models. In humans, these defects often involve mutations in genes expressing proteins involved in the acidification of the osteoclast sub-cellular compartment, a process necessary for proper bone resorption. So far, the only cure for children with severe osteopetrosis is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, the characterization of the genetic defects opens up the possibility for gene replacement therapy as an alternative to SCT. Recently, gene therapy targeting hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in a mouse model of infantile malignant osteopetrosis was shown to correct many aspects of the disease. Here we review important aspects of this group of diseases and discuss the prospects for development of gene therapy of osteopetrosis.
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Imaging in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a focus on ultrasonography.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
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Early therapeutic intervention and use of new highly efficacious treatments have improved the outcome in many patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but have also led to the need for more precise methods to evaluate disease activity. In adult rheumatology, numerous studies have established the importance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US), and MRI is considered the reference standard. Nevertheless, due to differences in disease characteristics and the unique features of the growing skeleton, the findings obtained in adults are not directly applicable to children and adolescents. For paediatric patients, US offers specific advantages over MRI, because it is non-invasive, does not require sedation or general anesthesia (which facilitates repeated examinations for follow-up), is quickly accessible bedside, and is easy to combine with clinical assessment (interactivity). Agitation of the patient is rarely a problem, and hence young children can be seated on a parents lap or play while being examined, and multiple locations can be assessed during a single session. Furthermore, modern high-frequency US transducers used by experienced US examiners can provide unsurpassed resolution of the superficial musculoskeletal structures in children. US is also the best available technique for imaging guidance of steroid injections. Unfortunately, there are still no validated MRI or US scoring systems for evaluating inflammatory and joint damage abnormalities in JIA, and few US studies have been conducted. Sonographic assessment of disease activity has, however, been proven to be more informative than clinical examination and is also readily available at points of care. This review summarises the literature on imaging in JIA, focusing on US and the important role this technique will play in JIA in the future.
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Placental transfer of maternally-derived IgA precludes the use of guthrie card eluates as a screening tool for primary immunodeficiency diseases.
PLoS ONE
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There is a need for neonatal screening tools to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Recently, a PCR-based screening method for both TRECs and KRECs using Guthrie card samples has been developed. However, the applicability of these excision circle assays is limited to patients with severe T or B cell lymphopenia (SCID, XLA and A-T), whereas the most common forms of PID are not detected. Absence of serum IgA is seen in a major fraction of patients with immunological defects. As serum IgA in newborns is considered to be of fetal origin, eluates from routinely collected dried blood spot samples might thus be suitable for identification of children with PID. To assess the applicability of such screening assays, stored Guthrie card samples were obtained from 47 patients with various forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (SCID, XLA, A-T, HIGM and IgAD), 20 individuals with normal serum IgA levels born to IgA-deficient mothers and 51 matched healthy newborns. Surprisingly, normal serum IgA levels were found in all SCID, XLA, A-T and HIGM patients and, additionally, in all those IgAD patients born to IgA-sufficient mothers. Conversely, no serum IgA was found in any of the 16 IgAD patients born by IgA-deficient mothers. Moreover, half of the IgA-sufficient individuals born by IgA-deficient mothers also lacked IgA at birth whereas no IgA-deficient individuals were found among the controls. IgA in neonatal dried blood samples thus appears to be of both maternal and fetal origin and precludes its use as a reliable marker for neonatal screening of primary immunodeficiency diseases.
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Incidence of severe congenital neutropenia in Sweden and risk of evolution to myelodysplastic syndrome/leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is characterized by low blood neutrophil counts, early bacterial infections, and risk of leukaemia development. As yet, no population-based incidence estimates of SCN have been reported. Children less than 16 years of age with SCN were sought in Sweden during the 20-year period 1987-2006 by a questionnaire to all Swedish Departments of Paediatrics and by reviewing the Swedish Health and Welfare Statistical Databases. Thirty-two patients were diagnosed with congenital neutropenia during this period. All received treatment with recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Twenty-one patients were diagnosed as SCN or probable SCN, corresponding to 1·0 per 100,000 live births. Nine (43%) had ELANE mutations, four (19%) HAX1 mutations and eight (38%) were children with disease of unknown genetic aetiology. Four out of 21 patients (19%) developed myelodysplastic syndrome/leukaemia and three (14%) died, all with leukaemia. The cumulative incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome/leukaemia was 31%. The observed incidence of SCN in this population-based study was higher than previously estimated, possibly because genetic testing now can identify SCN cases previously thought to be idiopathic or benign neutropenia. The risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome/leukaemia is considerable. ELANE mutations are the most commonly identified genetic defects.
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Ultrasonography and color Doppler in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: diagnosis and follow-up of ultrasound-guided steroid injection in the wrist region. A descriptive interventional study.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J
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The wrist region is one of the most complex joints of the human body. It is prone to deformity and functional impairment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and is difficult to examine clinically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US) with Doppler in diagnosis of synovitis, guidance of steroid injections, and follow-up examinations of the wrist in JIA.
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Bone health in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the influence of short-term physical exercise.
Pediatr Phys Ther
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To study bone mineral density (BMD) in 54 children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis before and after a short-term exercise program.
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Long-term survival and late deaths after hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency diseases and inborn errors of metabolism.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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It is uncertain whether late mortality rates after hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), non-SCID primary immunodeficiency diseases (non-SCID PIDD), and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) return to rates observed in the general population, matched for age, sex, and nationality. We studied patients with SCID (n = 201), non-SCID PIDD (n = 405), and IEM (n = 348) who survived for at least 2 years after transplantation with normal T cell function (SCID) or >95% donor chimerism (non-SCID PIDD and IEM). Importantly, mortality rate was significantly higher in these patients compared with the general population for several years after transplantation. The rate decreased toward the normal rate in patients with SCID and non-SCID PIDD beyond 6 years after transplantation, but not in patients with IEM. Active chronic graft-versus-host disease at 2 years was associated with increased risk of late mortality for all diseases (hazard ratio [HR], 1.87; P = .05). In addition, late mortality was higher in patients with non-SCID PIDD who received T cell-depleted grafts (HR 4.16; P = .007) and in patients with IEM who received unrelated donor grafts (HR, 2.72; P = .03) or mismatched related donor grafts (HR, 3.76; P = .01). The finding of higher mortality rates in these long-term survivors for many years after transplantation confirms the need for long-term surveillance.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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