The mangrove ecosystem is an unexplored source for biotechnological applications. In this unique environment, endemic bacteria have the ability to thrive in the harsh environmental conditions (salinity and anaerobiosis), and act in the degradation of organic matter, promoting nutrient cycles. Thus, this study aimed to assess the cellulolytic activities of bacterial groups present in the sediment from a mangrove located in Ilha do Cardoso (SP, Brazil). To optimize the isolation of cellulolytic bacteria, enrichments in two types of culture media (tryptone broth and minimum salt medium), both supplemented with 5% NaCl and 1% of cellulose, were performed. Tests conducted with the obtained colonies showed a higher occurrence of endoglycolytic activity (33 isolates) than exoglycolytic (19 isolates), and the degradation activity was shown to be modulated by the presence of NaCl. The isolated bacteria were clustered by BOX-PCR and further classified on the basis of partial 16S rRNA sequences as Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of studies focusing on the endemic species found in mangroves to exploit them as novel biotechnological tools for the degradation of cellulose.
Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from a surface-sterilized Citrus sinensis branch. Ecological and biotechnological aspects of this bacterium, such as the genes involved in its association with the host plant and the primary oxidation of methanol, were annotated in the draft genome.
Bacillus stratosphericus LAMA 585 was isolated from the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge seafloor (5,500-m depth). This bacterium presents the capacity for cellulase, xylanase, and lipase production when growing aerobically in marine-broth media. Genes involved in the tolerance of oligotrophic and extreme conditions and prospection of biotechnological products were annotated in the draft genome (3.7 Mb).
The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, by the analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most frequently identified groups, with Halomonas the most frequent genus among the strains. Microorganisms belonging to Firmicutes were the only ones observed in all samples. Sixteen of the 41 identified operational taxonomic units probably represent new species. The presence of potentially new species reinforces the need for new studies in the deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic.
Based on the premise of symbiotic control, we genetically modified the citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens, strain AR1.6/2, and evaluated its capacity to colonize a model plant and its interaction with Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). AR1.6/2 was genetically transformed to express heterologous GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) and an endoglucanase A (EglA), generating the strains ARGFP and AREglA, respectively. By fluorescence microscopy, it was shown that ARGFP was able to colonize xylem vessels of the Catharanthus roseus seedlings. Using scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that AREglA and X. fastidiosa may co-inhabit the C. roseus vessels. M. extorquens was observed in the xylem with the phytopathogen X. fastidiosa, and appeared to cause a decrease in biofilm formation. AREglA stimulated the production of resistance protein, catalase, in the inoculated plants. This paper reports the successful transformation of AR1.6/2 to generate two different strains with a different gene each, and also indicates that AREglA and X. fastidiosa could interact inside the host plant, suggesting a possible strategy for the symbiotic control of CVC disease. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of the M. extorquens-X. fastidiosa interaction, suggesting the application of AR1.6/2 as an agent of symbiotic control.
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